Women have a variety of ways to show their indignation, displeasure or what have you at something that offends them. In anime and manga however, a girl has to do this without appearing threatening, mainly because the illustrator wants to convey that she's annoyed or irritated or objecting to what's going on without compromising her cuteness. Enter the Cute Indignant Girl Stance.
There is no in-universe justification for this trope: It solely exists for Rule of Cute, and the body language itself is meant to emphasize this: Her arms will be straight and her hands balled into fists with her wrists bent at ninety-degree angles so as to project her fists outward in opposite directions; her shoulders will be bunched up to help emphasize this. Meanwhile, her facial expression, while conveying annoyance, displeasure, etc., will vary depending on the level of gravitas (or lack thereof) in the scene in which the cute girl is conveying it.
This trope exists as a lighthearted way for a female character to use her body language to convey her irritation, indignation or some other form of displeasure. Note that in-universe the female character's not trying to come across as anything; it's just the audience perceiving her as cute when she does this that makes her cute for doing so, simply because the illustrator thought she'd look cute this way.
Any female character archetype can pull this trope off as long as the character is cute; you wouldn't expect Xena or Wonder Woman to engage in this trope not because they're badasses, but because they're drawn realistically with no intention to be cute.
Expect the Clingy Jealous Girl to do this as part of her schtick.
Compare and contrast Coy, Girlish Flirt Pose.
- Gamble Fish: Natsumi Kimura reacts this way when the other members of Tomu's harem start glomping him. Additionally, her pigtails go up on either side for Ruleof Funny.
- In an episode of To Love-Ru Darkness, Momo does this when Nemesis has Rito accompany her for a day about town as her servant.
- Yu-Gi-Oh!: Dark Magician Girl sports this trope (while floating) during the Virtual World Arc in response to Crump being a jerk and a pervert. Despite being the franchise's unofficial sex symbol, she's able to pull this trope off due to how adorable her expression is.
- Chivalryofa Failed Knight: Stella Vermillion provides the page image during Ikki's match with the Hunter. After Ikki takes a few of the Hunter's blows, the spectators start to look down on him, thinking he doesn't have talent. Stella has none of it and calls them out on it for only getting by on their natural talent and not being able to appreciate the hard work Ikki's put into honing his skills.
- In Act 1 Chapter 6 of Soul Eater: Troubled Souls, Claudia is described as assuming this pose ("Claudia stomped on the ground with one foot, both arms down, and her knuckles up") because her weapon meister, Caius, refuses to go shopping in Ireland after killing their target. Naturally, it's Played for Laughs.
- Blaz Blue Chrono Phantasma: in one Gag Reel where Ragna gets the Spectacles of Eros plastered onto him, when Noel sees Ragna act awkwardly when Celica says she likes Ragna (when he would deny other girls' confessions), Noel strikes this pose while being angry at Ragna (although we only see her hips and her right hand, visibly stretched down and angled sideways).
- Marvel vs. Capcom 3: One of Phoenix Wright's Limit Break has his partner Maya appear in front of him and strike this pose, before rushing at the enemy while flailing her arms.
- Missing Stars: One of Natalya's sprites is of doing this pose. The first time Erik sees her doing it, he notes that it looks more cute than intimidating.
- Princess Sally does this in some of her exceptionally childish arguments with Sonic in Sonic Satam, even adding a tantrum-esque foot stomp to the mix.