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  • After rewatching O Brother, Where Art Thou?, I realized the irony of the governor being named after Menelaus, Helen's husband from The Iliad. The Menelaus of lore started the Trojan War, the reason why Odysseus left home in the first place, but the Menelaus of the film pardons our heroes and gives them legitimate work, allowing them to come home. - Slacker Spice
    • Wait, who? The Governor was "Pappy" O'Daniel and they named the character after the former Governor of Texas.
      • It gets maybe one mention, when the audience hears the sign off of his radio show, but the governor's name is Menelaus "Pappy" O'Daniel.
      • The governor also underscores another Odyssey reference: after Odysseus returned to Ithaca, he had to re-establish his right to rule as king against a populace that resented him for murdering two generations of their sons (first as soldiers to Troy, then as suitors to Penelope.) Everett can't be the mayor of his hometown, but he does inadvertently help the governor of Mississippi get reelected. It's the opposite of a Composite Character.
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    • For the longest time, I was also confused about Everett asking the hobos if they had ever been smithies. Then I remembered that they were chained together, and realized that yeah, a smith might be a good idea, especially after what happens next.
  • There's a joke in this movie so subtle it took me years to realize it, and I'm convinced it goes over most people's heads. The John Goodman character is obviously based on the cyclops. We later find out that he's a member of the Klan. One of the ranks in the Klan is Grand Cyclops.
  • At the climax, Homer Stokes is run out of town on a rail. This is the traditional prelude to a being tarred and feathered — ironically, he's going to be lynched himself.
  • Really, the Odyssey references are astounding. The blind seer, the punishment for killing (the Sun god's) cattle, the mysterious and dangerous Sirens, animal transformation, Cyclops... even Everett's wife's insistence on having the perfect, precise wedding ring from their old house: Penelope did not believe Odysseus until he proved himself to her by telling the story of how he made their unique and one-of-a-kind wedding bed.
    • There is also the giant wooden rail that defeated Homer Stokes, the grand CYCLOPS...hmmm, now how was the cyclops in the Odyssey defeated?
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    • The scene in the movie theater is meant to represent Odysseus' journey to the underworld, where he is given a warning by the spirits of the dead (in this case Pete, who they previously assumed had been turned into a toad and squashed, warns them not to seek the treasure).
    • The name "Odysseus" (from which we get the term "odyssey") in the original Greek can be roughly translated to "he who endures many hardships," i.e., a man of constant sorrows.note 
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    • The singing women in the river are either Sirens or Lotus-Eaters. Explicitly called "sirens" but distracted the heroes and put them in a stupor.
    Delmar: Them si-reens did this to Pete! They loved 'im up and turned him into a horny toad!
    • They're the Sirens. Everett should have tied himself to the steering wheel of the car. They also get a role as Circe, the sorceress who turned men into pigs. The Lotus Eaters are represented by the people being mass-Baptized in the river.
    • The KKK rally is the scene where Odysseus and his men have to sneak out of the Cyclops' cave dressed as sheep.
    • Baby Face Nelson shooting up random cows ("I hate cows worse'n coppers!") is a reference to Odysseus' sailors slaughtering the cattle of Helios.
    • The name Peter (Pete) means "the rock". The name Delmar means "(of) the sea". Everett is stuck between THE ROCK and THE SEA, referencing Charybdis and Scylla.
    • The old blind prophet represents Homer, the author to whom The Odyssey is attributed and who was also traditionally depicted as a blind, wandering storyteller. It makes sense that he knows everything that's going to happen in the story: he wrote it! It also makes it a lovely, poignant metaphor to see him vanishing into the distance in the end: once the story's over, he's off in search of the next one.
      • Still more Brilliance: scholars do not know who Homer really was, if he really existed, or even if he was a single person. This is why the old man announces "I have no name."
    • Odysseus' enemy was Poseidon, god of the sea, who kept waylaying him on his return voyage home. In the film, Everett's cover story for most of the journey is that they have to reach the treasure before it's washed away by a flood, literally forcing them to race against the waters.
    • Likewise, Everett and the boys' rescue from drowning seems to be a ridiculous Deus ex Machina...until you remember that the end of The Odyssey was a literal, classical Deus Ex Machina: the squabbling seems poised to go on forever until the goddess Athena shows up and tells everyone to cut it out.
  • The "Soggy Bottom Boys" get literal soggy bottoms when the valley is flooded (it's also a reference to the fact that they were still soaked from their recent baptism).
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