Eye contact is usually an integral part of face to face communication, but some people missed the memo. It may not always be easy to pick up on, since we usually aren't seeing the scene through another character's eyes but through the metaphorical third person. The reason and duration varies; they simply may not do so to people who are not close to them, to unnerve other characters, a social disorder, or none may be apparent.
They don't necessarily need to keep their eyes averted all the time, but this also isn't for fleeting circumstances such as a pouting child. It must be a part of their normal interaction with some or all people.
Also see No Eye in Magic.
- In My Teen Romantic Comedy SNAFU, Yoshiteru Zaimokuza cannot talk to women, so when he asked for help, he usually only talked to Hachiman Hikigaya, avoiding even eye-contact with Yukino Yukinoshita who also asked things when he went to Service Club for critics about the light novel he's writing, going very nervious when Yukino confronted him about didn't get any attention from him, not even looked her.
- Spice and Wolf
- Holo tends to keep her eyes averted from new people and in negotiations, only directly looking at someone as a tactic to manipulate them (such as Lawrence's moneychanger friend) or after an arrangement of some sort has been reached.
- The American covers of the light novels (except for the first one) curiously depict essentially the same scene as the Japanese covers , but with a more realistic art style and with Holo's head turned away.
- At one point in Sayonara, Zetsubou-Sensei, Nozomu believes he can escape arranged marriage by eye contact, as he is a master of avoiding eye contact. Probably counts as the neurological or psychological disorder variant.
- Shrinking Violet Hinata from Naruto originally had this issue but she outgrew it, along with her shyness, by the end of Shippuden.
- The protagonist of Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them prefers the company of his magical beasts to humans, which is pretty easy to tell considering he never makes eye contact and often stares straight down to avoid looking at anyone. One of the only time he manages eye contact is at the end of the movie, when he defiantly looks straight into the main villain's eyes as they are defeated.
- In the X-Men Film Series, 6'4" Hugh Jackman pulled off looking smaller and more intimidating in part by looking down. The downward look appears more intimidating and thus sold Jackman as scrappier and more aggressive than he looks in real life.
- In the second Artemis Fowl book, a scientist working for Spiro does his best not to look when a Mafia Princess is talking, in the event that he's called as a witness.
- Discworld: When reporting to Vetinari, Vimes always stares at a spot slightly above the Patrician's head, in part due to the fact that even gods can't hide or disguise their eyes.
- The Dresden Files. Harry Dresden always tries to avoid eye contact, since for a wizard, direct eye contact starts a soulgaze, or a direct experience of that person's innermost character. The memory of a soulgaze never fades, and the experience can be fairly traumatic.
- One Hercule Poirot novel has an Information Broker deliver his reports to various items of furniture, but never once looking Poirot in the face. No reason is given for this.
- In Numbers, Jem always makes an effort to avoid making eye contact with any person she interacts with or even passes by because when she does look them in the eye, she sees their number, which happens to foretell their date of death.
- In Tales of the Otori, Otori Takeo gains the power to look into another person's eyes and make them fall asleep. The first time he does it to a human, after practicing on animals, he does it inadvertently, and for a significant amount of time after that he avoids looking anyone in the eye, even and especially his closest friends, in case he accidentally uses the power again.
- In The Jungle Book, it is made clear that wolves and other predators avoid eye contact. Mowgli occasionally asserts dominance over them by staring them directly in the eye.
- Babylon 5: Both Delenn and Lennier start out this way in their respective careers. Lennier keeps it up longer, though.
- The Big Bang Theory. In the Flashback to when Leonard and Sheldon first met, Sheldon makes very little eye contact. It's a little off-putting and not immediately noticeable, but adds to just how much better he's become in social situations.
- In Hannibal, Will Graham wears his glasses in such a way that he doesn't have to make eye contact but can still maintain a measure of courtesy. Jack Crawford explicitly calls him out on this.
- In Scrubs, Doctor Cox tries to get his friend's son to make eye contact with him, knowing that if he doesn't, it could mean he has autism.
- Missing Stars: The socially anxious and painfully shy Annaliese isn't good at maintaining eye contact.
- A common characteristic of people with Autism, Asperger's Syndrome, and other neurological or psychological disorders is difficulty maintaining eye contact with anyone, even close family members, and is often one of the earliest signs.
- Expectation of eye contact in conversation or acquaintance encounters is a relatively recent phenomenon, even to the West. In many cultures (such as Japan), it is considered rude or intimate to maintain eye contact, in part of past regard for eyes as windows to the soul.
- Many animals avoid eye contact for several different reasons, broadly related to domination by or submission to the starer:
- Anyone who is working with primates will do this as most species see direct eye contact as a challenge. It's not uncommon for captive gorillas to bang on the glass of enclosures in zoos because a guest has been looking at him in the eyes.
- Despite the damage they can do to a person, most bears are omnivores and generally see humans as potential threats. If one is met in the wild, a person should try to avoid eye contact to avoid being seen as a danger.
- The opposite is true for mountain lions. As apex predators that often hunt by ambushing their prey, if you happen to see one it is important to maintain eye contact so that they see you as at least equal and don't get any ideas about trying to disappear and hit you from another direction.
- Dogs will stare at a person, but avoid eye contact if the human is considered dominant; if the human isn't, or is unfamiliar, they can react aggressively, as they see the staring as their own dominance being challenged. Wolves are known to be even more aggressive towards eye contact because, unlike domestic dogs, they haven't learned through millenia of living with humans to look at their faces for guidance.
- Even humans are this way. Casually looking someone in the eyes is normal and at most means they're curious about you, however humans don't take to being stared blank in the eye so kindly. It's often either threatening or anxiety-inducing, unless it is clear that they're just focusing on you while talking.
- People with social anxiety or anxiety disorders very often avoid staring people in the eyes due to it inducing anxiety.