Why does Sigurds Gram in Cosmos in the Lostbelt not look like the Gram that Gilgamesh pulled out of the Gate of Babylon in Fate Stay/night?
The sword was broken and then reforged so it's likely that Sigurd simply made adjustments to the swords form.
Punching Gram a lot will do a good number on it eventually. Considering Sigurd's strength, it might have been reforged multiple times.
If Beni-enma has her own cooking class for Servants, why doesn't she have dialogue lines for Tamamo Cat, Boudica, and EMIYA (aka the Chaldea Kitchen Team)?
All of those servants are competent cooks, there's no reason for them to attend.
Cat does have a voice line for Beni where she calls her "sensei" meaning that they do know each other. Why Beni doesn't have a line for Cat is unknown.
how in God's name did the Mage's Association manage to turn off the servant summoning system? seriously half the servants there were crazy yandere's who would burn the world to the ground for another five seconds with the protagonist. they would have walked in said 'we are taking over now and you are all under arrest for saving the world' and promptly get slaughter by the small army of god like beings who would all die for the protagonist. maybe if you said one of the people on the inside betrayed them and shut down the system I could believe it but that they just let them?
Chaldea was trying to cooperate with the Mage's Association, to deny the criminal allegations put against them. With the Singularities corrected, they wouldn't have a need for their summoning systems at that time, so they shut it down. Not shutting it down after its purpose had been fulfilled would almost certainly have been seen as incredibly suspicious.
How did the Huns get to West Africa, before Atilla's conquests at that?
Why did Koyan wait until LB 3 to use the lipstick tube? With Goredolf aboard the Shadow Border, she couldve teleported herself (and the Oprinchki) in whenever. Hell, why blow her cover at all? Goredolf was simp-ing for her pretty hard, and she couldve stayed as his secretary long enough to kill everybody if she kept her cover for a day or two.
Because she is a sadist and has a very short fuse for patience, combined with a thing for immediate pleasure despite how much it could backfire at her in the next second. She is also cocky, so combine that as well, you get a very short-sighted creature with a nack for self-destruction.
Sadistic yes, but she kept that in check for a good period of time (Holmes claimed that her disguise was perfect until she came to Chaldea), so why break cover so quickly? Theres still the issue of the lipstick tube once Goredolf was on the Border, it was game over for Chaldea since Koyan could teleport in and finish everybody off (she still had the Oprinchki, Mash was depowered, and that rifle was strong enough to injure/kill Arjunas Sacred Beasts).
Given the reveal that she wanted both The Foreign God and Ritsuka for her last two tails, it seems that she was deliberately holding back. She likely needed both alive and/or in absorbable condition but because she was hired by F.G first she couldn't outright side with, and later betray, Chaldea and thus made half-hearted attempts only.
How do EMIYA and Solomon function under the same metaphysics? The logic behind EMIYA being summonable in the Fifth Fuyuki Holy Grail War is that because the Throne of Heroes exists outside of time, all heroic spirits exist in it at all times, and thus because there is a future where Shirou Emiya becomes a hero and brokers a deal with Alaya, he can be summoned by a servant summoning or the counter force at any point in time, because again, there is only one Throne of Heroes and EMIYA is always in it. Next we come to Solomon, whom is summoned and after a chain of events we all know, erases himself from the Throne. But there is only one timeless Throne of Heroes. If at any point his existence in it was removed, he should likewise never exist in it at any point, and not be able to be summoned no mater the point, past present or future. There should not be "no longer able to be summoned" because that only functions in a system operating in time.
Dont think about it too hard. You're only going to hurt yourself.
A temporal loop? While the Throne is outside the normal spacetime, it has been suggested throughout Fate works that it is not entirely timeless and static. For example, how else Tamamo and Himes became pen-pals and attended Benienma's Hell's Kitchen after their deaths? If so, then FGO/Solomon could not be summoned under any circumstances, unless Marysbilly is the one doing the summoning. Eventually, Solomon erases himself from the Throne, thus closing the loop and becoming unsummonable (in FGOverse)in the first place.
Considering that Solomon uses what is basically a straight-up Miracle to erase himself from the Throne of Heroes, this would imply he is essentially dipping his hand into the Throne of Heroes and just removing his existence from it. Plus, since we know that the Abrahamic God is a real being in this setting due to how all myths/religions are true, it seems that by using his final ring to do so, he's basically bypassing the laws of existence through divine power. Most likely there is some time travel/temporal work at play too.
I understand how Merlin allows himself to be summoned by Chaldea, but how does he become a Grand Caster? Doesn't that require him to die and be recorded in the Throne of Heroes?
He is not a Grand Caster but instead a Grand Caster candidate. He has what it takes to be one and can act in a similar fashion to a Grand but because he is still alive he isn't actually one.
How did Flaurous's sabotage manage to take out Akuta? Given what she is there's no way a simple explosion should have managed to do more than minor injuries, if even that.
That might be just Akuta being lazy and playing along in order to not get to work as intended, since the original director who did know about her was already gone at that point...
Funnily enough, it seems that Chaldea is at fault here. Akuta may be ageless, but her regeneration and strength depend on the amount of mana she absorbs from her surroundings and/or blood. Until S.I.N. she was limiting her abilities, hence the, most likely magical, bomb either knocking her out or outright wounding her. Had she been left on the floor she would have recovered eventually, but then Chaldea in their attempts to save her life puts her in the freezer, where she cannot regain her consciousness nor have enough mana to absorb...