Buldeo represents the human folly of vindictiveness and goes after Mowgli on the technicality that Wilkins shot his leg mistaking him for 'the little man-cub'. Ironically, it's Mowgli who was wronged when Buldeo let the former's father be wrongfully devoured by Shere Khan. But Mowgli doesn't even know, or care for that matter.
And last but not least, Boone falls victim to the folly of Greed, where he's weighed down by his bag of treasure (and/or eaten by Kaa).
For a moment, it seems a case of Fridge Logic that instead of eating Boone and his men, Bagheera chose to chew the ropes tying Mowgli to the tree. He could've eaten them and they could've escaped. But remember why Mowgli didn't bring Kitty along: "It's safer with these men and their guns." Mowgli must've somehow told Bagheera to spare these men, knowing they somewhat kept Shere-Khan at bay.