There is much debate among historians as to the literacy rate before the invention of the printing press (8th century CE in China, 1450 in Europe). In the Roman Empire alone, estimates range from 10% to almost everyone in Rome, but one thing that's almost universally acknowledged is that the literacy rate in Western Europe for centuries after the fall of Rome was in the single digits. Generally, only priests and some noblemen could read.
What's more, most Standard Fantasy Settings lack the factors that led to high literacy in our modern world. Printing presses, public schools, states... If anything they tend to be more anarchic than the real medieval Europe.
However, many authors write characters in their generic Medieval European Fantasy with the assumption that they can read. This may be for plot convenience, if reading something is key to the plot it can make things complicated if the cast needs to find someone literate. Or it may be that the writer just didn't think about the fact that most people in their setting would be illiterate.
Since this is an Omnipresent Trope only aversions and inversions should be listed. Subtrope of Artistic License History; contrast Medieval Morons. Related to Politically Correct History. When a character is presented as illiterate in a setting where literacy is the norm, that's Never Learned to Read.
- Dungeon Keeper Ami: There's no personal gunpowder weaponry, and Underworld shops are mostly identified with pictorial signs, plus Ami had to specify literate people when describing a population of Surfacers, but the concept of schoolbooks isn't unknown either.
- Ascendance of a Bookworm: Averted. The story has a realistic level of literacy and Myne is reincarnated as one of the large majority of poor and illiterate people in the population. Add in that books are created one at a time by trained craftsmen plus both paper and ink being expensive, makes books rare and expensive. One book costs roughly what Myne's father would earn in 40 to 50 years. Myne does however retain her memories of reading and writing in Japanese.
- Debatable in Lord of the Rings, even Orcs appear to be literate, if only in some indecipherable Mordorian glyphs. Most Dwarves, Elves and Dunedain, and Hobbits, seem to be literate, though there is a remark when Sam cooks for the camp saying Hobbits learn to cook very early, earlier than "their letters, which some never learn".
- Zigzagged in The Inheritance Cycle. Eragon is initially illiterate because, although Uncle Garrow was literate, as a farmer in a small village in the middle of nowhere he never really had any use for the skill and so didn't bother to teach it to his son and nephew. Eragon spends part of one chapter about halfway through the first book learning to read.
- In The Wheel of Time, literacy is very high, because (per Word of God) the printing press managed to survive the cataclysm that bumped the world down into Medieval Stasis, so practically everyone is well-read. However, literacy is still low enough that shopkeepers take care to put a picture of what they sell on their signs (as was common practice in the real Medieval centuries).
- Averted in The Witcher. A line in The Time of Contempt states that most commoners can't read. In one of the short stories, the wise woman of a village keeps a book that describes witchers, and recites passages from the book when negotiating monster slaying. Geralt is surprised that a common woman can read, and even more confused when the old woman cheerfully informs him that no, she had not mastered the art of reading. It turns out she learnt it by rote memorization from the previous wise woman, who was able to recite the book in its entirety. As she's already passing the contents to a young girl (who presumably can't read, either), it's implied that generations of wise women have all been unable to read, and all learnt the book from their respective mentors, for who knows how long.
- Averted in The Pillars of the Earth; fully literate people are fairly few and far between outside of the clergy, but skilled tradesmen like Tom Builder and his son Alfred can read a few words like their own names and can also read numbers.
- Many poor characters in Judge Dee are stated to be literate in terms of how many characters of the Chinese alphabet they can recognize and write down.
- Brother Cadfael: Set in 12th century England, the level of literacy varies: all the monks and nobility can read, as can most of the richer merchants, and there is repeated mention of church priests teaching young children to read.
- In the Sword of Truth, the civilized countries appear to be literate. In the fifth book, Richard visits a country where an oppressed majority isn't allowed to learn to read, and tries to explain to them the advantages of literacy, which presumably they'll have after siding with him.
- Zig-zagged in The Sharing Knife. Lakewalkers seem universally literate, but Farmers are hit and miss. In the first book Fawn sees a sign using both words and pictograms for the illiterate. Later she's seen to know how to read and write, but lacks practice in both since she doesn't access to many books and doesn't have anyone to write letters to.
- Averted in the A Song of Ice and Fire novels as well, where reading and writing is beyond most except for the nobility and Maesters, and books are still a highly-treasured commodity that's costly to produce.
- Kaamelott: Very few people (mostly the nobility and ecclesiastics) can read due to Medieval Morons being in full effect, even among those of whom it's expected (Karadoc and Perceval protesting that they can't read in response to something is a Running Gag).
- Averted in Burning Wheel: few lifepaths grant reading skill, and obstacles are quite high and difficult, especially for entire books - and it's even more difficult to read quietly! Not only that, Read and Write are separate skills: a copyist or a scribe could easily know how to write stuff without actually knowing what the letters themselves mean.
- In early editions of Dungeons & Dragons, if the optional nonweapon proficiency system is used, few player characters will bother picking the proficiency to read and write. Later editions generally play this straight, but barbarians are still almost universally illiterate until omitted out from 5th Edition. Literacy within the world itself tends to depend on the setting.
- Averted in Ironclaw: Literacy is a skill in 1st edition and a 10 EXP Gift in 2nd. A few careers include literacy, but mostly mages and some nobles.
- Averted in Warhammer Fantasy Roleplay. Being able to read and write is a skill independent of learning spoken languages, and only a relative handful of career paths (usually related to academia or nobility) allow new characters to be literate right out the starting gate.
- Also averted in the Warhammer 40,000 RPGs to reinforce the "Dark Ages of Space" aesthetic. Though the PC literacy rate varies by specific gameline, with roughly half of a Merchant Prince's retinue in Rogue Trader being literate, while a normal Imperial Guard squad in Only War might be completely illiterate excepting maybe the sergeant.
- Averted in the Adventure Mode side of Dwarf Fortress, with literacy being a skill to put points in, to be able to read. Zig-zagged in Fortress Mode, where literacy rates and the availability of books is largely down to the player's choices.
- Averted in Kingdom Come: Deliverance as the protagonist Henry starts off illiterate and must learn to read first.
- In the Dragon Age games, even though far more people know how to read than you'd expect given the setting, there are some exceptions.
- Casteless Dwarves (the lowest rung of the Dwarven social structure) never receive a formal education. If you play as one in Dragon Age: Origins, your older sister is a High-Class Call Girl and she was taught how to read as part of her courtesan training. It's implied that she passed these lessons on to her sibling, since a Dwarf Commoner Warden is as literate as any other player character. Origins' expansion, Dragon Age: Origins Awakening, features a casteless party member, Sigrun, who is also illiterate, and learning how to read is a minor running plot with her.
- In Dragon Age II, it's revealed that Tevinter slaves are illiterate. Fugitive slave Fenris is a party member, and if you give him a book as a gift, he'll reveal that he Never Learned to Read. You can offer to teach him, and he'll accept.
- In Out-of-Placers House Ivenmoth has a "public education initiative" for their guardsmen, where they learn to read using arrest reports.
- Generally averted in Disenchantment. Being a pastiche of The Dung Ages, Dreamland's commoners are depicted as illiterate and uneducated, often Played for Black Comedy. Unless it's funnier to play it straight.