A character type generally found in works set or written in the The Cavalier Years, although some are later examples, this is what you get when you cross the Church Militant with Wicked Cultured. In Real Life, the Society of Jesus, also known by their shorthand name "Jesuits", are a Christian (specifically, Roman Catholic) religious order known for their military character (reinforced by the fact that their founder, Basque nobleman Ignatius of Loyola, was a knight who took the habit after having a spiritual awakening while recovering from wounds received in battle during the Italian Wars, in order to provide the Church an active arm in world affairs), their commitment to broaden Renaissance education, and their missionary endeavors. Among their religious opponents, chiefly the early Protestants, they accrued a reputation for finding clever arguments to excuse any kind of behavior. Common plots have such characters throw off their habit to assume the appearances of laity, sometimes becoming military leaders or advisers.
The historical basis for the Society's negative archetype comes largely from their work during the Counter-Reformation. For many centuries, the Roman Catholic Church relied extensively on secular authorities (especially the Holy Roman Emperor and, later, the King of France) to combat heresy by providing a civil basis for investigating unorthodox beliefs and/or practices and, if need be, administering appropriate civil action against the offending party. However, during the height of the Protestant Reformation, various governments in northwestern Europe declared themselves independent of the Church's spiritual authority as a precedent for their secular sovereignty, establishing either Lutheranism or Calvinism, the two Protestant sects deemed legal options as of the Peace of Augsburg in 1555, as the de facto, if not de jure, state religion. As a result, the Church was often without (legal) recourse to counter what they saw as the epidemic heresy of Protestantism in these regions, where Catholic and Protestant populations were often engaged in sectarian violence.
In light of these facts, as well as reforms created by the Council of Trent, which stressed using education as the most effective means of combating Protestantism, the Jesuits were often called upon to travel to states in which local Protestant rulers were repressing Roman Catholic populations, or at least disrupting ecclesiastical hierarchy, and engage in what essentially amounted to clandestine missionary work: supporting (often secret) worship, teaching doctrine, and ingratiating themselves with local ministers in order to encourage them to convert, or at least be lenient towards Catholics. Predictably, Protestant governments used their efforts as the occasion to propagandize against the Roman Catholic Church, promoting a view of it as foreign and reactionary, and Jesuits in particular as sinister subversive infiltrators spreading throughout Christendom, intent upon undermining or overthrowing legitimate local powers and destroying true (that is, Protestant) Christianity in favor of the reinstatement of the Papal Anti-Christ.
This trope doesn't just appear in Protestant works, though. The Jesuits also got a bad reputation in Catholic countries too, and were outright expelled from the Portuguese and Spanish Empires, albeit for different reasons. In the 17th century, the Jesuits—who swear an oath of loyalty and obedience to the Pope in addition to the standard religious vows—became identified with ultramontanism, a doctrine that asserted the absolute supremacy of the Pope in all matters. Although this is largely standard Catholic doctrine today, there were many movements in Catholicism that opposed that kind of supremacy. Perhaps more significantly, ultramontanism challenged many Catholic rulers' rights to meddle in Church affairs, particularly the then-standard practice of letting Catholic monarchs choose the Church hierarchy with only a nominal papal veto. The Jesuits also gained a reputation for being power-seeking and economically successful, angering both temporal rulers and the higher-ups of the Church in Rome. The fancy logic and scholarship the Jesuits cultivated to beat Protestants in arguments could also be used to challenge Church orthodoxy—and it often was (and still is). The Jesuit activities in missionary work (which led to the not entirely incorrect accusation of running their own private empire) also triggered some good old fashioned racism. While the Jesuit missions were far from perfect and rather paternalistic, they treated the Native Americans as basically people. Secular Catholic colonists in the New World generally would rather seize the Jesuit "Mission Indians" as slaves in the encomienda system, and considered the cheap native labor used in the Jesuit missions as economic competitors, leading to clashes. Altogether, these made the Jesuits distinctly unpopular in many Catholic countries for a time, especially from 1650-1850.
- Averted in The Mission: Father Gabriel is a benevolent Jesuit missionary, and the evil role goes to Captain Mendoza (pre-HeelFace Turn).
- The Man in the Iron Mask: King Louis XIV is nearly assassinated by a man that he immediately identifies as a Jesuit. In reality the most evil man in the film is Louis himself. And this is Artistic License History, the French crown had no problem with Jesuits during Louis' reign.
- A few of the Jesuits in Black Robe, a film set in colonial New France, are pretty unscrupulous — notably, one lies to the Huron and tells them that baptism will cure their smallpox — and the film is certainly critical of the Jesuits' mission, though the film's protagonist is a genuinely good Jesuit who honestly believes he is helping people. His Algonquin guides, however, are pretty wary of him, since he wears the eponymous black robe, sleeps separately from everyone else, and refuses to have sex with the women.
- Silence averts this stereotype, with the Jesuits being portrayed as noble missionaries who endure horrifying torture for their faith at the hands of the Japanese authorities.
- Elizabeth: The Jesuits in the film are portrayed as brutal assassins sent to murder Elizabeth.
- In Jeff Long's The Descent, the leader of the Hadals, and the inspiration for Satan, posed as a Jesuit, though this was later retconned, changing him to be a mere disciple of Satan (who occasionally is more evil than Satan himself), since he has real human vileness in him, while Satan is just an example of alien Blue-and-Orange Morality.
- The Victorian historical novel Henry Esmond has Father Holt, who gets involved in the Jacobite Rebellion, and at one point is shown in Germany commanding Catholic military forces under the name "Holtz". More "evil" because he's Catholic than because of anything the character actually does, he's more like a Poisonous Friend to the hero than an actual villain.
- Neal Stephenson's The Baroque Cycle has the definitely evil Edouard de Gex who eventually disguises himself as a Jansenist (a sect which were enemies of Jesuits) and calls himself de Ath. Subverting the trope, there is Father Gabriel Goto, a katana-wielding samurai Jesuit from Manila (long story).
- Cunegonde's brother would count in Candide (which was a definite influence on Henry Esmond above) — while a lot of the characters change identities in the book, he becomes a Jesuit but is also at some points a military leader (not surprisingly, as he was written as a Take That against Frederick the Great).
- Ian Pears' novel An Instance of the Fingerpost has one of the unreliable narrators slides between this and Anti-Villain.
- The Wandering Jew has evil Jesuits trying to gain control of the wealth of the title character's last descendants. In a particularly nasty Take That!, a Thugee assassin decides that his Kali-worship is completely compatible with their brand of Catholicism.
- In 20 Years After and The Vicomte de Bragelonne, the sequels to The Three Musketeers, Aramis becomes a Jesuit priest (and later vicar-general of the order) and turns into a Manipulative Bastard, often working against his former comrades-in-arms.
- Stendhal's novel The Red and the Black has the main character (a Byronic Hero) joining unsympathetically-presented Jesuits in his quest for self-advancement and the novel discusses the Jesuit-Jansenist rivalry (which apparently persisted at least into the mid 1800s, when the novel was written/set). The Jesuits aren't presented as that smart though, as the author's Take That! is to present them as close-minded ultra-reactionaries. However, the main character fits the trope, as he is able to fit in just as well among a military-minded aristocratic culture (the red) as among the Jesuits (the black).
- The Swedish-Finnish series of historical novels, The Surgeon's Stories, by Zachary Topelius, has (in the first part The King's Ring which is set during the Thirty Years' War) the character of Father Hieronymus, who is a very stereotypical instance of the trope. He carries a dagger concealed in his crucifix and tries to murder king Gustavus Adolphus, recruiting the young noblewoman Lady Regina (whom he serves as confessor for) to aid him.
- In Flann O'Brien's (author of The Third Policeman) later novel The Hard Life, the protagonist's guardian Mr. Collopy is friends with a Jesuit priest, Father Kurt Fahrt. When Fahrt refuses to countenance Collopy's plan to blow up Dublin City Hall (in a planning dispute over ladies' public toilets), Collopy reminds Fahrt of the Jesuits' own role in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. He also seems to think the Jesuits were responsible for the Franco-Prussian War.
- Averted in the 1632 series. While one book had a bigoted Jesuit character, he was no more bigoted than any 17th-century person. In fact, a number of the allies of the protagonist uptimers — Americans sent back in time by Alien Space Bats (long story) — are worse. Also, the historical domain characters of Father Friedrich Spee von Langenfeld and Father-General Mutio Vitelleschi are their allies, who are described as good but flawed (as are many characters, protagonist or antagonist). After the Spanish Cardinal Borga usurps Pope Urban VIII, tries to murder him, and murders several of his allies, the Jesuits begin to suffer a schism — one remains loyal to to Urban VIII and thus remain friendly to the uptimers, while the other — mostly composed of Spanish Inquisitors and witch-hunters — become outright hostile.
- Averted in Robert Anton Wilson's Historical Illuminatus Chronicles, which feature Father Ratti, a good Jesuit whose open-mindedness contrasts the fundamentalistic Dominicans. On the other hand the books also mention, though never show (due to Author Existence Failure), Adam Weishaupt, the former Jesuit who went on to found the Bavarian Illuminati.
- Despite portraying some of the worst excesses of the Roman Catholic Church in his novels, Jose Rizal averts this trope, since some of his more sympathetic clergymen characters are Jesuits — in Real Life, Rizal was very fond of his Jesuit mentors.
- Mentioned in British statesman Lord Chesterfield's Letters to His Son. "I do not know a crime in the world, which is not by the casuists among the Jesuits (especially the twenty-four collected, I think, by Escobar) allowed, in some, or many cases, not to be criminal." (letter 52) Although he regarded the Jesuits as the "most able and best governed society in the world." (letter 85)
- Assassin's Creed: The Jesuits were a secret Templar faction that supervised the introduction of Catholicism in the Far East as a front to recruit more Templars among the converts.
- Downplayed in Onimusha: Dawn of Dreams with Luis Frois, an real-life Jesuit missionary that received Historical Villain Upgrade in the game by being turned into an Mad Scientist and a Sinister Minister. However, his ties with Jesuits aren't emphasized and it turns out he was possessed by an demon and was Good All Along.
- Averted in Sid Meier's Pirates! where the Jesuit priests are actually pretty friendly and helpful, and can be turned to in order to earn a clemency from destroying flagships, and can initiate quests to pursue Baron Raymondo, holder of your captive family, for free.
- The "Black Pope" is a derogatory term coined in Protestant European politics during the 16th century referring to the Superior General of the Society of Jesus. Often considered irredeemably evil by those who coined the term in the first place, the "Black Popes" were only as bad as their very human failings. A number were decent people overall, and were even, for their time, pretty much liberal-leaning.
- The Jesuits' philosophy of casuistry (case-based reasoning) came in for much criticism in its time, including by Catholics like the French philosopher Blaise Pascal (a Jansenist). In particular, they were attacked for arguing that deception (especially under oath) was not always wrong if it saved a life. This resulted from the cases of captured Jesuit missionaries who were forcibly sworn to tell the truth in court by Protestant authorities and then ordered to identify people who had harbored them-knowing that any person named would be put to death, as this was a capital crime. Thomas Sanchez, a famous Jesuit, therefore formulated the doctrine of mental reservation. In its strictest form, the person practicing this might answer "I know not" when asked a question, while internally they said "to tell you." Other philosophers did not accept that it was anything but simple lying. This doctrine was eventually condemned by the Pope after it had become scandalous, and tarred the Jesuits' reputation. Critics such as Pascal also ignored the restrictions Sanchez had placed on its use, attacking a strawman version of it. The wider form of mental reservation, equivocating between words' meanings (for instance answering "I am not a priest" while thinking about some other priest), was still viewed as orthodox afterward. A similar form was saying misleading but technically true things, Catholic saints such as Athanasius of Alexandria having used it to save their lives: Athanasius' followers, according to legend, were asked by Roman soldiers pursuing him who did not know his appearance if they had seen him and they replied "Yes, he is not very far off" when he was in their company at the time. Even now there is still debate in Catholic circles over whether this was lying, or if lies could be justified with cases like that. The stereotype of Jesuits using casuistry to be deceitful is also the origin of the word Jesuitical, an archaic insult meaning sneaky and untrustworthy.
- Related to Rizal's novels above: the Jesuits' reputation zigzagged in the Philippines since the 19th century. The Jesuits were indeed affected by the expulsion due to their negative reputation throughout the Spanish Empire, but their return in the 19th century coincided with the emergence of nationalism, liberal values and civil rights. The products of their teaching (most notably alumni of the Ateneo de Manila) have by then emerged as intellectual and military leaders of the Philippine Revolution.
- Barring some generational gaps, the Ateneo de Manila since the 1960s has also been seen as a springboard for liberal (sometimes even left-leaning) politics—further supported by a) the University's espousal of Catholic social teaching (if not full-on liberation theology); and b) its proximity and institutional cooperation with the secular and activist University of the Philippines-Diliman. The Ateneo de Manila (and by extension, the Philippine Jesuits) therefore have the curious reputation of being seen as liberal and more progressive compared to the rest of the Philippine Catholic hierarchy (especially in comparison to the Dominican-run University of Santo Tomas, and the conservative private schools run by Opus Dei).
- When Herbert Wehner (Social Democrat) accused Franz Josef Strauß (Christian Conservative) of being "like Goebbels" when hearing the word "communist" he added that Goebbels had at least been "jesuistically refined" about it no doubt trying to insult both at the same time, using this trope.
- Being a patriotic Protestant 17th-century Englishman, Andrew Marvell satirised the Jesuits — so when he died suddenly, almost certainly of natural causes, contemporary gossip naturally suggested that they had got to him.