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"We're Jews, Avner. Jews don't do wrong because our enemies do wrong."
"We can't afford to be that decent anymore."
"I don't know if we ever were that decent. Suffering thousands of years of hatred doesn't make you decent. But we're supposed to be righteous. That's a beautiful thing. That's Jewish. That's what I knew, that's what I was taught and I'm losing it. I lose that and that's everything. That's my soul."
Robert and Avner Kaufman
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Munich is a 2005 film directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Tony Kushner. It, along with the HBO film Sword of Gideon, were based on the bestseller Vengeance by George Jonas.

In 1972, eleven Israeli athletes at the Summer Olympic Games in Munich were captured by Palestinian gunmen and killed, and the Israeli government decided on an "eye for an eye" retaliation, drawing up the names of eleven people they wanted killed.

The story follows Israeli-born German-raised Mossad agent Avner as he assembles his team and starts to work on their targets. But with each person killed, he's in danger of losing more and more of his humanity.

Keep in mind that due to its volatile subject matter this is a highly controversial film, and edit accordingly.

For the actual place Munich, look no further.


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This work provides examples of:

  • Affably Evil: Quite a few of the targets are this, which makes them far more human to the audience.
    • Most notable is the man who politely chats with Avner and offers him some sleeping pills just before Avner blows up his hotel room.
    • The young member of the PLO group who has a conversation with Avner, when both their groups accidentally end up sharing a safehouse together. He lays out his case to Avner very simply: "Nothing is more important than home". He is then gunned down in the street right in front of Avner, who is visibly horrified.
  • The Alleged Expert: Played for Drama — one team member was brought in as a bomb maker, but his bombs are always defective. He finally admits that he was trained to defuse bombs, and only decided to try making them when Mossad asked him to.
  • Aluminum Christmas Trees:
    • During the opening, the West German police attempt a rescue at the Olympic Village, only to call it off when it's pointed out that the terrorists are watching their approach on the news. This actually happened during the crisis.
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    • It is also mentioned that the German Army is unable to assist due to "complicated laws." The (then-West) German constitution forbids the army from operating on German soil during peacetime, which is why they were unable to directly move against the terrorists.
  • Appeal to Worse Problems: One of the targets does this when he mentions that compared to the reaction of the Munich massacre, nobody says anything about the children killed in Israel's military attacks against Palestinians.
  • Badass Israeli: This applies to varying degrees to all members of the assassination squad. Avner and Steve are both ex-Mossad while the rest of the squad make up in guile and viciousness for what they lack in military experience.
  • Black and Grey Morality: One of the more controversial and brilliant aspects of the film is its refusal to show either side as being necessarily more righteous or dignified in what they do.
  • Brick Joke: A Mossad accountant sternly tells Avner that he wants receipts for their operational expenses. Later, when the team is planning their first hit, Avner tells the group that they need receipts.
  • Call-Forward: The shot of the Twin Towers at the end, as Avner contemplates everything that's happened in the name of justice and vengeance.
  • Cleanup Crew: Carl serves as the team's "sweeper." After the first hit, he goes to the scene and removes the bullet casings.
  • Cycle of Revenge: A major theme of the film.
  • Downer Ending: Ephraim will not break bread with Avner, indicating that Avner and his whole team were disavowed and considered expendable, and most of them died for nothing. In addition, Avner and his team were already told in the beginning how far out on the edge they'd be, with no support or backing from Israel beyond funds and target profiles. Ephraim refusing to break bread with a former citizen and soldier, even under Avner's olive branch of sharing Jewish heritage, is him saying he doesn't even consider Avner a Jew like he is. The homeland Avner sacrificed almost everything for has rejected him completely.
  • Due to the Dead: Subverted. After killing the Honey Trap assassin, Avner closes her robe to cover her naked body. Hans then opens it again.
  • Fan Disservice:
  • Foreshadowing: When Avner says his work is the kind that requires a drink, the woman responds that they must be in the same business. As it turns out, they are; she's an assassin, too.
  • He Who Fights Monsters: One of the more controversial aspects of the film is the way it depicts the operation as being an example of this.
    Robert, "the Bomb Maker": We're supposed to be righteous. That's a beautiful thing. And we're losing it. If I lose that, that's everything. That's my soul.
  • Honey Trap: One of the team members sees a hot lady and, jokingly, mentions this trope by name. It turns out that she really is one.
  • Honor Before Reason: During the flashback, one of the Israelis has an opportunity to escape through the window. Then he sees a knife on the floor and goes after the terrorists, resulting in his death.
  • Hope Spot: During the intro, two reporters announce that all the hostages have been saved.
  • Instant Death Bullet: Graphically averted.
  • Instant Thunder: Averted in the opening. A reporter is covering the events at the airport, and a fireball erupts behind him as one of the helicopters explodes. He doesn't notice for a few seconds when the sound reaches him.
  • It Gets Easier: Played horrifyingly straight. The first kill is quite tense for both the characters and the audience, but then after that it becomes much easier on them and us. The first kill is a poet whom we see buying groceries and chatting with the lady behind the counter; the second is a political activist whose young daughter is featured front and center and whom the team almost blows up by mistake. The third briefly makes chitchat with Avner on the hotel balcony, joking that their neighbors will keep them up all night by having sex. After that there aren't so many humanizing moments.
  • It's Personal: After one of them is killed by an assassin.
  • Jerkass: Louis. His dad is more of a Punch Clock Mercenary.
  • Karma Houdini: The team fails to assassinate the purported mastermind of the Munich killings, though it's subverted in the epilogue which reveals that he was assassinated several years later. Played straight/subverted in the fact that only 9 of the original 11 targets were killed, though Ephraim admits that Mossad is not positively sure that the targets were involved with the Munich killings at all.
  • Major Injury Underreaction: The Dutch assassin (called Jeanette in the credits) who tries to distract with her sexy the Mossad agents. She pulls open her robe, beneath which she's naked, and immediately gets shot in the chest and throat. Rather than be blown backwards or cry out in pain, she stumbles vaguely around her houseboat while the agents disassemble their one-use weapons, gives her cat a hug, sits down in a chair, and just wheezes horribly while blood finally starts to pour out of her wounds. Then Hans finishes her off with a headshot.
  • Men Are the Expendable Gender: In-universe, Carl's assassin has no redeeming qualities (minus her cat), compared with the first two targets (see It Gets Easier above) but, perhaps because she's young, female, unarmed, and naked, her death seems more morally dubious and distressing to several of the agents than the other deaths.
  • Mexican Standoff: One occurs when Louis double-books the group's Athens safe house and a group of assorted revolutionaries stumbles in at the dead of night.
  • Morality Pet: The second target's daughter. And Carl's assassin has a cat that she tries to hold as she's dying.
  • Multinational Team: All of the squad are Israeli citizens, but all of them except Avner are olim— Jewish immigrants to Israel from elsewhere—Steve is South African, Robert is Belgian, Hans is Danish, and Carl is probably German but it is never established.
  • No Place for Me There: Avner risks his safety, his family, his sanity and does things he will never forget or forgive himself for. All for the sake of a country that makes it clear people like him and his team have no place in the new peaceful future they have fought and, in some cases, died for.
  • No Pregger Sex: Averted; after having sex with his visibly pregnant wife, the main character asks her "How long into the pregnancy should we stop having sex?" Between heavy breaths, she responds: "labor."
  • Not So Different: Of two kinds. The first is that all militants and spies are cut from the same cloth, all fighting for their own idea of good. The second is how vengeance begets more vengeance. When they kill the woman assassin, they are taking vengeance for her taking vengeance on them, for taking vengeance for the Munich killings, which were the vengeance for prior actions.
  • Oh, Crap!: Carl, when he calls the second target and the target's young daughter picks up the phone instead.
  • Pay Evil unto Evil: When Avner covers up the bloody, exposed corpse of the female assassin with her robe, Hans tells him "Leave it" and pulls her robe open again, as if to make her death as humiliating as possible.note 
  • Senseless Sacrifice: Invoked at the end when Ephraim openly tells Avner that the men he has eliminated will be replaced by men who are even worse and more motivated, basically telling Avner that his sacrifice has been entirely pointless.
  • Sexy Coat Flashing: Carl's assassin, seeing that his friends have come to avenge him, opens her robe (she is nude underneath) in an attempt to distract or dissuade them. It doesn't work. One wonders why she thought it would, seeing that she killed their friend right after seducing him... though it may have been an act of desperation.
  • Sole Survivor: Besides Avner, Steve is the only member of the team to make it to the end.
  • Spiritual Successor: Could be considered as this to Schindler's List. Jon Stewart at the 2006 Oscars:
    Schindler's List... Munich. I think I speak for all Jews when I say, I can't wait to see what happens to us next! (crossing fingers) Trilogy!
  • The Spook: Avner and the rest of the team become this in order to fulfill the mission.
  • Swiss Bank Account: Avner is instructed to open these for the mission. He and each of his men gets an account for their accumulated salary, which they'll take at the end of the mission, and another holds $250,000 in operational expenses, which the Mossad will continuously replenish. The accountant sternly tells him to keep the receipts so that they can justify using the unlimited funds.
  • Translation Convention: Presumably in effect, since Israelis are shown speaking English to each other.
  • Very Loosely Based on a True Story: The depictions of the Olympic massacre and the assassinations are closely based on historical fact. The rest is either based on "Avner's" memoirs, the accuracy and even authenticity of which are disputed to this day, or is otherwise total fiction.note 
  • Villains Out Shopping: The team tracks their first target as he goes grocery shopping.
  • Well-Intentioned Extremist: The entire team though they have their doubts about what they do. The same applies to the men they are targeting too.
  • Wouldn't Hurt a Child: One of the more tense scenes has the team stopping a bomb from going off when they hear a young girl answer the phone in the apartment where it's been planted.
  • Wrong Genre Savvy: Daphna claims "I'm not the hero's nice wife", but that is, in fact, what she is.

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