It was once commonplace for families to adopt orphans and treat them as servants or workers rather than family. The children aren't necessarily treated poorly, and in many cases are treated rather well and educated; however, they aren't considered family.
An alternative version of this trope is an illegitimate child being reared as their parent's servant. This allows the child to stay near to their parent without the scandal associated with people knowing that you have such a child.
There is a lot of Values Dissonance associated with this trope. To modern audiences, adopting a kid so they can work for you is a very unsuitable reason and it isn't legally allowed. However, this trope still appears in period pieces, and even in more modern based works if the adoptive parents are abusive.
- Berserk: Serpico was the bastard son of a noble and a maid, who spent his childhood living in poverty and taking care of his now delusional and invalid mother. Before he turned ten, his life changed when a noble girl named Farnese de Vandimion found him lying in the street after a beating from neighborhood bullies and took him back to her family's mansion for treatment, demanding that he become her personal page in exchange. Serpico turned out to be the only servant in the household who could put up with Farnese's abuse and erratic behavior, recognizing how her issues were caused by Parental Neglect. Later, Farnese's father Federico happened to recognize the locket around Serpico's neck as the one he gave to Serpico's mother, meaning that Serpico was Federico's illegitimate child as well as Farnese's older half-brother. On this occasion Federico explained that he could not let Serpico take the Vandimion name when there were already three sons vying to become the next head of the family, but in exchange for Serpico's silence and continued service to Farnese he granted Serpico a noble title and appropriate stipend.
- A variant pops up in Code Geass. Kallen is half-Japanese and half-Britannian. Her Japanese biological mother works as a maidservant for her Britannian father and step-mother; Kallen always thought that her mother was weak for remaining devoted to the man who treated her so poorly, but eventually Kallen realizes that the real reason her mother continued to work in that house was to remain close to her daughter.
- The opening episode of Michiko & Hatchin packs a lot of nastiness in a few minutes. Hatchin is kept by her corrupt padre/foster father only for the child support check, while the preacher's children drag Hatchin by the neck with a rope and threaten her with a steaming hot flatiron.
- In Tokyo Ghoul, Kanae von Rosewald was orphaned as a child and taken in by his mother's side of the family. The Tsukiyama family treats Kanae as a well-loved servant, and this Master-servant boundary creates issues due to Kanae's unrequited feelings for cousin Shuu.
- In My Daddy Long Legs, around the same time Judy gets into high school, a boy named Tommy is being adopted by a middle-aged couple that own a farm. Sadie, another orphan resentful of the fact she cannot go to high school, tells Tommy the couple in question only intend to use him for work. They have good intentions, and genuinely want a son.
- In Ai Yori Aoshi, Aoi Sakuraba's parents took Miyabi Kagurazaki into their household after Miyabi's parents, who worked for the Sakurabas, died in a car accident. Miyabi grew up serving the family, mainly as Aoi's guardian. In the ending of the manga, Aoi's parents officially adopt Miyabi as their daughter and heiress after Aoi renounces her Sakuraba name to be with Kaoru. From then on Miyabi bears the Sakuraba name and calls her former master and mistress "Father" and "Mother."
- In Heat Guy J, Giovanni states that when he was a 12-year-old Street Urchin living in Judoh's slum area (either with no parent or guardian, or with one too apathetic to care about him) he was taken in by Clair's father, to be a friend and bodyguard to Clair.
- In Persepolis, the Satrapi family adopts Mehri from a poor family where she serves as a maid. Mehri still pretends to be the family's daughter upon falling in love with a neighbor's boy, though their relationship is later jeopardized by social hierarchies. Persepolis is an autobiographical graphic novel, by the way.
- Inverted in Touhou fanon: Yukari has a kitsune shikigami (familiar) in the form of Ran, who has her own cat shikigami in the form of Chen, both of which help Yukari with her duties. They are universally portrayed as a family in the fandom.
- As a foal, Trixie in Kindness's Reward was adopted by a mare who wanted her as a maid instead of a daughter.
- In the 1916 film Stella Maris, Heartwarming Orphan Unity is adopted by an alcoholic woman to act as her servant. She is abused by her adoptive mother. One day, Unity's groceries are stolen by a group of boys and when she comes back home Louise beats her unconscious. Louise is arrested and sentenced to three years. Her estranged husband John decides the best thing to do is adopt Unity himself. He too, however, treats her like a servant instead of a daughter. This lack of a familial bond allows Unity to gain a Precocious Crush on John.
- Pete's Dragon: The hillbilly family from whom Pete is running away, the Gogans, adopted him so that they wouldn't have to do chores anymore. They make no pretense about wanting to provide Pete with a loving home, and refer to his adoption papers as their "bill of sale", as if he were explicitly property.
- Anne of Green Gables:
- Anne is wanted more as a child to help work around the farm rather than as adopted offspring. The aging Marilla and Matthew request a boy from the orphanage to help their farm. Instead of a boy, they're given a very spirited girl.
- Anne had a foster family prior to the story (the Hammonds), and they treated her more like a servant that would care for the children than an actual foster child. In fact, she was returned to the orphanage because Mr. Hammond died and the family could no longer afford her upkeep.
- Implied to be the case when a woman offers to adopt Anne in Marilla's stead; Marilla takes one look at the poor, frazzled woman and her multiple children and realizes that she'll treat Anne like a servant instead of a daughter.
- In A Little Princess, Becky is adopted to act as Sara's maid when both of them leave Miss Minchin's school, though it's implied Becky will be more of a companion than servant to Sara. This was changed in subsequent adaptations (due to Values Dissonance), and Becky usually becomes an equal-adoptee.
- In The Chimneys Of Green Knowe the seafaring Captain Oldknowe sees a young black orphan called Jacob and decides to adopt him, but as a pageboy and helper for the Captain's blind daughter, Susan.
- In Another World with My Smartphone: Touya rescues a Street Urchin named Renee and brings her home with him after she promises to never steal again. She becomes a maid in his mansion, being trained (and effectively reared) by the other maids and butlers.
- This is the basic plot of The Quiet Little Woman, a lesser known novella by Louisa May Alcott. Patty, the main character, is selected from among the girls in an orphanage to be the live-in maid for a relatively well-to-do farm family, mostly because their elderly aunt takes a liking to the girl. The story revolves around how she grows to be a part of the family.
- A Series of Unfortunate Events: The Village of Fowl Devotees adopts the Baudelaire orphans so they can do the chores of the entire village.
- The alternate version of the trope appears in the Sherlock Holmes story The Adventure of the Priory School. It's eventually revealed that James, the client's personal aide, is in fact his illegitimate son, although this is an extremely tightly-kept secret and it's with serious reluctance that the client admits it to Holmes and Watson. He genuinely loves both of his children, and giving James this position allowed him to have the boy in his daily life without creating a scandal that would embarrass his wife.
- In The Brothers Karamazov, Smerdyakov was raised as a servant of Fyodor Karamazov after the death in childbirth of his mother, the village's beggar. The community suspects he is the illegitimate son of Fyodor.
- In The Wicked Years, Aunt Em and Uncle Henry are not really Dorothy's aunt and uncle. They adopted her because they needed more hands on their farm.
- In Little Dorrit, Mr and Mrs Meagles have taken Harriet from the Foundling Hospital to be a maid/companion to their daughter. Although Miss Wade encourages her to resent this, it was a perfectly acceptable practice at the time. It was tactless of them to give her the silly nickname 'Tattycoram' without asking her opinion, though.
- Patience and Sarah: Patience laments that her sister-in-law Martha "longs for a real servant, an orphan maybe, that she could beat and that had no place to go". Her husband won't get her one.
- In The Red Tent, it's mentioned that Zilpah and Bilhah, Leah and Rachel's servants and Chosen Conception Partners in the source material, were also Leah and Rachel's half-sisters (from their father's many failed attempts to have sons). Apparently, because they're the daughters of Laban's concubines (as opposed to his legal wife), they're considered "illegitimate" and treated as servants by him and by Jacob. (Rachel and Leah, however, don't think of them this way, and they bear Gad, Asher, Dan, and Naphtali as favors to Rachel and Leah, not as something they're forced to do.)
- Jafar from Once Upon a Time in Wonderland was the bastard son of the Sultan of Agrabah. When his mother dies of sickness, she tells him who his father is and tells him to go to his father for sanctuary. While the sultan believes him after seeing the ring that he gave her, he refuses to acknowledge him as his heir and agrees to give him a life in the palace as a servant boy.
- Teresa Linares from Tales of Berseria was born from an extramarital affair and raised as a servant in her father's house, where her stepmother hated her and the rest of her family, including her father and older half-brother, considered her nothing more than one of the family's many maids. The reason she is so close to her younger half-brother Oscar is because he was the only one of the Dragonias to treat Teresa as family.
- A variant may appear in Dragon Age II, depending on player choices. Hawke and friends encounter a freshly orphaned elf girl named Orana as part of Fenris's personal quest chain. The player has the option to invite Orana, who has nowhere to go, to come to their estate and become a live-in housekeeper. If this is done, she appears in Hawke's living room for the remainder of the game and becomes part of the household; it's noted in the third act that in addition to providing her with a salary, Hawke has arranged for her to take music and voice lessons to encourage her natural talent.
- A variation is done in Umineko no Naku Koro ni, the Ushiromiya household doesn't actually adopt any, but they do recruit young girls from the local orphanage as servants. Including the (rather bizarre and never explained) practice of giving them servant names. This includes Sayo Yasuda, the bastard child of Kinzo and his own daughter Beatrice.
- In Danganronpa 2: Goodbye Despair, Peko Pekoyama was adopted by Fuyuhiko Kuzuryuu's Yakuza family, and raised to serve him as a bodyguard and "tool," an expendable extension of his will.
- Sir Nicholas Winton saved over 600 Jewish children from Czechoslovakia from the Nazis and almost certain death in concentration camps. The children were placed in British families. He acknowledged that not all the children were well-treated in their foster homes, and some foster parents used these refugee children as servants, especially older girls. Some took it rather hard because they came from well-off families and were used to having servants themselves.