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Franchise / Perry Mason

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Raymond Burr as Perry Mason on the TV series.

"Who can we get on the case?
We need Perry Mason
Someone to put you in place
Calling Perry Mason again"
Ozzy Osbourne, "Perry Mason"

Perry Mason is a hugely successful multimedia franchise of the twentieth century. Beginning as a series of best-selling novels by Erle Stanley Gardner in the 1930s, it was soon adapted for film, radio, and, in the 1950s, for an iconic and influential TV series on CBS.

Mason is a skilled defense attorney who takes on seemingly hopeless cases, and turns them into victories by investigating the mystery, with the help of his secretary, Della Street, and private detective Paul Drake. Then, in a dramatic courtroom scene, Mason's new evidence is introduced, and the real criminal is forced to confess. Usually while on the witness stand.

There were eighty novels in the series by the time Gardner died in 1969, and two more were published posthumously. The first was 1933's The Case of the Velvet Claws, and the last was The Case of the Postponed Murder.


Seven movies were theatrically released between 1934 and 1940; the first four all starred Warren William as Mason. The final movie retooled the Perry Mason concept beyond all recognition into the western crime comedy Granny Get Your Gun. Yes, really.

The radio series began in 1943. It focused more on action than courtroom drama, and Gardner eventually withdrew his support for the show, which then went on to be adapted into the television soap opera, The Edge of Night.

The original Perry Mason TV series debuted in 1957, and ran through 1966. It featured Raymond Burr as Mason, Barbara Hale as Della Street, and William Hopper as Paul Drake. It was, at the time, the longest-running, and most successful lawyer show on television, and is still what most people think of when they hear the name.

The TV series was revived in 1973 as The New Perry Mason, with a completely different cast led by Monte Markham, but it only lasted one season. It was then revived again as a made-for-TV movie, Perry Mason Returns in 1985, with the surviving cast of the original show, plus William "The Greatest American Hero" Katt as Paul Drake Jr - a slanted case of Real-Life Relative, as Katt was the son of Barbara Hale. The success of this TV movie spurred the production of twenty-nine more Perry Mason TV movies between 1985 and 1994, with the last installment airing after Raymond Burr's death in 1993. (NBC made a few more TV movies without Raymond Burr before calling it quits.)


The series is very popular overseas—a Turkish version (also called Perry Mason) was produced in 1983. It also inspired a song by Ozzy Osbourne.

Warner Bros. has announced plans for an upcoming feature film adaptation of the character, to be played by Robert Downey Jr. The film will reportedly be based on the books and original movies rather than the series, and be set in 1930s Los Angeles. In August 2016 it was reported that the project had been downgraded to a television series set for air on HBO, to be developed by True Detective creator Nic Pizzolatto. The series will premiere June 21st, 2020 with Downey acting as a producer and Matthew Rhys starring as Mason.

Many episodes of the 1943-1955 radio series have fallen into the public domain in the United States, and can be downloaded courtesy of the Internet Archive.

Is the Trope Maker of the following tropes:

Perry Mason works with their own pages:

Perry Mason provides examples of:

  • Accidental Murder: "The Case of the Madcap Modiste" ends with one of these; a trusted friend of the victim that wanted to preserve the victim's marriage attempted to poison a woman that the victim's husband was seeing. Unfortunately, she poisoned the victim instead when the victim held the brooch containing cyanide in her mouth instead of giving it to the other woman, a model, to hold.
  • Acoustic License: Variable, depending on the episode. Some witnesses would whisper or sob during their big moments and be heard perfectly; other times the judge would instruct them to speak up.
  • Age Lift: Della Street is 27 in the first book, she is played in the TV series by Barbara Hale (who was 35 in the first season). Lt. Tragg is stated in the books to be the same age as Perry - he is played by 68-year-old Ray Collins.
  • Always on Duty: The various homicide lieutenants seemed to turn up at every murder that occurred in L. A., no matter the time of day (or night).
  • Always Murder: A strong codifier in television - this show quite popularly used the idea that if the initial issue didn't involve murder, the viewer could be sure that only meant there would be a murder later on to thicken the plot.
  • Amoral Attorney: Very often played straight when an attorney turned up among the murder suspects. Either played straight or averted with District Attorney Hamilton Burger, depending on the writer. Guest prosecutors tended to run the gamut as well.
  • Asshole Victim: Many of the murder victims were blackmailers, thieves, murderers themselves or just someone so irritating or otherwise evil that absolutely nobody would mind their being dead - and what's more many of the murders are in self-defense. This not only makes many of the murderers sympathetic for dramatic purposes, is also adds to the mystery: in an average Perry Mason story, nearly everyone has a motive. Oddly enough, any crimes that the victims do (including murder) are often not investigated by Tragg and Burger which means they would have likely gotten away with them.
  • The Atoner: Various culprits and suspects throughout the show, including one Nazi fugitive who has turned to religion and ultimately turns himself in after a coworker is mistaken for him (and accused of murdering an investigator who’d stumbled across a dark secret of a third coworker).
  • Badass Boast: Perry's first appearance in The Case of the Velvet Claws (1933) has him sum up his practice in two short-yet-powerful words:
    Mason: People that come to me don't come to me because they like the looks of my eyes, or the way my office is furnished, or because they've known me at a club. They come to me because they need me. They come to me because they want to hire me for what I can do.
    Eva Griffin (client): Just what is it that you do, Mr. Mason?
    Mason: I fight.
  • Bait-and-Switch Credits: The opening credits for the renamed "A Perry Mason Mystery" specials state "Based on characters created by Erle Stanley Gardner;" at this point, we're down to Della Street and even she's gone in the first five minutes.
  • Be as Unhelpful as Possible: Perry sometimes faces this from his clients who have a Big Secret.
    • For example, in The Case of the Fenced-in Woman Perry's clients refuse to tell him what actually happened the night before the murder, forcing him to rely on discrediting the prosecution's circumstantial evidence. Had they done so, the defendants could have been convicted of obstructing justice and interfering with evidence.
  • Beauty = Goodness: Subverted oh so many times, since 99% of the women in the books are beautiful.
  • Big Good: Perry often plays this role - he not only pledges to defend and clear every client that comes his way no matter what it takes, but he often goes out of his way to help people outside of his cases as well - even if it does ultimately come down to court. He's even gone out of his way to help people who likely would have no way to pay him. He has a very strong reputation for his goodness and skill, which precedes him greatly: he's not only a trusted source of advice, but nearly all of his clients come to him (rather than the other way around) because they know he can and will help.
  • Blackmail Backfire: Quite a few blackmailers end up as the murder victims, or are exposed and arrested over the course of the trial. Still others are rejected by their victims, with the third (out of three) attempted blackmailers in The Case of the One-Eyed Witness being physical thrown from the room by his would-be victim. A downplayed example from "The Case of the Capering Camera" had a previous victim of the blackmail racket based on I Was Young and Needed the Money pictures simply dare them to go ahead (notably the murderer of the episode wasn't one of the blackmail victims, but rather the blackmailer, with the victim being his Guilt-Ridden Accomplice).
    Katherine Ames: I wrote back publish and go to blazes. I'm proud of my figure.
  • Bowdlerise: The second-season episode "The Case of the Caretaker's Cat", which involved arson, had the phrase "mineral spirits" repeatedly overdubbed with "volatile spirits" because of antsy censors who didn't want them to use the name of an actual substance that could start fires.
  • Brainy Brunette: Della Street.
  • Busman's Holiday: Perry in "The Case of the Angry Mourner".
  • The Case Of: Every novel, theatrical release, TV episode (both series), and TV movie had this at the start of their title. Often they had an alliterative subject: the Poison Pen, the Dangerous Doll, etc.
  • Catchphrase: Burr-as-Mason in the series and movies often introduces himself with "I'm an attorney, my name's Mason."
  • Celebrity Paradox: In the 1989 TV movie "The Case of the Musical Murder", a witness says that on a particular night, one of Johnny Carson's guests was Alan Thicke. Thicke played talk show host Steve Carr, the victim, in "The Case of the Shooting Star" a few years earlier.
  • Chalk Outline
  • Character Outlives Actor: Raymond Burr died of cancer in 1993, but four more made-for-TV movies were made after the fact, all featuring Suspiciously Similar Substitutes standing in for an out-of-town Perry (one of whom, "Wild Bill" McKenzie, even gets a phone call from him in one movie).
  • Characterization Marches On: Particularly in regards to Perry Mason and Hamilton Burger, whose characterizations in the TV series gradually diverged from those in the novels. Occasional reversions to the original personalities do occur, especially in the last season.
  • Clear My Name: That is exactly what Perry Mason will work to do if he suspects his client has been framed. Such as, "The Case of Paul Drake's Dilemma."
  • Comically Small Bribe: Happens on occasion with blackmailers. Beachcomber Arthur Dorian from "The Case of the Negligent Nymph" only requests $50.00 to hand over a letter to George Adler supposedly typed by Adler's aunt, claiming that he was going to murder her (a letter which, interestingly, was fake) and Zack Davis (a hermit who a member of a criminal conspiracy was snowed in with for several months in "The Case of the Frantic Flyer") only requests $500.00 for his silence in covering up the theft of over a quarter-of-a-million dollars, and a murder. Both examples are somewhat justified by Perry speculating the two men would have come back later demanding more money, something which is confirmed to be true for Davis, although Dorian may have simply been content with that little due to his humble lifestyle.
  • Conflict Ball: Burger (or the prosecutor of the week) often ends up with this when Perry attempts one of his "grandstand stunts."
  • Good Is Not Nice: Perry is a defense attorney, and a good one, but if you give him an attitude he will make sure that you'll cooperate with him, or you won't get his help at all such as in "The Case of the Final Fade-Out" when he gives an elderly prima donna actress a "The Reason You Suck" Speech about how her awful attitude and bad manners toward him for getting the alleged (and now dead) killer off due to perjury despite the fact that she is now the prime suspect for the murder of the formerly accused killer. She gets the point and lets him represent her.
  • Good Lawyers, Good Clients: Although many times in the books Mason was doubting the innocence of his clients.
  • Continuity Reboot: The New Perry Mason attempted to do this.
  • Conviction by Contradiction
  • Creator Cameo: Erle Stanley Gardner in the first series finale.
  • Crusading Lawyer: Mason is the Trope Codifier in television, taking hopeless cases and winning with them.
  • Courtroom Antic: Although usually justified either by the Antics being performed at a pre-trial hearingnote , or being explicitly designed to recreate the crime or Pull the Thread. However there are multiple instances of people in the court audience related to the case starting fights or standing up and yelling at the current witness.
  • A Day in the Limelight: Paul, Della, Andy and Burger all get at least one spotlight episode each.
  • Demoted to Satellite Love Interest: Defied. Della Street turned down several proposals of marriage by Perry, because she wanted to be a part of his life and she knew that meant being a part of his work — and she expected that to end after marriage.
  • Disregard That Statement
  • Dramatic Downstage Turn: Used especially in the courtroom scenes to add movement and interest during witness testimony.
  • Enemy Mine: Perry and Burger - or any of the prosecutors - may be adversarial, but both are after the truth (at least, Depending on the Writer who doesn't make Burger more amoral), and in the case of the occasional story where Burger can be convinced things are fishy before the end, are willing to and have teamed up here or there to trap the real murderer.
  • Everybody Is Single: No one in the main cast is shown to be in any kind of committed relationship, at least during the first series.
  • Everybody Laughs Ending: Many episodes end with Perry, Della and Paul doing this. On rare occasion, even Tragg and Burger get in on it.
  • Everybody Smokes: And how. William Talman ended up making a "please don't smoke" PSA in 1968... seventeen years before the famous one by Yul Brynner. It aired a handful of times just before he died.
  • Flanderization: In his first few noels, Hamilton Burger is characterized as being obsessively frightened of convicting an innocent man and being relieved and grateful whenever Perry exonerates an innocent client. After a while though (perhaps due to one too many courtroom humiliation) while certainly never striving to convict a person he knows to be innocent, his relationship with Perry becomes more adversarial, to the point where in The Case of the Lucky Loser he attends a trial being conducted by other prosecutor just because it looks like Perry will lose for once and he wants a front-row seat.
  • Gas Chamber: This was mentioned very frequently in the series, with Perry working to prevent his clients from receiving it as a sentence note . The good news is that Perry managed to keep his clients from this. The bad news is that the murderers he smoked out likely went there.
  • For Great Justice: Often stated as the motivation of both the prosecution and the defense.
  • Gone Swimming, Clothes Stolen: At the start of "The Case of the Sun-Bather's Diary," a young woman living in a trailer is doing some nude sun-bathing by a nearby lake. Someone drives up in a truck and steals her entire trailer, leaving her nothing but a towel.
  • Graceful Loser: Burger, half of the time.
  • Hollywood Homely: Invoked in at least a few episodes. One such is "The Case of the Green-Eyed Sister". The "homely" sister is actually quite attractive and has a nice voice.
  • Hollywood Law: Often played straight despite Gardner's law background. Could be classified under Acceptable Breaks from Reality.
    • This show is the Ur-Example of lawyers freely walking right up to the witness stand to ask questionsnote  and began decades of TV and movie lawyers moving around courtrooms for dramatic effect. In real courtrooms, it's considered poor etiquette for those not directly employed by the court to traverse the well of the court (the space between the bench and the counsel desks) without explicit permission and some courts (like in Los Angeles, where the series is set) don't allow lawyers to step in front of their desks at allnote 
  • Hollywood Voodoo: "The Case of the Fatal Fetish."
  • Homage: "The Case of the Twice-Told Twist" to Oliver Twist. Lampshaded in the episode's title and the episode itself.
  • I Need a Freaking Drink: Events near the end of "The Case of the Empty Tin" leave both Perry and Burger somewhat shaken. Perry offers to buy his friend a drink and the offer is accepted.
  • Identical Stranger: Perry has one.
    • Bruce Jason (who substituted for Mason in "The Case of the Two-Faced Turnabout") also had one.
  • Incorruptible Pure Pureness:
    • Our heroes.
    • Averted in at least one episode. Mason purposely fabricates a back story for a client that would make it appear she was nowhere near a man who was killed.
  • Inspector Lestrade: Lt. Tragg.
  • Invincible Hero: Perry Mason. Legend has it that the TV writers wanted to do at least one episode where Perry lost, but Erle Stanley Gardner shot them down. Rescuing a client from the gas chamber at the last possible moment was as close as it got. Barbara Hale (Della Street), however, said in a relatively recent interview that the cases lost by Perry had been declared mistrials off the air.
    • Perry actually lost 3 cases in the Raymond Burr series:
      • Episode 1.38, "The Case of the Terrified Typist" - the one most people who think "Perry only lost once" think of: the big case of the episode ends in Burger's favor. Too bad they were trying an imposter, invalidating the entire trial.
      • Episode 6.28, "The Case of the Witless Witness" - this is the easiest to forget, because it's not the main case of the episode, but one which he loses at the beginning.
      • Episode 7.04, "The Case of the Deadly Verdict" - another where the episode starts with Perry losing, this time because his client lied to him. He spends the rest of the episode setting things right.
  • I Was Young and Needed the Money: Mentioned several times in "The Case of the Capering Camera," in which many of the characters are models and photographers.
  • The Judge: Almost always unnamed, and listed in the cast with the non-regulars.
  • Kangaroo Court: "The Case of the Fugitive Fraulein" has this in the form of the East Germany's People's Court, which refuses to allow Perry to object to the prosecutor's quite clearly leading and assumptive questioning.
  • Law Procedural
  • Long Runner
  • Love Martyr: Many women in numerous cases, towards their boyfriends / husbands.
  • Male Gaze: Invoked a few times; for example "The Case of the Crimson Kiss" starts out with a man admiring an attractive woman from the legs up.
  • Married to the Job: Seems to be the case for all of the main characters in the first series.
  • Miscarriage of Justice: Perry's clients are saved from this by the end of the episode, of course, but various persons not represented by him are subjected to this fate.
  • Mobile Menace: Tragg likes popping up at the worst possible times for Perry and his clients, with no notice and often very improbably.
  • Moral Dissonance: Sometimes occurred when a novel was adapted into an episode without accounting for the moral differences between the television characters and their literary counterparts.
  • Motive Rant
  • Nice Hat
  • Not-So-Fake Prop Weapon: This is the central plot point of Perry Mason: The Case of the Shooting Star.
  • Official Couple: Perry and Della.
  • Omnidisciplinary Scientist: In many cases, the future defendant already had Mr. Mason on retainer for civil or divorce matters.
  • Perp Sweating
  • The Perry Mason Method: Trope Namer.
  • Plea Bargain: Occasionally one will be offered to Perry's client, but he or she eventually turns it down.
  • Pose of Supplication: "The Case of the Empty Tin." A wronged woman, sobbing, pleading for understanding, first holds her hands out in supplication and then collapses to her knees, throwing her arms around the man who holds her life in his hands... said man being Hamilton Burger. The woman is a murderess at least twice over.
  • Power Trio: Perry, Paul and Della. May be subclassified as ¡Three Amigos!, Two Guys and a Girl and/or Beauty, Brains and Brawn.
  • The Prima Donna: Two characters in "The Case of the Final Fade-Out", Barry Conrad and Winifred Glober, both come across as this. Barry Conrad essentially ruins a producer by randomly signing off on another contract when he'd already verbally agreed for another season and the producer had invested a lot of money into the show, and was a smug and self-absorbed dick. Glober herself apparently had a reputation for throwing tantrums on set and being nearly impossible to work with.
  • Print Long-Runners: Almost 40 years, from 1933 to the 1970s.
  • Private Detective: Paul Drake. Perry isn't far from one himself.
  • Property Line / This Is My Side: The civil suit Perry is handling in The Case of the Fenced-In Woman before it turns into a homicide case is of a man who built a house on two adjacent lots, only one of which the seller actually owned. The owner of the other lot gets a restraining order preventing the homeowner from coming on to her property, and has a barbed wire fence run through the middle of the house, moving into it on "her" side.
  • Protagonist-Centered Morality: Perry clearly oversteps the boundaries of ethical behavior on occasion, but he's neither remorseful nor held accountable. When his opponents bring it up they're portrayed as being petty or malicious.
  • Protagonist Title
  • Pull the Thread
  • Punch-Clock Villain: Hamilton Burger and any other prosecuting attorney might come off as smug and confrontational during trials, but they're mainly trying to do their jobs. Burger, however, does have a rivalry with Perry and sometimes reacts badly to losing cases out of frustration at the antics that Perry is able to pull.
  • Punny Name:
    • "Hamilton Burger" minus "-ilton" = "Ham Burger."
    • Followed in Perry Mason Returns by Deputy D.A. Barbara Scott = "B.S."
  • Put on a Bus: Paul Drake, Jr. and D.A. Michael Reston after the TV movies switched settings to Colorado.
  • Real Life Writes the Plot: In the final TV movie Burr filmed (The Case of the Killer's Kiss), his physical weakness (from his inoperable cancer) was becoming obvious; he was apparently unable to stand unassisted, so Mason is always either sitting down or standing up and leaning completely on the defense table. The one scene where he had to be standing only showed a closeup of his head, neck and shoulders, so somebody was probably holding him up.
    • The TV movies switched locales from California to Denver, Colorado due to it being cheaper to film there.
  • Reckless Gun Usage: If there was a gun involved in the murder-of-the-week, odds are good that Perry Mason will recklessly wave that gun around. One episode was egregious: The district attorney, Hamilton Burger, fondles the murder weapon (a revolver marked as exhibit whatever) during the trial and rests it casually on the witness box, his finger on the trigger, the barrel aimed directly at the weapons expert's head. After a few questions, he turns it toward the jury, gesturing dramatically. Then, Mason does exactly the same thing when cross-examining.
  • Retool: The first time the series moved to TV from radio it became the long-running soap opera The Edge of Night.
  • The Rival: Both Lt. Tragg and District Attorney Hamilton Burger tended to play this role in regards to Mason.
    • D.A. Michael Reston filled this role in the 11 or so TV movies he appeared in (played by David Ogden Stiers).
  • Role Reprise: Burr and Hale in the TV movies.
  • Run for the Border: Numerous times, the defendants or certain witnesses attempt to run to Mexico (since the series is set in California), or to a neighboring state outside of the police's jurisdiction.
  • Secret Test of Character: In "The Case of the Caretaker's Cat". And no, not everyone passes it.
  • Sexy Secretary: Della Street.
  • Shout-Out:
    • Erle Stanley Gardner appears uncredited as a judge in the final episode of the series.
    • To Shakespeare: At least two instances in "The Case of the Lost Last Act," very probably more.
    • "The Case of the Startled Stallion" has a character quoting Shakespeare.
    • In its second season Lois & Clark featured a feisty woman attorney called Mayson Drake. In fact, the original script specified her name as Della Mayson Drake, and she was supposed to be Paul's daughter.
  • The Smurfette Principle
  • Sore Loser: Burger, the other half of the time.
  • Spousal Privilege
  • Spiritual Successor: Matlock. The Hallmark Channel's series of McBride made-for-TV movies could be considered this as well.
    • Ace Attorney is also arguably one. Both involve defending clients with protagonists that often use Courtroom Antic for a wide variety of clients in a near episodic manner.
  • Springtime for Hitler: Except Perry made it work.
  • Status Quo Is God
  • Stock Legal Phrases
  • Straw Loser: Burger on occasion, though not as much so as in the novels.
    • Averted at least in the mind of William Talman (Hamilton Burger), who maintained that Burger never lost a case on screen, reasoning that to Burger sending an innocent man or woman to prison would constitute a loss.
    • Also, the real killers exposed by Perry Mason's defense of the falsely accused are presumably prosecuted and convicted offscreen by Burger.
  • Strictly Formula: One of the most famous examples, each and every episode ends with The Perry Mason Method, when Mason will call back a previous, seemingly inconsequential witness to grill until the witness admits that he or she was the real perpetrator all along.
  • Sugary Malice: Often shown by Lieutenant Tragg whenever he first encounters Perry and Paul on the case.
  • Suspiciously Similar Substitute: Lt. Anderson for Lt. Tragg (though Andy and Tragg appeared concurrently for awhile), then Lt. Drumm for Lt. Anderson.
    • In the TV movies, aspiring attorney Ken Malansky became this for Paul Drake, Jr.
  • Take That!: When The New Perry Mason was running, reruns of the show were promoted as The Real Perry Mason.
    • The final TV movie to feature Burr as Mason, The Case of the Killer Kiss, saw him up against (and resoundingly defeat) a local district attorney referred to only as "Mr. Markham," which was the name of the actor who played Mason in the aforementioned New series (Monte Markham, to be precise). Mr. Markham also appeared in the first post-Burr Perry Mason Mystery movie.
  • Theme Tune: "Park Avenue Beat" by Fred Steiner. Could also be considered the show's Awesome Music.
  • Title Drop: Used in a few episodes.
  • To Be Lawful or Good: Perry sometimes comes up against such a choice, though he barely hesitates (if at all) before choosing "good."
  • The Trickster: Perry is an interestingly lawful example - he often uses a mix of tricky guile and venerable wisdom to uncover clues and solve mysteries, but rarely actually uses coercion or trickery to make the guilty say something.
  • True Companions: Perry, Paul and Della. Could be expanded to include Tragg (or Andy or Steve) and Burger.
  • Truth in Television: Mason points out that his defence isn't as effective if clients lie to him or withhold information. Real life defence attorneys have faced similar situations.
  • UST: Between Perry and Della. The TV movies suggest that they start dating.
  • Walking Away Shot: The third and fourth opening of the show starts with him doing it. view here and here


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