While doujinshi is traditionally represented as self-published manga, it literally means "amateur publication" and has come to be used as a synonym for any independently published Fanwork. Doujinshi produced by a team is usually credited as a "doujin circle" rather than an individual's Pen Name.
Notably, doujinshi may feature either completely original content or content derived from an existing intellectual property. Printed doujinshi was traditionally published in limited quantities because of financial limitations. In regards to non-original content, this also assures fans do not step on the toes of the IP's original owners to any large degree, and many companies see amateur work as free promotion. Since doujinshi are also a way of dodging Executive Meddling, doujinshi are less subject to censorship; sexualized and otherwise transgressional depictions are infamous traits of doujinshi, though not actually representative of the whole.
There has been an upswing in the activity of both amateur comic artists and professionals wishing to work "outside the system". Concurrent to this has been a support system enabling the production and sale of these works at a scale that few Western artists or writers could accomplish. The biggest semi-annual doujin sale convention, "Comiket" (Comic Market), has an attendance of some 500,000 people over each three-day event. Because of even tighter financial and legal limitations, doujinshi in the West is represented prominently, if not almost exclusively, on the internet. Increasingly, manga creators themselves have been turning to online publication through places like Pixiv and Twitter. Sometimes their comics which were first published online get picked up for serialization (and eventual physical publishing), and some artists may continue to make online comics for the same series while its serialization goes on, blurring the lines between the two formats.
The second most popular form of doujinshi is video games, often programmed by one person or a very small group. Probably the most well-known of doujin soft producers, and one of the few to cross over into commercial game production, is Type-Moon. The Touhou Project games constitute possibly the longest-running series of doujin game productions, since the first one was released in 1996 and as of 2020 there have been 29 games in the series, although there are other potential contenders to that throne.
Doujinshi has two effects upon Anime: the first is that several highly regarded anime have been based on either doujinshi or on works by artists who previously established their presence as creators of doujinshi. This includes notable creators such as CLAMP (who started out as a doujinshi circle before becoming professional manga creators), Ken Akamatsu (who dabbles in both professional and self-published works), and Yoshitoshi ABe (who created the original doujinshi that Haibane Renmei is based on).
The second effect is that a number of anime feature doujinshi as either primary Plot Points or sideline elements. Involvement in doujinshi is usually a trait of Otaku Surrogates. Comic Party and Doujin Work are stories centered around it, while Genshiken addresses it as a fandom trait; Otaku no Video from Studio Gainax is essentially a fanciful self-biopic of the company's origins as a doujin circle.
Doujinshi is not a uniquely Japanese phenomenon. Doujinshi and doujin circles from other nations are not uncommon and even Japanese media refers to them as such.
Technically, it's near-impossible to import doujinshi, and the makers are well aware of this. Nevertheless, there are online stores that carry them with worldwide shipping for dedicated importers and artists (mostly musicians) who offered their work outside of Japan. Also, there exist proxy buyers that one can hire in order to buy everything one wants, given that stores like "Toranoana" or "Melonbooks" can't export overseas. Additionally, most doujinshi falls under Denial of Digital Distribution because of copyright issues and/or a belief that digital distribution goes against the "doujin spirit".
Regarding translations of those works, some artists don't mind them, as they believe it's an extra-promotion for their works overseas. However, many artists are very worried about the blatant piracy of their works, especially by foreigners (artists from circles like LINDA Project, ARCHIVES and Circle Huan have stated that they don't want their works to be published in websites that people outside of Japan can access), and they have started to take actions against websites and "scanlations" in 2013.
- Sayonara, Zetsubou-Sensei:
- Harumi Fujiyoshi is, as her name holds true note , a Yaoi Fangirl. Naturally, she's into slash and a lot of her drawing material involves Shout Outs and references to other anime.
- When Itoshiki-sensei learns about Fujiyoshi's hobby, he says he put out a few doujinshi in his student days. Naturally, he means self-published literature in a rather old-fashioned format and both characters get the wrong idea about each other's interests.
- In Negima! Magister Negi Magi, Haruna writes doujinshi, although we don't see a lot of her work. There's even a memorable interlude where she drags Negi to a Doujinshi convention, and he unknowingly picks up a yaoi hentai, nearly giving Chisame a coronary. There's a good reason that we don't see a lot of Haruna's work; Word of God is that it's "rated 18+" (let's not forget that Haruna herself is supposed to be no older than 15).
- Lucky Star:
- Konata doesn't draw doujinshi herself (as she's demonstrated to be a Terrible Artist), but she regularly buys them and she recruits the Hiiragi twins to come with her to Comiket during one episode. At one point, Kagami spots a yaoi doujin of Gauron and Sousuke from Full Metal Panic!. Curiosity gets the best of her, and, well...hilarity ensues.
- Hiyori is a doujinshi yonkoma artist who's a Yaoi Fangirl and a Yuri Fan, and this causes her to imagine her own friends in romantic situations with each other and use those imaginary scenarios as inspiration for her doujinshi. And yes, she does sell her works at Comiket.
- The eponymous club in Genshiken has a locker full of doujins in the club room. Later, the club produce their own doujinshi for Show Within a Show Kujibiki♡Unbalance. Oguie also draws yaoi doujinshi, and once accidentally spills a large pile of hardcore ones she bought in front of the boys in the club.
- Nagi of Hayate the Combat Butler draws her own, and it's her berserk button if you call it a 'picture diary' (a ubiquitous form of summer homework for Japanese school children). Several chapters of it have featured in the anime and manga. The only one who's able to understand the story is Isumi.
- Doujin Work is, unsurprisingly, about people involved in the doujin manga scene, with varying levels of success. Apparently, one can make quite a profit in making doujinshi, as Justice can attest.
- Comic Party is an anime/manga (based on a dating sim game) about the process of making doujinshi (referred to in the English dub as 'fan comics'). The main character is convinced by a friend of his to use his artistic skills and use doujinshi to "Take over the world." The process of doujinshi is shown in detail, from scripting to printing to selling.
- Hanaukyō Maid Team La Verite episode 5. Ikuyo Suzuki takes the main characters to Comiket to sell her manga, which (based on its cover) features a (fictional) relationship between the maids Yashima Sanae and Konoe Tsurugi.
- Visionary Replay Of Homu Homu, a sexually explicit Puella Magi Madoka Magica Homura/Madoka Girls' Love story.
- The character designer of Madoka Magica, Ume Aoki, makes doujinshi under the pseudonym Apricot+; a Madoka doujin is among the works she made under this name.
- Mobile Suit Gundam Wing: Ground Zero, which actually got published in the US through Viz, and can be distinguished from the official manga by the fact that it doesn't have any of the show's staff in its credits (and because it conflicts with manga that do like Blind Target).
- Chihaya from Samurai Harem: Asu no Yoichi is another in-universe example. She draws manga and goes to school, but sometimes has trouble trying to fit both into her life. When some of her classmates belittle her efforts, Yoichi beats them up and also chastises them since they lack motivation to do anything themselves but are quick to criticize others for trying to make something of their life. Which then gives Chihaya some more ideas for her manga.
- Morefuyu is based on Morenatsu, but taking place in winter instead of summer.
- Nyaruko: Crawling with Love!: The second season of the anime adaptation opens with Mahiro discovering that there's a doujinshi about him — and naturally, to his abject horror, it's Yaoi. He ends up buying it just so he can burn it and keep it out of the hands of his Unwanted Harem. The doujin's author Tsuruko is a star-struck Yaoi Fangirl of Mahiro's and spends the entire season trying to meet him, imagining how wonderful it'll be (never realizing that his reaction could be anything except joy).
- Episode three of Humanity Has Declined is an extended parody of the concept. Entirely using yaoi fangirls.
- Miki from I Can't Understand What My Husband Is Saying is part of a doujin circle called "Fate Deniers" that specializes in writing good endings for series that had Downer Endings; even his username is called "Destiny Fucker". Meanwhile, Youta "Mayotama" Tsunashi draws Yaoi doujinshi based off of fantasies he's had of his brother. In a case of Surprisingly Realistic Outcome, knowing he can't earn as much on amateur works, he decides to switch over to Shounen in an attempt to get his work professionally published.
- Narumi from Wotakoi: Love is Hard for Otaku is an undivided fujoshi, and part of her otaku-ness involves writing doujinshi for Comiket as a hobby and a way to make cash on the side.
- Fafnir from Miss Kobayashi's Dragon Maid gets into anime and decides to sell his own books at Comiket...except that his works are compilations of curses. Tohru, who glances through the book, remarks that there are some pretty nasty curses in there and wonders if it's legal to sell such information. It ends up being a moot point since the only sale Fafnir gets is a pity purchase from his roommate Makoto Takiya, himself part of a popular doujin circle (he also programs his own Bullet Hell Doujin Soft in the anime).
- Miu Amano from Blend-S - also known by her Pen Name, Hanazono Folder - is a rather famous doujinshi and H-story artist who takes a part-time job at Cafe Stile in order to find new material for her doujins. In episode 5 of the anime, it is revealed that the story she wrote using Maika and Dino as inspiration was a massive hit.
- In Monthly Girls' Nozaki-kun, Nozaki (a professional mangaka) and his friend Mikoshiba play a Dating Sim together, but after winning they realize that the main character's best friend selflessly spent all of high school helping out at the expense of his own chances at love. Determined to correct this injustice, they set out to make a Doujin where the friend gets a girlfriend of his own...but then they realize that the person most romantically compatible with the friend is the main character himself. They go ahead and write the story as Boys' Love, to Chiyo's surprise when she visits the next morning.
- Kaguya-sama: Love Is War has an "Offical Doujin" spin-off, written by the first person to produce hentai of the series. It started off as a Hotter and Sexier version of the main manga, before switching over to various Alternate Universes instead when that proved to be unpopular.
- The Geek Ex-Hitman: Andre trained as a police sketch artist, and proves to be able to reproduce scenes from Hades Girl Eurydice based on descriptions from fans Marco and Viviana. This gives them the idea to draw a doujin of the series that they take to a convention. They only sell one copy, but they have a good time anyway.
- Watchmen includes Tijuana bibles as a minor plot device.
- Nakuru from Mayo Chiki! is obsessed with making BL doujinshi, particularly after seeing the butler for a local rich girl, Konoe Subaru (who's actually a girl in disguise) hanging out a lot with Ordinary High-School Student Jiro.
- In Oreimo, the main character, his sister and two of her friends go to Comiket for doujinshi early in the series.
- In The Rising of the Shield Hero Motoyasu displays surprising skill making doujin after he goes insane. His work is very popular with the citizens who have never seen that type of work, though Naofumi is squicked over the main focus of the erotic works being Firo.
- Doujin works in this format have a tendency to be created as fighting games, usually emulating the style of Guilty Gear:
- Arm Joe
- Azumanga Fighter
- Battle Moon Wars
- Big Bang Beat
- Eternal Fighter Zero
- Touhou Suimusou ~ Immaterial and Missing Power, Touhou Hisouten ~ Scarlet Weather Rhapsody, and Touhou Hisoutensoku ~ Choudokyuu Ginyoru no Nazo o Oe are all fighting games as opposed to the series' usual shmup style. All three, however, are also canon.
- Valkyrie Fight
- Pokémon Type Wild
- Magical Battle Arena
- Melty Blood
- The plot of this one, however, is considered canon in some ways.
- The Queen of Heart
- When They Cry
- Doujin shmups are also quite big:
- Doujin action titles are notable as well:
- Yume Nikki, which later got its own manga series
- Soraya Saga has written a few doujins for Final Fantasy VI and Xenogears, works she officially contributed to, as a way to flesh out concepts that could not appear in the games. They are classified as Word of Saint Paul because of this.
- The Magical Girl Warrior Turn-Based Strategy game for PC and mobile called I=MGCM.
- The Third-Person Shooter Survival Sandbox game Palworld is a doujinshi taking cues from Mon games and shooter-focused Battle Royale Games. The developer PocketPair also made doujin games taking inspiration from other games (ie AI Art Impostor being Among Us but with AI Art as focus).
- Questionable Content: Pintsize inverts the stereotype.
- In Ghastly's Ghastly Comic, Freddy draws doujinshi based on Chick Tracts, and after Cosplay Girl converts to Buddhism, she draws a Bishōnen Buddha/Drunk and Bitter Jesus doujinshi (with Jesus as Seme). Bishonen Buddha then recommends she start worshipping Fat Buddha instead.
Bishonen Buddha: He's Japanese, you know. You kids love that crazy Japanese stuff, right?