There is a large overlap between fans of cute girls doing cute things and fans of heavy military equipment doing explosive things. Starting in The Noughties and continuing into The New '10s, anime producers started to notice this overlap and started making shows to cater to both tastes simultaneously.
A Military Moe show features cute girls in the military, or in military-like situations (Girls und Panzer, for example, is about tank combat as a high school sport). It will often feature Good-Looking Privates both on the battlefield and in their personal lives, juxtaposing the two in whatever way best fits the tone of the story, whether dramatically, saddeningly or comically. Expect varying levels of Fanservice. Usually a World of Action Girls.
Note: This trope describes a show, not a character. Individual characters may fall under Good-Looking Privates.
- Arpeggio of Blue Steel is about the mysterious Fleet of Fog and their Mental Models, human female avatars of World War II era warships armed with advanced weapons and technology where they rule the oceans.
- Axis Powers Hetalia was originally this using a mainly male cast. Early on it was meant to adapt World War II but with humanized countries. While most characters still mainly dress in military gear, the actual content of the series doesn't relate as much to war or military as it once did.
- Girls' Last Tour has it, but Downplayed. Chi and Yuu wear what look like military uniforms and helmets, Yuu has a rifle, and they ride in a Kettenkrad half-track motorcycle, but they aren't actually part of any military and the story mostly focuses on how the girls get by in a post-apocalyptic world.
- Girls und Panzer is set In a World... where the sport of sensha-do (the Way of the Tank) is seen as a feminine martial art, and stars the daughter of a prestigious sensha-do school.
- Girly Air Force is a solid example featuring AnthropomorphicPersonifications of fighter jets from various nations battling an Alien Invasion. The jets use avatars of young cute girls to wander off-base and interact with people.
- Ground Defense Force! Mao-Chan invokes this, where the leaders of Japan's military branches fight adorable alien invaders with their even more adorable granddaughters.
- Played with in Gunslinger Girl. The girls are not involved with the military specifically but are still in government related roles. They're all cute preteen girls, and the token oldest one can't be older than seventeen, who regularly wield guns... however it's played up for drama, with the girls being Child Soldiers, with Dark And Troubled Pasts who all die, in a cynical world where the adults are also deeply troubled. The manga can't quite make up its mind on whether it's a deconstruction or not, however the original anime made it into a deconstruction. The second season, Teatrino, however used a "moe" art style that was even cuter than the manga's and played this trope up more.
- High School Fleet is about a training ship for the all-women's naval force, the Blue Mermaids.
- In Kurogane Pukapuka Tai, the heroines are part of the (nearly) all-female crew of a Japanese cruiser in World War II, who run into a German U-boat (crewed mostly by women) and later a British destroyer (captained entirely by women). Romantic entanglements ensue.
- Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha Strikers featured this aesthetic, transposing the now-adult Magical Girls from the previous series into command positions of an almost-all-female paramilitary Space Police unit. This proved to be just a phase for the franchise, however, since Magical Record Lyrical Nanoha Force ditched most of the "moe" in "military moe" (and was eventually canceled), while subsequent anime and manga ditched the "military" part and went the "martial arts moe" route, focusing on the new generation of magical girls raised by the previous heroines.
- Panzerfraulein Alteseisen is about an all-female tank unit faced with the horrors of a Forever War between the Kingdom and The Federation. While it shares the same character designer and aesthetic from Girls und Panzer, it is not a happy story.
- Shirobako has an In-Universe example in Third Aerial Girls' Squad, a manga that the characters work on adapting into an anime during the show's second half. From what we know of it, it centers on a group of girls who pilot fighter planes from the seventies and prior in order to fight an alien invasion.
- Sound of the Sky follows a bugler in the all-women 1121st platoon of the Helvetian Army.
- Strike Witches is set in an alternate 1939, where aliens called the Neuroi have attacked the Earth, forcing the Earth's militaries to raise units of all-female magic users on broomsticks. The Striker Units they use prevent them from wearing any pants in combat.
- Mohiro Kitoh has written some works in this genre, believe it or not.
- The first such work by him was Owari To Hajimari No Miles, which takes place in a world where machines go after they die. It's centered on a teenage girl in a relationship with the spirit of the battleship Nagato.
- Kitoh's second attempt at this genre was Hayabusa-chan mo Tondemasu, which is about a girl who can turn into a Kawasaki Ki-43 fighter plane.
- Armor Blitz has you commanding a group of cute tank girls against an enemy very similar to the Abyssals from KanColle.
- Girls' Frontline is about you working for a PMC and leading an army of cute girls who ARE guns to fight in a Robot War.
- Kantai Collection is a Card Battle Game fought between IJN ships in the shape of cute girls.
- Similarly, Warship Girls and Azur Lane both have the same premise albeit with both Allied and Axis ships in their casts.