Towards the end of "One Short Day," when Glinda sings, "Two best friends," you can hear a little chime that matches "ev'ry little trait" from "What Is This Feeling?" Shout Out for the win!
The foreshadowing for Fiyero's fate is clear once you pay careful attention to his name. The first two syllables "Fiyer-" sound like "Fear", somewhat synonymous with "Scare". And the "-O" rhymes with "Crow". Put those two together and what do you have? "Scarecrow"!
It's little wonder Nessa grows to resent Elphaba years later, not just because she used her powers to help animals instead of her own sister. It's also because Elphaba flies. That's certainly a step-up from walking. And that only serves to add insult to injury to Nessa's bitterness towards her wheelchair-bound state.
Over the course of the musical, various phrases involving the word "good" are used — "making good", "thank goodness", "for goodness' sake", etc. — and as these phrases are overused by characters who are anything but "good", the word gradually loses all meaning . . . until the end, when the song "For Good" uses it with a different definition from the rest of the show, and it becomes meaningful once again.
The: "You're beautiful." "Don't lie to me." "It's not a lie, it's just looking at something a different way." exchange that is repeated at the end doesn't only sum up Fiyero and Elphaba's relationship. It essentially sums up the main theme of the musical.
Elphaba makes several obvious prophetic statements in "The Wizard And I" ("Someday there'll be a celebration throughout all of Oz/That's all to do with me", "I'll be so happy I could melt", "When people see me they will scream"). However, she also makes a less obvious one at the end of "Defying Gravity": "And nobody in all of Oz/No Wizard that there is or was/Is ever gonna bring me down!" The person who ultimately brings Elphaba down (at least in the eyes of the public) is Dorothy, who is from Kansas and possesses no inherent magical abilities.
Glinda's line in "What is this Feeling?" in her letter to her parents states that "Of course, I'll rise above it" in regards to her current roommate situation with Elphaba. What makes this brilliant is that in the end, she must do this both literally and metaphorically. While in her bubble, she literally can "rise above" Elphaba. From a more symbolic standpoint, it describes how she must become the changing influence that Elphaba never could be (as described in "For Good") as she moves on from Elphie's "death"..
The Wicked Witch of the West's death scene in the original film, with the overwrought "Oh, what a world! What a world!" and all that, makes much more sense if you realize that Elphaba was deliberately being overdramatic to add weight to her faked death.
Two characters are referred to as "wonderful", the Wizard (his title, "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz" and Boq ("Oh, Boq, I think you're wonderful!" sung by Nessarose). Both lie about their true selves - the Wizard is only "wonderful" because the Ozians made him so, Boq is only "wonderful" in Nessa's eyes because Glinda manipulated him.
The final bridge of Defying Gravity (when Elphaba rises over the stage to scare the daylights out of the guards) opens with the lines "So if you care to find me, look to the western sky!" Not only is this a callback to Elphaba's eventual title "Wicked Witch of the West" but it's a clever use of foreshadowing. Where does the sun set? In the west. This is a sign of Elphaba's eventual fate and the fact her declaration of war are going to make things far worse for her.
In the musical, it's said that Nessarose's legs are non functional because they're "all tangled up". In the MGM film, the Witch of the East's legs end up all tangled looking after the ruby slippers appear on Dorothy's feet.
At the end of the musical, it is revealed that Elphaba and Fiyero faked their deaths. In the MGM film, just before the Witch sets fire to the Scarecrow, she gives him a look. In the context of the MGM film, she's relishing the Cruel and Unusual Death she's about to inflict on the Scarecrow, but in the context of the musical, Elphaba is giving Fiyero a look that says "well, this is it", while trying to make it look as insidious as possible to sell the whole act to everyone else present.
When Elphaba casts a spell to save Fiyero's life in "No Good Deed", she declares "And however they try to destroy him/Let him never die/Let him never die!" In addition to making Fiyero indestructible, she also made him functionally immortal.
The sack that is the Scarecrows head might have come from Fiyero having that sack thrown onto his head and tied around the neck in an attempt to suffocate and/or blindfold him during his torture.
Elphaba's constant suffering under Fantastic Racism is nearly identical to a lot of real-life racism especially if you consider Elphaba's mixed-race status as the Wizard's illegitimate daughter (half-Ozian, half Earthian). The constant mocking of her green skin aside, her parents have no clue why she's like this, meaning Elphaba would be a throwback to a forgotten/unknown mixed-race ancestor (since they don't know her real father is the Wizard). Her father Frexspar can't stand looking at her and relegates her to be The Caretaker for Nessarose, her crippled but tragically beautiful sister, which was the fate of many historical mixed-race people who didn't pass. And then there's her extremely low self-esteem tied mainly to her skin color,which is true for a lot of minority girls and women.
After "As Long As You're Mine," that screaming sound Elphaba hears before she sees the house... Is that supposed to be Nessarose as she's dying? Either way, it's chilling.
Just how much did Dr. Dillamond remember after his speech was taken away?
Sorcery has enough of an intellectual foundation that they actually teach classes on it at Crage, yet somehow the field is still so underpopulated that when the Wizard needs talented mage types to help him rule Oz he sends Madame Morrible to a boarding school in order to act as his talent scout.
...Not to mention the fact that he seems to be scouting only at Crage Hall, which might indicate that none of the boys' schools teach sorcery. For some reason.
He was searching for amazing power and potential. If a person doesn't have power or potential (i.e. the Wizard) then all that education is useless. The potential has to be there first. The learning can come later. By searching for students with magical potential, they can find a powerful witch and have a degree of control over her. Don't know about the women thing... Females have babies and therefore have more life-force? Maybe cultural roles make men warriors and women magic-users?
Sorcery might have a decent foundation, but there aren't very many who are actually good at it—look at Glinda's professor, who is described as virtually incompetent. As for Madame Morrible being only at Crage Hall...maybe he has other scouts with the boys, but because none of the male characters study sorcery, they don't know.
Maguire showing his work again. In Baum's Oz books, magic wielders are overwhelmingly female. The best males can do is essentially alchemy, whipping up potions and pills. This is partly why Oscar Diggs was able to bluff his way into power; sorceresses and witches were fairly common, but a Wizard, not so much.
As "For Good" states, both Elphaba and Glinda have changed each other. Had it not been for that and the strength of their friendship, things would have gone much differently. Elphaba was used to being seen as an abomination, but it was knowing that Glinda was still on her side gave her hope that she could return once she had stopped the Wizards plan. Glinda was used to being well loved, and the character development from seeing how she was hurting Elphaba and could actually do something about it gave her the ability to work from the inside to fix the corruption. Had they not become friends, Elphaba's desire to be accepted would have made her capitulate to the Wizard's wishes from the beginning.