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Contractual Obligation Project

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Works creators say they did mainly to fulfill a contractual obligation.

Similar to Money, Dear Boy except the creator's goal in many instances is avoid losing money as a result of getting sued for breach of contract and having to expend legal costs and (in the worst case scenario) pay damages.

For a creator involved in a contractual obligation project, the obligation aspect looms over everything. A typical example is when there's a final project left in a long-term agreement between parties whose relationship has soured. The enthusiasm for this last project may be low since at least one party just wants to get it over with and end the deal. Other times, the Contractual Obligation Project may be one creators will do just so they can get to do another more enticing project that's also part of the deal. This does not mean a Contractual Obligation Project is all but guaranteed of being a dud. There are times when, in spite of everything, the final product will end up being financially successful, award-winning, and well-regarded.

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Note that this is mostly an American trope, due of the way how Common Law works. Many other countries forbids forcing a person to work against their will, unless the person who signed the contract also compromised in some way or another to work in that project. There's a few exceptions on this, especially when divorced people are involved.

Compare Ashcan Copy.


Examples

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     Films — Live-Action 
  • Even though the film ended up winning her an Academy Award, Elizabeth Taylor never liked Butterfield 8 and only did the movie because it was required under her contract.
  • The Cat in the Hat is an example due to Mike Myers and Bo Welch being forced under threat of a lawsuit to work on the movie.
  • The existence of Cutthroat Island had a lot to do with it being a Contractual Obligation Project for many of the people involved. The producers, for example were obligated to make the film because the money had already been raised and star Geena Davis and director Renny Harlin were contractually tied to do it.
  • Kelly Clarkson pretty much said this for the execrable From Justin to Kelly – "Two Words: contractually obligated!"
  • Jessica Chastain was given a starring role in Crimson Peak provided that she would also later appear in The Huntsman: Winter's War.
  • Clark Gable and Claudette Colbert thought It Happened One Night would flop and were only in the film to fulfill contractual obligations. Both would go on to win Oscars for the movie which also won for Best Picture.
  • The Beatles signed a contract with United Artists in late 1963 to make three movies, two of which were the very well-received A Hard Day's Night and Help!. Yellow Submarine was intended by the band to be their third, but as it was an animated film and was Not Quite Starring the Fab Four themselves (they decline to voice their likenesses, and appeared exclusively in a short cameo at the end of the film), the studio said it didn't satisfy their contract. Eventually, UA wound up distributing Let It Be.
  • Sylvester Stallone starred in Over the Top purely to fulfill his contract with Cannon Films.
  • Paul Newman agreed to star in When Time Ran Out... out of contractual obligation and later called it the worst film he ever did. On the bright side, much of Newman's salary from the movie provided the seed money to begin his successful charity, Newman's Own.
  • Sam Raimi was obligated to make Spider-Man 3 and to add Gwen Stacey as a love interest and Venom as the main antagonist, despite stating that he doesn't like the latter character. Originally the main antagonists were Sandman and Harry Osborn as the new Green Goblin. Venom and Gwen were added at the insistence of Avi Arad and the producers (much like an contractual obligation), making the movie messy and the reason why it's the lowest point of first Spider-Man trilogy. After those problems, Raimi left the studios, so the reboot The Amazing Spider-Man was made later.
  • Whoopi Goldberg reluctantly did Theodore Rex to fulfill a contractual obligation and avoid paying damages from a lawsuit by the film's producers.
  • Whoopi Goldberg had learned the lesson of just biting the bullet and starring in a flop from Kim Basinger, who was driven into bankruptcy when she tried to defy this trope by refusing to star in Boxing Helena.
  • Channing Tatum's appearances in G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra and G.I. Joe: Retaliation were the result of a deal he made with Paramount and the studio threatened him with a lawsuit if he didn't honor the agreement. He picked the G.I. Joe franchise in the hopes that it would be a fun experience but has had very few nice things to say about the films once he was no longer obligated to promote them.
  • Jamie Lee Curtis was forced to star in Halloween: Resurrection - a critically savaged sequel to Halloween H20: Twenty Years Later. The promotional team also circulated a lie that Jamie was only meant to have a 30-second cameo but "liked the script so much" she had her role expanded.
  • Emily Blunt had to star in Gulliver's Travels (2010) as a result of starring in The Devil Wears Prada. Because of the scheduling conflict, she had to turn down the role of Black Widow in Iron Man 2.
  • Back in the 1930s Chinese-American star Anna May Wong was getting frustrated at playing Dragon Lady parts and exotic supporting roles. She agreed to do one more - playing the daughter of Fu Manchu in Daughter of the Dragon - so she could star in the Marlene Dietrich movie Shanghai Express, getting a more interesting part. Daughter of the Dragon marked the last time she ever played a Dragon Lady.
  • Val Kilmer didn't want to be in Top Gun, but was contractually obliged.
  • Both Otto Preminger and Marilyn Monroe were forced to do the 1954 western River of No Return against their will, due to contractual obligations. They both expressed their frustration over the script which they considered below par. However, the film was a box office hit upon its release and remains a popular classic western.
  • Edward Norton made it clear that his participation in The Italian Job (2003) is a result of contractual obligation, not choice. He signed a three movie deal with Paramount, of which Primal Fear, his breakthrough movie, was the first. He kept dismissing scripts for the other two (resulting in the contract getting extended from the intended timeline of contract though Norton now only had to do one extra film), until Paramount coerced him into accepting a role in this film. Norton did not hide his misery on the set, clashing with the crew throughout it, and when the producer handed out gifts to the cast over the movie's surprisingly strong box office performance, Norton returned the gift with a note stating "Give this to someone you actually like—or someone who actually likes you." He also wasn't happy at how the conditions of the deal meant that he was paid a fraction of what he'd have earned on any other film at that time in his career.
  • John Wayne starred in The Conqueror to close out his contract with RKO.
  • Geneviève Bujold made Earthquake and Swashbuckler purely to fill out her contract with Universal Studios.
  • Eric Bress and J Mackeye Gruber wrote the script for Final Destination 2 in order to be allowed to direct The Butterfly Effect.
  • Christopher Lambert was so disgusted with the re-written script for Highlander II: The Quickening that he wanted to drop out of the film. Contractual obligations forced him to finish it.
  • Roy Scheider did not originally want to appear in Jaws 2, but had recently left the production of The Deer Hunter, which led to conflicts with Universal Pictures to whom he was locked into a multi-film contract with. The studio agreed to forgive his leaving The Deer Hunter if he did Jaws 2, which they would count as the two remaining films of his contract with them. Scheider agreed to the terms, but was resentful of his involvement from the onset and clashed frequently with director Jeannot Szwarc.
  • Clark Gable and Claudette Colbert thought It Happened One Night would flop and were only in the film to fulfill contractual obligations. Both would go on to win Oscars for the movie which also won for Best Picture.
  • Arnold Schwarzenegger only agreed to star in Raw Deal after much haggling in exchange for dissolving his multi-picture agreement with Dino De Laurentiis. He had one picture left with the producer and was actually very interested in doing Total Recall (1990)'', but De Laurentiis objected, feeling that he was not suitable for the lead role of Quaid. Instead, Patrick Swayze was already cast before the bankruptcy.
  • Jackie Chan appeared in Cannonball Run II for this very reason.
  • Natalie Wood didn't want to be in The Great Race, but Warner Bros. talked her into it. Wood was unhappy with her career and her personal life, having recently divorced from Robert Wagner in April 1962. Warner asked Tony Curtis if he would give a percentage of his film royalties to Wood, as an enticement, but Curtis refused. He said, "I couldn't give her anything to make her want to do the movie." Instead of more money, Warner promised Wood that if she completed The Great Race, she could star in Inside Daisy Clover, a role she greatly wished to have. Wood agreed, thinking that filming would be brief on Edwards' movie.
  • Gary Cooper agreed to star in ''The Pride of the Yankees despite not being a baseball fan, as he owed one to Samuel Goldwyn.
  • John Candy didn't want to make Wagons East, but was contractually obliged. Sadly, this turned out to be his final film.
  • Michael Fassbender agreed to star in The Counselor as part of a two-picture deal. The next film would not be a sequel; instead the studio would fund Assassin's Creed.
  • Every cast member involved in Guardians of the Galaxy 3 have expressed their concern about being in the film after writer/director James Gunn was fired by Disney after offensive jokes he made on Twitter nearly a decade ago (and sincerely apologized for) came to light. Dave Bautista has been the most vocal, and said that if he wasn't legally bound to this film, he would quit then and there.
  • Following the failure via Executive Meddling of his film The Road Back acclaimed director James Whale ran out his contract at Universal with a string of B movies. Other than The Man In The Iron Mask six of his last seven films were critical and commercial failures.

     Films — Animation 
  • For nearly 20 years, Walt Disney had a distribution deal with RKO. By the early-1950s, RKO was crumbling under the erratic leadership of Howard Hughes. In 1953, Disney had formed his own distribution company, Buena Vista, but was still obligated to deliver one more film to Hughes. As a result, Disney compiled segments from his earlier animated anthologies Make Mine Music and Melody Time, to create Music Land (1955). This constituted a new film in RKO's eyes, and the deal ended with Music Land.
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    Music 
  • Musicians frequently release Cover Albums, Christmas Albums, Live Albums, Greatest Hits Albums, or Remix Albums as a quick, easy way to fulfill a contract.
  • When Marvin Gaye got divorced in 1977, he agreed to give his ex-wife half the proceeds from his next album. The result was Here, My Dear, which was panned by critics and fans alike (although critics praised it in retrospect). Rumors that he intentionally made a bad album that wouldn't sell soon arose.
  • Axis: Bold as Love by The Jimi Hendrix Experience was a contractual obligation album because the Experience was required to release two albums in 1967. Despite this, it is regarded as a classic and was listed at #83 in Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time.
    • Part of the reason for Band of Gypsys being produced was to settle a contract dispute with Ed Chalpin, who managed Hendrix when the guitarist was a member of R&B band Curtis Knight & The Squires and who had been reissuing Knight/Squires albums on Capitol Records with misleading covers publicizing Jimi's involvement with them to compete with/capitalize on Hendrix' success years later.
  • After the death of Van Morrison's producer Bert Berns, Morrison was still contracted for an album to his Bang Records company, owned by Berns' widow Ilena, with whom Morrison didn't get along. To get out of his contract, Morrison recorded an album worth of desultory, sometimes intentionally offensive "songs" such as "Ring Worm", "Here Comes Dumb George", and "Blow in Your Nose". They sometimes get released as "rarities" to hoodwink completists.
  • Lord Melody (a calypso singer) released two in 1962/1963 to get out of his contract with Cook Records (which was about to fold). These were Lord Melody 1962 (US) / More Calypsoes By Lord Melody (Trinidad) (largely rerecorded early 50s material and singles aimed at tourists) and Caribbean Limbo Music (an album of Melody and a man named Sam discussing limbo moves over jazz instrumentals from Cook's back catalogue). In Trinidad, 1962 was Melody's poorest selling release, though it was fairly successful in the US due to his cover of "Shame And Scandal" (Wau Wau).
  • The Dingees admitted that, after writing enough songs for their fourth album, The Rebel Soul Sound System, they'd planned to stick in a bunch of dub remixes as Album Filler to extend the whole thing to double-album length—and thus fulfill their five-album contract with their label. Ironically, the label dropped them before they could record any of it, and The Rebel Soul Sound System wound up being the band's zero-budget passion project instead of a contractual obligation.
  • Led Zeppelin were contractually obligated for one more album after the death of drummer John Bonham, but were unwilling to continue without him, and so released Coda, an album made up entirely of unreleased songs, mostly from In Through The Out Door. It's generally considered to be their worst album.
  • Tupac Shakur signed a three-album deal with Death Row Records in exchange for them bailing him out of prison. All Eyez on Me was released as a double album, which was followed by The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory.

    Recorded And Stand Up Comedy 
  • Monty Python's Contractual Obligation Album expressly invokes this trope: it contained a minimum of brand new material, and that was often deliberately thrown together and made to look slapdash and amateurish whilst still remaining funny. Most of the rest consists of off-cuts from film scripts, and reworkings of old sketches and songs that go back to the middle 1960s, and which were originally intended for radio and TV shows that preceded Python by some years. Some sketches had indeed already been performed on British radio and TV by other people.

     Television 
  • This trope is invoked in-universe in the final episode of 30 Rock when, after the show-within-the-show "TGS" is cancelled, another episode has to be produced in order to avoid having to give Tracy a $30 million payout.

     Video Games 
  • thatgamecompany made a three-game deal with Sony in order to put themselves on the map of the video game industry. The results were flOw, Flower, and Journey, and the aforementioned deal is the sole reason why all three of them remain Sony console-exclusives to this day.

     Western Animation 
  • In the Family Guy parody of Return of the Jedi, the Opening Crawl veers off into a rant about how they're tired of parodying Star Wars, says that Fox made them produce it, lapses into a non sequitur about raccoons, and finally asks the audience to lower their expectations for the episode.
  • The three The Fox and the Crow cartoons produced by UPA were a contractual obligation for their distribution contract with Columbia Pictures. UPA wanted to do cartoons that steered away from the cliches of the day, such as the use of Funny Animals and Slapstick, both of which the Fox and Crow cartoons exemplified in spades. The cartoons were actually well received (two were nominated for Academy Awards), which gave UPA free rein to make their own films with their own characters.
  • An in-universe example occurs in the Rocko's Modern Life episode "Wacky Delly" when Ralph Bighead ends production on his show The Fatheads to create his artistic masterpiece. However, his network contract states that he has to make one more show so, to get it over with, Ralph hires Rocko, Heffer and Filburt to make a pilot for the new show, hoping it will be bad enough to get the executives to cancel his contract. Unfortunately, they love Wacky Delly and the show becomes a massive hit.
  • VeggieTales: Invoked in a song that was so pointless, Larry's voice actor supposedly refused to finish it (though this was probably written-in meta-humor). "The Song Under the Credits" was its name, and in the middle of a chorus of "Hey hey ho-ho-ho-ho" the actor left, while the other actors chewed him out for leaving, telling him "We have contractual obligations to finish this song!"
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