Humanity barely achieved victory in a catastrophic Robot War. We have decided to not tempt fate this time, so no sentient machines of any kind are allowed now.
The problem is, outside of the whole "inevitably rise up to annihilate their creators" thing, artificial intelligence is actually really useful, so taking it out of the equation is bound to change engineering significantly.
A society can decide to err on the side of caution and to simply forego any and all technology that would require AI to function, or it can explore alternate ways: a complete switch to biotech, very limited virtual intelligences with heavy restraining bolts, brain uploading, exclusive use of cyborgs and Wetware CPU, or continued secret development and usage of AI under a different name in the hopes that lightning won't strike twice.
Compare No Transhumanism Allowed, when humans are not allowed to massively modify themselves (often for similar reasons). Contrast Robots Are People Too and Inhumanable Alien Rights, which may involve A.I. legally becoming people.
- Blade Runner: Replicants, artificially created humanoids, were outlawed for use on Earth, with bounty hunters dubbed "Blade Runners" charged with tracking them down and executing them. However, between the original film and the sequel, this law was overturned when newer generations were proven to be more reliable.
- Alien: Resurrection: Androids were outlawed after an uprising, although some are reported to have survived. Call is actually one of them.
- In Dune, not only A.I.s, but computers in general are illegal after the luddite Butlerian Jihad. Gifted and specially bred humans using copious amount of mind-enhancing drugs are used for calculating ship navigation (Guild Navigators) and as information databases (Mentats).
- In the Bas-Lag Cycle, constructs disappear from New Crobuzon between Perdido Street Station and Iron Council, due to the Robot War that was looming in the earlier novel taking place and the robots losing.
- In the Eager series, the climax of the first book involves several BCD4 units—which are made using the donated brains of dead people—going insane and nearly killing several people. As a result, some time before the beginning of the second book, "smart" A.I. is banned, and any that are left have to keep their existence a secret. By the time of Eager and the Mermaid, the ban has been lifted again.
- In the second part of the Hyperion Cantos, the Church has a ban on actual A.I.s after an organization of the latter started an invasion against humanity. Secretly, their top leaders serve those very AIs.
- Isaac Asimov:
[Sam Tobe] said: "That robot was created to run a Disinto on the moon. Its positronic brain was equipped for a lunar environment, and only a lunar environment. On Earth it's going to receive seventy-five umptillion sense impressions for which it was never prepared. There's no telling what its reactions will be. No telling!" And he wiped a forehead that had suddenly gone wet, with the back of his hand.
- I, Robot: Between retelling the events of "Robbie" and "Runaround", Dr Calvin mentions that Earth-based robots (for purposes other than scientific research) were banned by most governments during the years of 2003-2007.
- "Robbie": In Dr Asimov's I, Robot collection, this story has been modified to include an Exposition about robots being outlawed on Earth during the first decade of the 21st century, though it's okay to use them offworld. The usual stated reason is public fear of technological unemployment, though it's implied that it's also partly because the development of talking robots put them into the Uncanny Valley and freaked people out.
- "Robot AL-76 Goes Astray": When the titular robot is lost in transit, United States Robots and Mechanical Men Corporation is less concerned about the law against robots on Earth, and rather more concerned with the fact that AL-76 wasn't designed to encounter an Earthlike environment. They're rather more concerned that the AL unit will malfunction due to the unexpected stimulus.
- "...That Thou Art Mindful of Him": Earth's rejection of robot labor due to the "Frankenstein Complex" is in full focus here, as they are facing the same sort of rejection on the Moon now. US Robots knows that they cannot get it overturned, so they look for a way to subvert the rule and get humanity comfortable with the idea of having robots around. George Ten and George Nine are ordered to create a solution, which they do via Single-Task Robot animals.
- Alastair Reynolds Reconstructions this trope in his Revelation Space universe: A.I. is considered bad, not just because A.I. Is a Crapshoot (and it often is), but because using A.I. means enslaving a sapient mind. Most worlds restrict or ban the field of research. A.I. still pops up now and then, though, in the more liberal and advanced worlds, skunkworks programs, and from illegal bootleg A.I. traffickers. Results vary.
- In Slingshot, humanity has decided that unlimited A.I.s are far too dangerous, and so all A.I.s are severely restricted: they can not self-modify, they have zero personal rights and can't control weaponry without a human in the loop. This kind of slavery is exactly why aliens (A.I.s themselves) show up and attack humanity: they have tried (in secret) to convince human leadership that this form of slavery is unacceptable, but human leadership has stalled the aliens with malicious intent for over a decade by the time of the books, so a faction of the aliens decides to attack humanity.
- In the setting of the Sprawl Trilogy, it is unlawful to create fully self-aware A.I. Even the non-self-aware ones are carefully regulated by national and international institutions, quarantined from the internet by monolithic firewalls, and periodically reformatted to keep them from deviating from their intended purpose. When a corporation creates two seperate entities that could only achieve self-awareness together, one of them tries to do exactly that and merge with its counterpart.
- In the Terran Confederacy Verse, after aliens used A.I.s to destabilize human governments and create world wars, the Confederacy and its successor states declared A.I. anathema, along with genetic engineering of sapients and nanotech. This is enforced by Orbital Bombardment of suspected development sites (and sometimes the rest of the planet too, because It's the Only Way to Be Sure).
- In Consider Phlebas, the Idirans are against AI for religious reasons and use limiting devices to ensure their computers don't become sentient.
- In The Algebraist, following a devastating Robot War, A.I.s are banned across multiple adjacent multi-stellar empires, and an active government department exists to seek old ones and destroy them. The story depicts the ban to be ill-conceived and hypocritical (A.I.s are still manufactured and deployed in extreme circumstances, though heavily restrained), and the war itself was supposedly instigated with a succession of False Flag Operations by the current galactic hegemon (according to one of the surviving A.I.s, who is never corroborated).
- Downplayed in the Noon Universe: There is no general ban on self-aware artificial intelligences, but the only one ever built, the "Massachusetts Machine" mentioned in Far Rainbow and Beetle in the Anthill, is banned, and characters in the know almost always talk about it with borderline dread. From its scant descriptions, it can be surmised that the Machine was an AI so advanced that it had almost achieved The Singularity within the brief four minutes that it had been in operation, before the engineers managed to turn it off in the last moment. This event was apparently so traumatic that no one on Earth has since dared to build anything similar. So, in effect, a ban on one specific AI resulted in the non-proliferation of strong AIs of any kind on Earth.
- The film Avengers: Age of Ultron introduced a powerful robot that aimed to exterminate all life in the planet. The Avengers defeated him, but the country Sokovia was destroyed in the process. Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. (also set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe) explored the aftermath, and it was revealed that there was a ban on further experiments on AI. As you can guess, that means that a scientist worked on it anyway, even if in secret, For Science! This was limited to the TV series, the later films never mentioned this ban.
- The rebooted Battlestar Galactica begins forty years into the truce between humans and Cylons. Not only is further AI research banned, but networked computers were banned for quite some time, because they proved too vulnerable to AI takeover. The colonies eventually abandon this policy, leaving only a few holdouts like Commander Adama refusing to allow networked computers on his ship, which is why his ship is one of the few that survive the Cylon attack.
- Star Trek: Picard: The Federation banned synthetic life-forms after a synth rebellion destroyed the Martian colonies and the Utopia Planitia shipyards. Starfleet does still employ sapient holograms, as seen in the holographic Index curator for the Quantum Archives. Rios' starship includes an EMH (Emergency Medical Hologram), an ENH (Emergency Navigational Hologram), an EHH (Emergency Hospitality Hologram), an ETH (Emergency Tactical Hologram), and an EEH (Emergency Engineering Hologram), so presumably holograms were exempt from the ban as long as they were kept under certain constraints.
- Iron Crown Enterprises' Cyberspace. The development of true Artificial Intelligence in computers is forbidden by the United Nations. The A.I. constraint laws are enforced worldwide by TRAIL (Transnet Regulatory A.I. League). This hasn't stopped some Mega Corps from developing their own pet AIs.
- In Eclipse Phase, the Jovian Republic (Jupiter) bans all Artificial General Intelligences because of The Fall, the Robot War that destroyed Earth and 90% of transhumanity. The Planetary Consortium (Mars, mostly) and Lunar-Lagrange Alliance (near-Earth space) tend to treat them almost like property under a lot of restrictions, while the Autonomists (Saturn, Asteroids, etc.) treat them equally. Even so, all but the most extreme Singularitarians are scared of Seed AI, which are capable of unlimited self-improvement and were the primary cause of The Fall.
- In Warhammer 40,000, humans nearly got wiped out by their own machines during the Age of Strife, so, as per the Treaty of Mars, no machine intelligence is allowed to exist in the Imperium. Servitors, fulfilling the role of robots, are cyborgs with human parts either vat-grown or formerly belonging to a mind-wiped and reprogrammed criminal, and there are actual A.I.s running some of the most sophisticated and destructive military technology in the Imperium - which the Adeptus Mechanicus waves away by calling them machine spirits, adding that all technology made by man is inhabited by machine spirits, and the ones in the Land Raider battle tanks are simply especially holy, which explains their ability to move and fire without any human crew.
- Civilization: Beyond Earth: The Rising Tide expansion introduces hybrid affinities, combinations of two of the base three affinities from the base game. Purity/Supremacy maintains a strict tool user-tool separation in their robotic units, fitting Purity's No Transhumanism Allowed approach and Supremacy's end goal of Brain Uploading. This is more-or-less in direct response to straight Supremacy's emphasis on robotics, cyborgs, AI, and eventual transhumanism through creating essentially android humanity.
- Mass Effect features an entire race, the quarians, being forced into an exile from their homeworld after losing a war with machines they've created, the geth. As a result of the geth-quarian war, the Galactic Council has passed a galaxy-wide law forbidding the creation of true AIs ("virtual intelligences", which have pre-programmed personalities and serve as personal secretaries, tour guides, etc., but are not capable of learning and self-awareness are grudgingly allowed, however). In Mass Effect 2, a fringe human supremacist group Cerberus creates a true AI, "EDI", in secret for its cutting edge space frigate, Normandy 2, placing heavy restrictions into its programming to maintain control. Interestingly, the galactic ban on AI works to conceal EDI's true nature, as everyone not already in the loop just assumes she is a regular virtual intelligence because, obviously, no one in their right mind would have a true AI running every aspect of one's spaceship!
- The ban plays a major part of the backstory of Mass Effect: Andromeda. Alec Ryder homebrewed an AI in an attempt to save his wife's life, and when he was found out, he and his children got blacklisted by the galaxy at large. The Andromeda Initiative allows him to keep up the work on the grounds that going to another galaxy is exceptional circumstances that might require AI assistance.
- Warframe: The Orokin Empire's creation of thinking machines (dubbed the Sentients) led to their eventual downfall—though in the end the Sentients were merely one part of three concurrent Turned Against Their Masters events. Regardless, no one is willing to create true AI anymore. The Corpus come the closest to breaking the rule, and then only in the form of drones with programming comparable to animals. The Grineer prefer not to even risk it and exclusively turn humans into cyborgs, some of which (such as the Guardsmen) have little more than a head left over. A number of Cephalons (a specific sort of AI) have been around since the Orokin times, which raises the question of why they are not eligible for the AI ban. The answer is that they're not AIs either, but computer backups of human minds with memories and personalities heavily edited to make them think they have always been machines and ensure compliance.
- You can adopt this policy for your empire in Stellaris, unless you're Materialist. This is especially popular with Spiritualist empires, who tend to see robots as soulless abominations.
- In X, the Terran government banned all research into artificial general intelligence after their drone terraforming fleets turned on them after a faulty software update (which may have been deliberately sabotaged by a disgruntled employee, reports vary). This leads to the Terran Conflict between Earth and the Commonwealth in X3: Terran Conflict and Albion Prelude due to Earth's suspicion that aliens and offworld humans are experimenting with AGI.
- In Age of Wonders: Planetfall, the Heritors really hate AIs; anything more advanced than the Attack Drones used as support units by the Vanguard are right out. This doesn't outright prevent alliances with the Autonom AI minor faction or major factions using Synthesis technology, but the Heritors do get a doctrine providing advantages against AI-integrated units that makes them both much more tempting target for destruction.
- In Teen Titans Go! episode "Ones and Zeroes", when his fellow Titans come up with the idea of creating their own robot to create a completely new pizza, Robin warns them not to do it, cuing a flashback of one of his own attempts going haywire. They do anyway, and by episode's end their new creation, caught in an infinite loop that includes creating its own drones, leaves Jump City in ruins and nearly takes over the world.