Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End gives Jack Sparrow two smaller Jacks that appear to come out of his hair. Instead of the traditional good and evil, the dilemma is between rum and immortality without rum, at least until they point out to him that having rum once every ten years for eternity is still more rum than having it every day of a normal lifetime. He also has less traditional hallucinations that are his size and identical to him, as well as one that is part of Davy Jones' ship.
Hilariously spoofed in a Russian fandub. Two mini-Jacks introduce themselves as Jack's conscience and egoism. Then they start giving him advice:
1st mini-Jack: I say we waste the lot of them and beat it! Jack: Whoa! And what does the conscience have to say to that? 1st mini-Jack: You dimwit, I am the conscience. 2nd mini-Jack (egoism): I don't even want to think of what I actually thought!
In National Lampoon's Animal House, Pinto brings Clorette up to Hoover's room, where they have a make out session. After Clorette strips down to her panties, she passes out drunk on Hoover's bed, whereupon Good Pinto (dressed as an angel) and Bad Pinto (dressed as a devil) appear on Pinto's shoulders and fight over whether Pinto is going to take advantage of the situation.(He doesn't.)
Good Pinto: I'm proud of you, Lawrence. Bad Pinto: You homo.
Bachelor Party has a scene that plays with this trope, although there is no shoulder angel/devil. Rick is tempted to sleep with his smoking hot ex, whose face morphs into that of various other characters encouraging him to screw her/stay true to his fiancée.
This is the main drive of plot in Cabin in the Sky. When Little Joe is near death, his pious wife Petunia prays for another chance, alerting the attention of both heaven AND hell. The angels and demons then interact with the human characters from Petunia and Joe to The Vamp Georgia Brown, influencing their decisions without the humans actually knowing why their thoughts are being swayed.
Tinkered with in Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back. Jay is visited by a shoulder devil at first, then is visited by a second devil, who explains they ambushed the shoulder angel on their way over. Once they deliver their tirade, they disappear. Then said angel appears, robes messed up, a few strings on his harp broken, and complete with delirium-induced singing. As the angel leaves, he notes he's going to pay back the two sucker-punching devils. Jay's angel isn't completely pure, though — his parting words are "Don't pull your dick out 'till she asks, or until she's sleeping," accompanied by the same rock music as the devils.
Played for laughs in My Name Is Bruce. Bruce gets these when thinking about returning to Gold Lick, as seen on the image.
The Muppets: Animal's Good Angel and Bad Angel succinctly debate whether or not he should play the drums again (with Bad Angel for — it's connected to his taking Anger Management classes) during the big number during the Muppet Telethon:
Shows up in Out of This World, a short 1950s instructional film for bread salesmen and delivery drivers. There's the flamboyant devil, Red, who watches the books for all the salesmen who are bad at their job, and the attractive female angel, Whitey, who watches over the good salesmen. In a plot oddly reminiscent of Job, Whitey brags about how one salesman, Bill Dudley, has just turned his career around and been transferred to her books, so Red makes a bet with her that Bill will slide right back into his old ways if he's tempted. Bizarrely enough, the terms of the bet are that Whitey, the good angel, should be the one to tempt Bill into being lazy and not taking his job seriously; Red never directly interacts with Bill, and only shows up to get on Whitey's case for not tempting him hard enough.