A parade of the surreal, with all the logic of a dream — and invoking the madness of quite a lot of mankind's so-called "logic" — Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) is a children's classic, filled with allusions to Victorian trivia, most of which is now long forgotten. (The book The Annotated Alice by Martin Gardner explains all of these, from jokes to basic trivia. It contains both volumes, with Tenniel's original illustrations.)
The story was first told by Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Pen Name Lewis Carroll) on a boating trip with a friend and three little girls, one of whom was Alice Liddell. It was meant as a gift for her and the fictional Alice is based on her.
The story begins when Alice follows a white rabbit, who just happens to be wearing a waistcoat and a pocketwatch, down a rabbit hole. She falls, very slowly, into a corridor lined with doors, all locked, and a key that fits only into the smallest one. After some misadventures with food and drink that make her change size, she escapes in a pool of her own tears. Outside, she finds a land filled with strange creatures and talking animals. Few are entirely rational. After several bizarre incidents, including the Duchess' Cheshire Cat and the Mad Hatter's Tea Party, Alice defies the tyrannical Queen of Hearts and wakes up. It was All Just a Dream — definitely-third person narration clearly states that this is so.
In the sequel, Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871), Alice goes to sleep and then dreams she steps into a mirror, where she becomes a pawn in an allegorical game of chess. On her march across the board, symbolised as countryside divided up by brooks, Alice meets more strange characters, mostly taken from nursery rhymes, before eventually reaching the other end of the board, becoming a queen, and having a coronation party, which rapidly gets out of hand. Seizing the Red Queen, she wakes up and finds she is holding a kitten.
The books have contributed many phrases to the English language — "chortle" was coined by Lewis Carroll — and, thanks to their large cast of characters, are especially popular for adapting into ensemble films loaded with veteran actors.
Movie adaptations of the story go back into the earliest days of film: the first adaptation, a short subject made in 1903, contains some of the earliest examples of special effects in film. Walt Disney made some of his first animated films adapted from the Alice tales, and featured a live-action actress against animated characters. Of course, more popular is Disney's 1951 feature film, which is considered among the studio's most surreal titles. Again under Disney, Tim Burton has made a new 2010 movie with Johnny Depp as The Mad Hatter, though it's actually a sequel to both this book and Through the Looking Glass. This version received a sequel in 2016, titled Alice Through the Looking Glass. An unrelated television movie reimagination, Alice, was produced in 2009 by the Syfy Channel. The Looking-Glass Wars is a trilogy by Frank Beddor based on the idea that Alyss was heir to the throne of Wonderland and was forced to flee to our world by her evil Aunt Redd. And there's an animated series by Nippon Animation (the same group that made the Biene Maia, Heidi, Girl of the Alps and A Dog of Flanders animated series). A pop musical version, simply called Wonderland, is playing in Tampa, Florida as of late 2009. The book also inspired various manga. Pandora Hearts and Are You Alice? are the two most prominent. Among the many video game adaptations are American McGee's Alice. Many adaptations involve Grimmification to some degree. Due to its copyright expiring long ago, Alice is popular base material for commercial transformative works, including a musical porn film from 1975 and a special adaptation that features many characters from a far darker story known as Code Geass as the cast of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. The most surreal adaptation would be Alice (1988) by Jan Švankmajer.
Interestingly, there has only been one live-action film adaptation based on Carroll's original writing, a 1933 film called Alice in Wonderland that employed an All-Star Cast (W.C. Fields as Humpty Dumpty, Cary Grant as the Mock Turtle, and Gary Cooper as the White Knight), but had almost all the actors so heavily disguised as to be unrecognizable.
There is also Alice in Brexitland, a version which parodies the Brexit referendum.
Now has a Character Sheet under construction. For tropes related to the adaptations, see below the trope list for the books.
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass provides examples of the following tropes:
- Abusive Parents: The first time we meet the Duchess, she's violently shaking and tossing around a screaming baby, shouting "PIG!" and paying no attention as her cook throws crockery at them. Alice attempts to rescue the baby, but it turns into a pig.
- Adaptation Dye-Job: The real Alice Liddell had short, black hair, unlike the girl seen in Tenniel's illustrations. There is some evidence that the illustrator based the character on a photo given to him by Dodgson of another child-friend.
- All Just a Dream:
- Alice waking up at the end of Wonderland works just fine, since the story has all surreality and internal logic of a dream
- Through the Looking Glass adds a complication: was it Alice's dream of the Red King, or was it the Red King's dream of Alice?
- Aluminum Christmas Trees: There are many, due to the date it was written, along with the nationality of the author:
- Most modern adaptations have to explain that "treacle" is a word for molasses, and that a "cravat" is actually a forerunner to a man's tie. (One adaption actually has Alice call it a tie.) Some of the humor might go over the heads of modern readers, like the Hatter claiming Alice's hair "wants cutting" (a comment that would have been incredibly rude in Victorian times) and the Duchess claiming that she was "twice as rich and twice as clever" as Alice. ("Rich" and "clever" were used to describe contradicting terms, making her comment an impossibility.)
- Even some British readers may be confused by some references, like the Hatter saying it's always tea time because it's always six o'clock. (Five o'clock tea would not become a tradition in Britain until later.)
- Ambiguous Gender: The animal characters in the book, even important members of the cast like the White Rabbit, are almost always referred to with neutral pronouns; usually, they are assumed to be male.
- An Aesop:
- Subverted. Alice is notable for being the first work of Victorian children's literature that sought to entertain rather than to teach dull morals. Though one could argue that Alice teaches an indirect moral of enjoying your childhood while it lasts, and never forgetting it during adulthood.
- Also Parodied, for example with How Doth the Little Crocodile being a parody of the moralizing verse taught to kids in the era (in this case, Against Idleness and Mischief by Isaac Watts).
- Also satirized with the Duchess when she meets Alice again at the Queen of Hearts' croquet game, since she keeps trying to find a moral to everything they see every two seconds of the game, each one more ludicrous than the last, even though none of her morals apply to the situations she and Alice come across.
- Arbitrary Skepticism: In Through the Looking-Glass, Alice (who has already encountered a gryphon, talking flowers, and elephant-sized bees, among other oddities) expresses surprise that Unicorns exist.
- Artistic License – Physics: As an algebra professor, Carroll clearly knew that if Alice had truly been in a state of freefall, she could neither have dropped the marmalade jar nor put it in a cupboard as she fell by it. (Probably a minor nitpick considering that her descent itself was a rather blatant violation of the laws of physics.)
- Attack of the 50-Foot Whatever: Alice when she grows large. Not that she literally attacks anything, but she does scare the White Rabbit and flood the hallway with her tears.
- Author Appeal: Lewis Carroll's love of mathematics is evident.
- Author Avatar: According to some sources, the Dodo in (Charles Dodgson had a stutter, and would introduce himself as "Do-do-dodgson") and the White Knight in Through The Looking Glass.
- Other sources point out that Dodgson actually stammered, and so would not have repeated syllables. The theory about the White Knight is widely believed by most scholars, however (given the fact that he was the only character in either book who seemed genuinely kind and polite to Alice, seemingly representing Dodgson's friendship with the girl he based the character on), although Dodgson himself never confirmed nor denied it.
- Big Creepy-Crawlies: One of the few times this Trope is played for laughs. In the second book, Alice meets a large gnat ("about the size of a chicken" as she describes it) who details the weird insects in the forest, like the Rocking Horse Fly, the Bread and Butter Fly, and the Snapdragon Fly.
- Black Comedy
"After such a fall as this, I shall think nothing of tumbling down stairs! How brave they'll all think me at home! Why, I wouldn't say anything about it, even if I fell off the top of the house!" (Which was very likely true.)
- For example:
"Seven years and six months!" Humpty Dumpty repeated thoughtfully. "An uncomfortable sort of age. Now if you'd asked my advice, I'd have said, "Leave off at seven' — but it's too late now."
- Martin Gardner pointed out that an exchange between Alice and Humpty Dumpty is both the blackest and most easily missed joke in the books:
"I never ask advice about growing," Alice said indignantly.
"Too proud?" the other enquired.
Alice felt even more indignant at this suggestion. "I mean," she said, "that one can't help growing older."
"One can't, perhaps," said Humpty Dumpty, "but two can. With proper assistance, you might have left off at seven."
- Board Games: The world behind the looking glass resembles real-life chess, after Alice falls asleep having played with chess pieces.
- Body Horror: Alice's first attempt using the mushroom is rocky to say the least. She first shrinks in a way that causes her chin to hit her feet. In her justified haste to correct this with the other piece, she is stretched out, her neck becoming incredibly long and serpentine. (For obvious reasons, Tenniel did not illustrate this scene.)
- Brick Joke: The book has a couple:
Duchess: Tis so. And the moral of that is, "Oh, 'tis love, 'tis love, that makes the world go round!"
- In chapter 7, the Hatter tells Alice how he performed at the Queen's concert (singing a parody of Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star) and the Queen ordered him executed for "murdering the time". Later, in chapter 11, when he's called on as a witness at the trial, the Queen looks at him closely, and then asks a servant to bring her a list of the performers from the concert. (Clearly, she's remembering the incident he mentioned. The Hatter is noticeably nervous about it.)
- Also, in chapter 6, the Duchess growls, "If everybody minded their own business," the Duchess said in a hoarse growl, "the world would go round a deal faster than it does." Then, in chapter 9 (when Alice meets her in a much better mood) there's this exchange between them:
- As you might expect, the Duchess doesn't get the hint.
- The second book combines this with foreshadowing. When Alice sees the living chess pieces in miniature form, she writes in the King's notebook, "The White Knight is sliding down the poker; he balances very badly." Several chapters later, when she meets the white Knight in person, he clearly balances horribly, falling off his horse every few steps it makes.
- Butt-Monkey: Bill. First he's catapulted out of a chimney, then Alice is kind of mean to him when he's part of the jury.
- Calvinball: The Caucus Race, in which everyone runs around at random for half an hour, after which it is announced that "EVERYBODY has won, and all must have prizes".
- Cast Full of Crazy: Provides the page quote, and is quite possibly the Ur-Example.
- Cats Are Magic: The Cheshire Cat.
- Cats Are Superior: Or at least Cheshire Cat thinks so.
- Cheshire Cat Grin: Despite being regarded as the Trope Namer, the Cat is mostly harmless; he's a mischievous creature, but not malicious to Alice or anyone who doesn't seem to deserve it.
- Chess Motifs: Takes it further than most, and is itself a huge inspiration for stock chess metaphors.
- Children Are Innocent: The author's belief. Alice herself epitomizes innocence.
- Chimney Entry: Bill the lizard is sent down the chimney of the White Rabbit's house to get the monster inside (actually an enlarged Alice). Unfortunately, Alice's foot is blocking the fireplace. She gives it a swift kick and out comes Bill shooting into the sky.
- Church of Saint Genericus: In the second book, bishops are not mentioned at all in Carroll's text among the living chess pieces (although some are present in Tenniel's illustrations), possibly to avoid offending the clergy. (Carroll himself was an Anglican deacon.)
- Cloudcuckooland: Naturally.
- Comically Missing the Point: Alice is mistaken for the White Rabbit's housekeeper Mary Anne and sent into his house to find his gloves. She spends a lot of time worrying about running into the real Mary Anne and being turned out of the house before she gets a chance to find the gloves.
- Cool Old Guy: The White Knight is a goofy, bumbling fellow who is always getting interesting - if unfeasible - ideas, whom you can't help admire. Possibly meant to be a caricature of Carroll himself.
- Crazy People Play Chess: Lots of Wonderland in the second book.
- Crazy-Prepared: The White Knight:White Knight: You see, it's as well to be provided for everything. That's the reason the horse has all those anklets round his feet.
Alice: But what are they for?
White Knight: To guard against the bites of sharks.
- Crocodile Tears: The Walrus cries for the oysters while he's eating them."I weep for you," the Walrus said.
"I deeply sympathize."
With sobs and tears he sorted out
Those of the largest size.
Holding his pocket handkerchief
Before his streaming eyes.
- When Alice says that at least the Walrus felt sorry for the oysters, Tweedledee explains that he only did that so he could hide that he's taking more than the Carpenter.
- Dances and Balls: The Lobster Quadrille.
- Deadpan Snarker: The King of Hearts, who seems to be the only one who is deliberately trying to be funny. For example, when he tells the Hatter he may stand down, and the Hatter says he can't go any lower, the King remarks, "Then you may sit down."
- Disproportionate Retribution: The Queen sentences the Hatter to death by beheading for "murdering the time" at the concert, the players at the croquet game for missing their turns and threatens to do so to everyone present if the Cheshire Cat isn't taken care of. in fact, the narrative says that ordering an execution is her way of dealing with any problem. Alice is noticeably relieved when she sees the King pardon the condemned, and the Gryphon later tells her that none of the executions are ever carried out.
- Down the Rabbit Hole: Literally in Alice's case, unsurprising being the Trope Namer.
- Dream Apocalypse: Tweedledum and Tweedledee tells Alice this will happen to Alice herself if the Red King wakes up.
- Dream Land: Both Wonderland and that which is behind the Looking Glass.
- Everyone Calls Him "Barkeep": Besides Alice, only a few minor or unseen characters have names. The rest are only known by their species (the White Rabbit, the Cheshire Cat, the Mock Turtle etc.), their title (the King, Queen and Knave of Hearts, the Duchess) or their profession (the Hatter, the Cook, the Footmen).
- Expy: From one book to the other. The White King's messengers in "Through the Looking Glass" are Hatta and Haigha (Hatter and Hare).
- The John Tenniel artwork makes it more blatantly obvious, one drawing in "Through the Looking Glass" has Hatta in prison looking no different from Hatter's illustrations in the previous book. This is probably more The Cameo than expy.
- Faeries Don't Believe in Humans, Either: When Alice meets the Unicorn, it asks what she is. When told that she is a child, it replies, stunned, "I always thought they were fabulous monsters!" When Alice confesses that she always believed that unicorns were fabulous monsters, the Unicorn says, "Well, if you'll believe in me, I'll believe in you," to which Alice agrees.
- The Fair Folk: Not in appearance; but in their erratic Blue and Orange Morality and Lack of Empathy? Oh yes definitely.
- Floating Clocks: A variation on this trope occurs in some adaptations, wherein Alice's fall into the rabbit hole is depicted with floating clocks everywhere — in these cases, she's not really traveling through time so much as she's traveling to another world.
- Forgotten Trope: Carroll's Alice stories have outlived much of the Victorian trappings they satirize. His poem about the "little crocodile" parodies Isaac Watts's saccharine original about the "little busy bee" — an example of a whole class of Victorian poems that children were taught in order to instill virtue.
- God Save Us from the Queen!: Queen of Hearts, well known for her catchphrase, "Off with their heads!" In her defense, she's hardly much worse than the other residents of Wonderland (the Duchess calls for Alice to be beheaded as well, for no reason at all) and is ignored when it comes to her orders for executions. (The King quietly pardons her condemned victims later, and Alice is relieved later when the Gryphon tells her that "They never executes nobody." The Queen herself apparently revokes the sentence against the Duchess on her own, so long as the Duchess vacates the property immediately.) On the other hand, the White Queen and Red Queen fully subvert this. Despite being respectively nutty and stern with Alice, both are still quite kind.
- Gonk: The Duchess. The Queen of Hearts is usually portrayed as this, though her physical appearance is not described in the text.
- Grammar Nazi: The Mad Hatter and March Hare when asking Alice the answer to the riddle:Mad Hatter: Why is a raven like a writing desk?Alice: I believe I can guess that.March Hare: Do you mean that you think you can find out the answer to that?Alice: Exactly so.March Hare: Then you should say what you mean.Alice: I do— at least I mean what I say; that's the same thing, you know.Mad Hatter: Not the same thing a bit! Why, you might just as well say that 'I see what I eat' is the same as 'I eat what I see'!March Hare: You might just as well say that 'I like what I get' is the same thing as 'I get what I like'!Dormouse: You might as well say that 'I breathe when I sleep' is the same thing as 'I sleep when I breathe'!Mad Hatter [to the sleepy Dormouse]: It is the same thing with you!
March Hare: Take some more tea.Alice: I've had nothing yet, so I can't take more.Mad Hatter: You mean you can't take less; it's very easy to take more than nothing.
- And later on at the same tea party:
- Hair of Gold, Heart of Gold: Alice is a great deal kinder and more patient than the infuriating creatures around her probably deserve, and appears to have blonde hair judging by the Tenniel illustrations. Although, curiously, Lewis Carroll may not have been intending this trope, firstly because he based Alice on a dark-haired child he knew in Real Life, and secondly because by Victorian social mores Alice's forwardness and curiosity would likely have been seen as rude.
- Hair-Raising Hare: The White Rabbit, in the darker adaptations.
- Hanging Judge: The Queen of Hearts, although according to the Gryphon, they never executes nobody. How reliable the Gryphon is as a source is open to interpretation, as are the number of negatives in his assertion. There is one scene where the King quietly pardons everyone who she sentences to death at the croquet game, which makes Alice feel a little better. (Ironically, at the actual trial of the Knave of Hearts, the King - not the Queen - is the judge.)
- Hybrid Monster: In addition to the Gryphon, there's the Mock Turtle, a turtle with a calf's head, hooves, and tail. (This is likely because mock turtle soup, which the Queen says is made from mock turtles, is made from the discarded parts of a calf (specifically a calf's head), much like the discarded parts of cows are used to make low-grade hamburger in modern times.)
- Hurricane of Puns: The Mock Turtle; all of the classes he tells Alice about are puns of school subjects. (Reeling and Writhing, Ambition, Distraction, Uglification, and Derision, Mystery, ancient and modern, Seaography, Drawling, Stretching, and Fainting in Coils, Laughing and Grief. note
- Iconic Outfit: Alice's dress in John Tenniel's original colored illustrations. It even has its own Wikipedia article.
- Identical Twin ID Tags: The Tweedles have their names embroidered on their suits.
- I Fell for Hours: Alice's descent down the rabbit hole, which takes an incredibly long time.
- Ignored Epiphany: Well, kind of. It is stated that "Alice often gave herself very good advice, but she very seldom followed it."
- Incredible Shrinking Man: Or girl in this case, being Alice after she eats certain things. Also inverted.
- Inner Monologue Conversation: When Alice is on the train in Through the Looking-Glass, the other passengers can apparently hear her thinking, and respond by thinking in chorus. Even the narrator isn't quite sure how.
- Insane Troll Logic: Humorously faulty logic is a running theme throughout the books, and this is clearly a case of Author Appeal.
- For example, the Pigeon thinks Alice is a snake. Why? Because Alice eats eggs. And you know what else eats eggs? A snake! In the Pigeon's defense, though, Alice also had a long neck because of the Caterpillar's growing mushroom.
- Also: Cheshire Cat — Dogs are sane. Dogs wags their tails when they are happy and growl when they are angry. Cats wag their tails when they are angry and growl (purr) when they are happy. Cats are the opposite of dogs. Cats are therefore mad.
- Well, formally speaking, the logic is quite valid - only the premises are insane (and some particularly crazy premises are hidden - given implicitly). Compare Carroll's logic textbooks, The Game of Logic and Symbolic Logic note , which feature some deliciously weird examples.
- Interspecies Friendship: There are several, such as the Hatter and the March Hare, the Gryphon and the Mockturtle, as well as the Walrus and the Carpenter.
- I Resemble That Remark!:"You never had fits, my dear, I think?" [the King of Hearts] said to the Queen.
"Never!" said the Queen furiously, throwing an inkstand at the Lizard as she spoke.
- It Was a Gift: Humpty Dumpty says his cravat was a gift from the White Queen for an "unbirthday" present.
- Kangaroo Court: One of the most well-known examples in literature. The judge (the King of Hearts) asks the jury to consider their verdict before any evidence is given (the White Rabbit convinces him to hear the evidence, although none of the witnesses contribute anything useful), and the Queen has an odd view of how proceedings should go, believing that the sentence should come before the verdict. Also a blatant conflict of interest, as the Queen is the victim of the alleged crime.
- Kid Hero: Alice.
- Kindhearted Cat Lover: Alice is very fond of her pet cat Dinah, and later of Dinah's kittens Snowdrop and Kitty.
- Lilliputians: Everyone in Wonderland. Alice has to drink the potion to fit the size of the place.
- Lethal Chef / Evil Chef: The Duchess' cook puts way too much pepper in the soup she's making (and it is implied later, everything else she cooks), so much that it causes everyone in the room except herself and the Cheshire Cat to sneeze. As if that weren't enough, she maliciously throws her cookware and pans at the Duchess and her son; Alice's reasoning for taking the baby with her is because she's certain they'll kill it if she doesn't.
- Loony Laws: The Queen of Hearts was defined by being a woman that had to be obeyed on every single little whimsical law she made on the spot, even the ones that make no sense, and every single crime, no matter how small, all had the same sentence: beheading. When Alice first arrives to her kingdom, she meets a group of guards that are rushing to paint every rose on the garden red (they were white), because she just woke up in the morning hating them being white (and made them illegal). During Alice's judgement later on the book, the Queen kept on making things Alice did while defending herself illegal on the spot (and, again, kept calling for her beheading for each transgression).
- Long Neck: One side of the mushroom made Alice's neck so long that a bird mistook her for a snake.
- The Mad Hatter: Strangely enough, the Hatter himself didn't offer many lines that exemplify this Trope. If any character fits, it would be the Cheshire Cat:Alice: But I don't want to Go Among Mad People!Cat: Oh, you can't help that, we're all mad here.
- Magic Mushroom: The Caterpillar's mushroom is probably the Trope Maker. Eating one side of it made Alice taller, eating the other made her shorter.
- Magic Pants: In the original John Tenniel illustrations and in nearly all adaptations, Alice's dress grows and shrinks with her. It's Wonderland — nothing else makes sense, so why should this? Averted in the Tim Burton version, however.
- Meaningful Name: Alice has a name that means "Noble". Although this may have been a coincidence, as the name was that of a girl Carroll knew in real life, it becomes appropriate in the ending of Through the Looking-Glass.
- Merlin Sickness: The White Queen.
- Mirror Chemistry: Alice wonders if looking-glass milk is good to drink; this is likely the Ur-Example as it predates the scientific basis for the trope.
- Murder Ballad: "'Twas the Voice of the Lobster" and "The Walrus and the Carpenter"
- Nursery Rhyme: The Queen, King and Knave of Hearts, as well as Humpty Dumpty, Tweedledee and Tweedledum are characters from nursery rhymes. So are the Lion and the Unicorn, but in that case the nursery rhyme was itself a reference to the preexisting national animals of England and Scotland respectively (as seen on the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom).
- Nervous Wreck: The White Rabbit.
- Nice to the Waiter: Alice is kind and polite to everyone she meets. This is in contrast to the White Rabbit, who apparently is upper-class enough for a servant, to whom he speaks rudely, and we later see him boot-licking the Queen of Hearts. Although in the Victorian era, Alice would have been considered a rude and impatient little girl. Etiquette has changed over the years.
- No Name Given: Alice's sister.
- Old British Money: The Hatter's hat has a tag that reads "10/6". This is a price tag and indicates the hat costs ten shillings and sixpence; or a little over half (52.5%) of a Pound Sterling (and exactly half a guinea [21 shillings]). (Supposedly, the hat is one from his inventory.)
- One-Paragraph Chapter: Put together, chapters 10 and 11 of Through the Looking-Glass (in which Alice wakes and the Red Queen becomes a kitten) have only 57 words (and two pictures).
- Only Sane Man: Alice often plays this role to the various characters she meets along her adventures, though she herself sometimes does things that are a little peculiar (talks to herself, wonders whether she is Mabel, recites original whimsical poetry, has previously tried to box her own ears for cheating in a game of croquet against herself, and, in Through the Looking-Glass, she constantly converses with her cats). The Cheshire Cat asserts that everyone in Wonderland, including Alice, is "mad".
- Indeed, just about anytime a candidate for this trope appears they quickly subvert it; the White Rabbit is more stable and competent than his servants, but is a Nervous Wreck around everyone else. The Cheshire Cat is the only one in the Duchess' house who isn't yelling or throwing things, yet proudly considers himself mad. The Gryphon seems to fancy himself to be this, but is just as wacky as anyone else in Wonderland. And then there's Alice mentioned above. Out of all the characters in the story, the only straight examples seem to be the Caterpillar and Alice's sister.
- The Pardon: the King of Hearts is as free with these as the Queen is with sentences of beheading, though he's lower key.
- Playing Card Motifs: Take a wild guess. The King and Queen of Hearts hold court in Wonderland, with their Mooks being the lower-ranked cards. In fact, the lower ranks are further identified by their jobs: Spades are gardeners, Clubs are soldiers, Diamonds are couriers, and hearts are younger members of the royal family. The court cards are, of course, members of the royal court.
- Portal Picture: The titular mirror through which Alice walks through at the start of the second book, Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There.
- Portmanteau: While Carroll did not invent the word, its use in Alice inspired its shift of meaning to the current one.
- Power-Up Food: "Eat Me"; "Drink Me"
- The mushrooms; one side makes you taller, the other makes you shorter.
- Pragmatic Adaptation: Most adaptations cut out the satirical elements the books were originally known for. In many cases, this is since satire on mid-nineteenth century English politics and culture is going to be lost on 99% of the audience. (In fact, many of the poems Carroll satirized only survive because he did so in the books. And in some cases, even that wasn't enough!)
- Precious Puppy: Alice meets one when she shrinks down to a tiny size. Unfortunately for her, it's gigantic from her point of view, and runs the risk of devouring her.
- Pride Before a Fall: Humpty Dumpty. Lampshaded with his frequent use of the word "pride" in his conversation with Alice prior to his fall off his wall.
- Public-Domain Character: Though Disney would have you think it was their property.
- Riddle for the Ages: "Why is a raven like a writing desk?" The riddle was never intended to have an actual answer, but authors have hazarded several famous answers, including:
- They both have inky quills.
- Because Poe wrote on both.
- Because there's a B in both and an N in neither.
- Because it slopes with a flap.
- They both only work right if put on their legs.
- One is a rest for pens, the other is a pest for wrens.
- Because they should be shut up.
- Eventually Carroll supplied his own: "Because it can produce a few notes, tho they are very flat; and it is nevar put with the wrong end in front." ("nevar" being "raven" spelled backwards; editors for over a century saw fit to "correct" this.)
- Schrödinger's Butterfly
- Self-Deprecation: The White Knight is widely believed to be Carroll's Author Avatar, and while he's one of the more likable characters in the Looking-Glass Lands he's also portrayed as clumsy, foolish and unoriginal (Alice recognises his "song of my own invention" to be actually the same tune as an existing song). Interestingly, the White Knight also engages in this trope in-universe, portraying himself in his own song as being so caught up in thinking of useless inventions that he continuously misses important bits of the conversation, and terrorising an innocent old man as a result.
- Sizeshifter: Most of the transformations that happen to little Alice herself is her becoming more little than before or growing into a giantess (in relation to everyone and thing). "Drink Me" Potions make her smaller while "Eat Me" Cakes makes her larger (maybe even her real size). With the mushroom it's a mix of both: one side of the mushroom makes Alice small... but makes all but her head and feet small. Another side of the mushroom makes her big again... but makes her neck so long that a bird mistakes her for a snake.
- Significant Reference Date: Wonderland implies that it takes place in May (when Alice thinks about the March Hare) and that it is the fourth of the month (when asked what day of the month it is by the Mad Hatter). Alice Liddell was born on May 4, 1852.
- Sleepy Head: The dormouse.
- Spoof Aesop: In one chapter the Duchess responds to every piece of news with a moral, ranging from statements which are sensible but irrelevant to complete nonsense.
- Smoking Is Cool: The hookah-smoking caterpillar, naturally.
- In Disney's adaptation, he's even cooler, able to blow colored smoke rings in the shape of letters.
- Sure, Let's Go with That: The entire book was cooked up off the top of Carrol's head; it would only be later, and after some persisting, that he'd write the whole thing down.
- Textile Work Is Feminine: The Sheep knits.
- Took a Level in Kindness: The Duchess is in a much better mood and is a lot nicer to Alice the second time they meet; Alice surmises that the pepper is what made her so foul the first time. (Unfortunately, now she's a little too nice.)
- Trapped in Another World
- Unconventional Formatting: The Mouse's "long and sad tale" is given as a poem in the shape of his own tail. Compare calligrams and ASCII Art.
- Unicorn: Fighting with the Lion for the crown, and appearing as a character, in Looking Glass. (Based on the Royal Arms.)
- Up to Eleven: Through the Looking-Glass actually makes less sense than Adventures in Wonderland.
- Villain Protagonists: The Walrus and the Carpenter from the poem of the same name, although calling the two of them villains may be a bit of a stretch. Regardless, Alice finds both of them to be rather unlikeable.
- What Happened to the Mouse?: While plenty of characters get dropped from the plot abruptly, the Duchess' Pig Baby is a notable example; after he turns into a pig Alice lets him go. The Cheshire Cat implies that he's looking for the baby later, but the baby never shows up again and the Cat never mentions him after materializing in the Queen's croquet ground.
- White Bunny: The White Rabbit.
- Wicked Heart Symbol: The Queen of Hearts is a bad-tempered despot who often orders to execute her subjects. Adaptations of the book often turn her into the main antagonist.
- Wily Walrus: Trope Codifier. The Walrus from the poem "The Walrus and the Carpenter" manipulates a group of oysters into following him so he can eat them.
- World of Chaos
- World of Pun: Both books are famous for their word plays and allusions.
- You Keep Using That Word: When Alice, the Mouse and the other animals wash up on the shore of the Pool of Tears, the Mouse declares that they all need to dry off. He then starts reciting a history of William the Conqueror, an excerpt from a real history book by a guy named Havilland Le Mesurier Chepmell, as it's "the driest thing I know." It certainly is dry (boring), but it unsurprisingly fails to make Alice and the others any more dry (less wet).
Adaptations with their own trope pages include:
- Alice in Wonderland, Disney's animated feature film
- Alice in Wonderland (1985), a musical two-part film
- Alice in Wonderland (1999), a Made-for-TV Movie produced by Hallmark Entertainment for NBC
- Alice in Wonderland (2010), the live-action film directed by Tim Burton
- Alice, Syfy's TV miniseries
- American McGee's Alice, American McGee's video game
- Alice: Madness Returns, its sequel
- Adventures in Wonderland, Disney Channel's live-action series
- Alice Is Dead, the serialised Flash game
- Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, the ballet
- Alice, film by Jan Švankmajer
- Through the Looking Glass, Apple Macintosh game
- Fushigi no Kuni no Alice, a 1980s anime adaptation
- Heart no Kuni no Alice, a Visual Novel and Otome Game
- Once Upon a Time in Wonderland, a Spin-Off of Once Upon a Time
Other adaptations of Alice in Wonderland provides examples of:
- Adaptational Villainy: The Queen of Hearts is often depicted as actually having people beheaded, instead of them being pardoned by the king.
- And You Were There
- An early silent film version features this where Alice tries to steal some tarts from the cook before her sister calls her out for an outing where she sees things like a cat in a tree. Caption: Things we do and see before we sleep often influence our dreams.
- Toys in Alice's room being Wonderland characters was also used as a motif in Jan Švankmajer's version, though in a more sinister way.
- Aside Glance: In the 1966 BBC adaptation, an exasperated Alice does this when she's complaining about the Tea Party.
- Camp: The 1985 version. Including, but not limited too, its gaudy production designs, hilariously ill-fitting costumes, proliferation of B-list celebrities, the washed-up former Broadway performers too old to achieve name recognition among the film’s demographic, and the largest blonde wig in cinematic history, that was worn by the 1985 version's star, 9-year-old Natalie Gregory.
- Coming-of-Age Story: The 1985 TV musical has Alice learning to become a fearless, grown-up girl.
- Composite Character: The Queen of Hearts and the Red Queen are often confused and made into the same character, despite very different temperaments.
- Covers Always Lie: Some video stores do this with the Fiona Fullerton film, where they take Peter Sellers's face, slap it on the cover and try to claim he's the star so they can make a sale.
- Cross-Cast Role: Leo McKern as the Duchess in the 1966 BBC adaptation.
- Darker and Edgier: Has become more common in recent times, such as Tim Burton's version, Jan Svankmajer's version, and American Mc Gee's version, to name just a few.
- Deliberately Monochrome: The National Ballet of Canada staged Glen Tetley's ballet Alice this way, with most of the costumes in white or very pale pastels.
- Dull Surprise: Done deliberately with Alice in the 1966 BBC version.
- Ear Trumpet: Used by the King of Hearts in the 1966 TV adaptation.
- Either/Or Title: Hanna-Barbera's 1967 revisionist special (aired on ABC) was called Alice in Wonderland, or: What's a Nice Kid Like You Doing in a Place Like This?
- Gender Flip: In Frank Wildhorn's musical Wonderland, the Mad Hatter is a woman. In-universe, this is a Gender Bender (the Hatter is "new and improved"), brought on because the Hatter is Alice's Enemy Without.
- In the 1985 version, Tweedledee is played by a woman. However this does not have any bearing on the plot.
- Hair-Raising Hare: The Tea Party sequence in the film Dreamchild, a hallucination of the real and now very old Alice Liddell. The March Hare is a frightening creature with broken teeth (although he's outdone by the Hatter, who is a downright monstrous exaggeration of Tenniel's illustrations).
- The March Hare in Glen Tetley's ballet Alice doesn't look especially scary, but he's far more aggressive than he is in many adaptations.
- The March Hare in the Tim Burton movie is very aggressive, most of his interactions is hurling teacups and saucers at Alice, later when he's seen as the White Queen's cook, he is still throwing things aggressively across the room. (Could be an allusion to the Duchess's cook from the original story) Not to mention his fur is all ruffled to an almost rabid look.
- Inner Monologue: The 1966 BBC adaptation translates a good chunk of the original novel into this, including some of Alice's conversation with the Cheshire Cat.
- Medium Blending: The 1933 film is all live-action, except for the "Walrus and the Carpenter" sequence, which is presented as a cartoon quite similar in style to Walt Disney's Silly Symphonies.
- The Musical: The 1972 Fiona Fullerton and 1985 Irwin Allen adaptations.
- In Jan Švankmajer's adaptation, Alice wakes up in her room and everything seems fine, except the rabbit display cage is empty and glass broken. She finds a pair of scissors in the Rabbit's secret drawer and contemplates cutting his head off next time. Brr...
- Puppy Love: BKN's Alice in Wonderland: What's the Matter with Hatter features Alice befriending a younger Mad Hatter.
- Queen Victoria: The Queen of Hearts in the 1966 TV adaptation has been costumed to look like her.
- Running Gag: In Svankmajer's adaption, Alice has really bad luck with drawers. Whenever she tries to open one, she ends up pulling the knob out.
- Time-Shifted Actor: Several examples.
- The film Dreamchild, in which the elderly Alice Liddell sometimes watches her younger self, sometimes turns into her.
- Glen Tetley's ballet, which has two dancers performing the role of Alice, one as a middle-aged woman and one as a child.
- John Logan's play Peter and Alice has the octogenarian Alice Liddell on stage with the fictionalized child version of herself.
- Unusually Uninteresting Sight: The 1966 version's effects derive from this and Alice's permanent Dull Surprise. Although all of the characters look like normal human beings in Victorian clothing (except the Cheshire Cat, a regular cat without a grin), they do things like take baths in the garden and shave in court. Alice never turns a hair.
- Villain Song: The Jabberwock, the Bandersnatch, and the Snark sing "We're Bad" (song begins at 2:06 in the video) in the 1987 animated TV film adaptation of "Through the Looking Glass".
- What's an X Like You Doing in a Y Like This?: Alice in Wonderland, or What's a Nice Kid Like You Doing in a Place Like This?, the 1967 animated version by Hanna-Barbera.