War between social insects, usually ants against other ants. Though it takes place on a much smaller scale than human warfare, the insects will be regimented like human soldiers and use tactics familiar to humans. This familiar association makes political allegory all but inevitable.
- In the Helen ESP chapter "Helen and the Dream", two warring ant colonies turn out to be who Helen has been advising. This results in a bit more... complex war than normal.
- The indie comic (now webcomic) Army Ants is this, patterned loosely after G.I. Joe. The ants, with their allies the beetles, crickets and ladybugs, fight hordes of bees, hornets and wasps, not to mention fighting predators and going on special missions like stealing cinnamon (an insecticide) from a kitchen.
- In Antz, the Big Bad, an ant general, sends a troop of soldiers loyal to the current queen into a battle against a colony of much larger and stronger termites that they cannot win.
- In A Bug's Life, a swarm of marching locusts (who were merely called 'grasshoppers') constantly terrorize a colony of ants, stealing their food. The ants eventually rise up against their oppressors, resulting in this trope.
- The Ant Bully has a subplot about a war of the ants with the dragonflies, though by the end they go Enemy Mine against the larger threat, the Exterminator and by the end it seems they have struck a permanent peace.
- Seen in Minuscule: Valley of the Lost Ants. A group of black ants is carrying a box of sugar cubes come across a squad of villainous red ants who promptly launch pursuit. This escalates into a war once the black ants reach their ant hill and they're helpless before the larger numbers and militaristic power of the red ants. They have a number of fireworks to turn the tides with, but only a single match, so the ladybug protagonist is sent into a search for a box of matches for its friends to use.
- Terry Pratchett once depicted War (of the Horsemen of the Apocalypse) watching a battle between red and black ants in Thief of Time. He remarks to Death that while peaceful times among humans come and go, ants never seem to learn.
- In The Once and Future King, one of the animal transformations Merlyn performs on Wart is to turn him into an ant, and he finds himself in the middle of an ant war.
- Bernard Werber's Empire of the Ants, especially the first book's battle between the Formica rufa (wood ant) and Linepithema humile (Argentine ant).
- George R. R. Martin wrote "Sandkings," a novelette about a species of warring, antlike creatures sold as pets. It doesn't end well.
- Professor Mmaa's Lecture makes references to frequent termite-ant wars. In the end, the war indeed erupts.
- Done in Animorphs when the Team first morph ants and have to pass through a different colony. This, and the general Hive Mind of ants, was so horrifying that they swore to never morph ants again. In fact, the Animorphs find it so bad, Jake vetoed any plan that relied on the team morphing a social insect. Their next attempt (bees), was only allowed because they promised the bee they would morph would be from the same hive that was in the mission area.
- Invoked another time. Rachel, as a grizzly bear, is injured and passes out near a colony. Said ants were eating her alive and unable to wake her, Jake learned a different colony to her hoping the war would buy enough time for her to wake.
- A Rustle in the Grass by Robin Hawdon, about an ant colony fighting off an invasion by a more aggressive species of ant, told in a Heroic Fantasy style.
- The Discovery channels, mostly Science Channel and Animal Planet, have "Killer Bug Wars" documenting real life insect vs insect wars.
- The Outer Limits (1995): In "Sandkings", the titular Martian antlike lifeforms quickly evolve into two distinct groups, white sandkings and red sandkings, and position their colonies at opposite ends of the glass enclosure in which Dr. Simon Kress has placed them. The two colonies soon go to war with each other. The conflict is exacerbated by Kress denying them food as part of his experiment.
- In a very old example of an Unbuilt Trope, Classical Mythology, the soldiers Achilles commands in the The Iliad are called the Myrmidons, or, in Greek, "ant-people." This name came from their origin as ants turned into warriors by Zeus in answer to a king's prayer to repopulate his country after a plague. The word "myrmidon" has come to denote any mindless group of subordinates, and is essentially the source of the allegory on which this trope is based.
- Team America: World Police. In the lyrics to "You Are Worthress, Arec Barrwin," which plays over the closing credits:
Pranet Xiron is inhabited with Xipods rike me
But arso with Balmacs who are giant bees
The Xipods and the Balmacs are at constant war
So we wanted a new home and that's what Earf was for
But you are worthress Arec Barrwin, you are worthress Arec Barrwin
You fucked up my whole pran
And now Xiron is smeared with Balmac porren....
- The Army Ants comic has been converted into an RPG, basically G.I. Joe on a microscopic scale. The ants operate tanks and aircraft and carry guns, but the players are expected to basically use their own backyard as the world setting. A sandbox becomes a desert, a lawn becomes a jungle, and so on. It is possible to play an ant commando escorting workers to steal the Cheetos your players are eating.
- The third act of The Insect Play by the brothers Čapek features two nations of ants (explicitly compared to human society) going to war over a path between two blades of grass, each fighting to exterminate the other.
- Empires of the Undergrowth is this trope distilled, with a good bit of Edutainment along the way, though it uses a fictional ant species, the Formica Ereptor, as a handwave to how different species coexist in the same colony.
- The indie game Command Ant Conquer has four ant colonies of different colors, fighting over three stores of seeds, which worker ants can collect and take back to the nest to earn "seed points". The queen ant can either rally her troops and attack other nests, or stay on her nest to lay eggs and build more troops, with victory going to the colony that first reaches 200 points or wipes out the other three colonies. (Interestingly, worker ants can steal eggs from other nests and raise their own workers, similar to real-life slavemaker ants.)
- Bee Fense is a tower-defense/RTS game about a war between the protagonist bees against the Hornet Queen and her swarm, as well as assorted other bugs such rhino beetles, fleas, and zombees.
- Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door: The Punis aren't exactly insects, but their war with the "rival tribe" of mosquito like Jabbis plays out as this trope.
- Happens (perhaps without the metaphor) in SimAnt, naturally.
- Battle Bugs is a Real-Time Strategy all about such a war.
- Somewhat in Fallout 3, with a belligerent colony of ants half the size of motorcycles and a friendly note colony of ants the size of small dogs. You can help the underdogs win by killing the bus-sized enemy queen and injecting stimulants into the smaller ant's eggs (which helps somehow).
- The Real-Time Strategy game adaptation of Empire of the Ants not only features wars with other ant species, but also against bees and wasps.
- Buck Bumble is about a war between technologically advanced bees against a collection of mutated insects organised under a Queen over control of a rural English garden.
- Swarm Simulator: Evolution is an Idle Game where you control a Horde of Alien Locusts. There's an Invasion mechanic where you declare war on an enemy colony's leader for 2 days. During this period, said enemy's bugs will periodically appear and move around the screen, clicking on them kills them and reduces the enemy's army size, but if they escape they will steal your resources. You win once the enemy's army size is reduced to 0 before two days pass.
- War Swarms, the sequel to Swarm Simulator is all about this and it involves combat between swarms of Horde of Alien Locusts.
- In the Merrie Melodies cartoon "The Fighting 69½th", red ants and black ants go to war over picnic food.
- One episode of the Jumanji animated series features a war between giant red ants and black ants started over an artifact called the "Bahoot", which turned out to be a big ball of black and red slime that had no apparent purpose.
- Yes, ants really do have wars. But little tactics and strategy except sheer numbers, and whatever unique adaptations evolution granted to their species!
- Many species of tree-dwelling rainforest ants wage massive wars over food and territory, especially when the forest floor floods during rainy season. These can get so bad that oftentimes there will literally be little piles of ant corpses littered all over the ground beneath their tree homes!
- Some do take slaves. The slavemaker ants are an extreme of this behavior, as their colony only produces soldiers and not workers, who must constantly raid other nests for pupae or starve to death as they can't eat on their own and must be fed by slave workers (because their jaws are so grossly enlarged, perfect for tearing apart rival ants but with the unfortunate consequence that they can no longer even chew their food.
- One species has a special suicide bomber caste (the aptly known "exploding ant"). They have glands in their heads that allow them to blow up their own heads and cover enemies in sticky, toxic fluids.
- Asian marauder ants have various castes, most notably an enormous supermajor caste that can reach an inch in length and weigh up to 50 times as much as a standard worker. The marauder ants's main tactic against other ant colonies and termites is to Zerg Rush the enemy nest with the smaller workers to weaken their defenses, before sending a final wave of the big majors and supermajors to finish the job.
- Cephalotes ants have soldiers with massive round heads, who act as living barricades when their nests are invaded by rival ant colonies, especially their main enemy, the nomadic army ant. When threatened, the soldiers use their flattened noggins to block off all entrances to their nests and prevent the entry of enemies.
- The invasive Argentine ant has a very peculiar characteristic: unlike most ants, which will attack ants of the same species but from a different colony, the Argentine ant recognizes its own species, so instead of fighting like most other ants do, two different Argentine ant colonies will actually merge into a single larger supercolony! This is what makes them so dangerous: they can have massive colonies spanning miles, with dozens, even hundreds of queens each, and their immense armies displace and wipe out any native ants in their path.
- While ants frequently wage wars with other ants, they are also known to prey upon termites, which themselves have evolved various defenses to cope with their ant aggressors. Some species produce big-headed soldier varieties with massive mandibles, while others have soldiers that spray sticky glue at intruders.