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Louis Germain David de Funès de Galarza (31 July 1914 – 27 January 1983) was a hugely popular French comedian and actor who played in more than 150 movies. He is still very beloved and famous in the francophone world and Continental Europe in general.

Once he started getting successful past the age of fifty — after a lengthy career of minor and mostly ungrateful roles —, De Funès always played the same character: a hyperactive, self-important, stubborn and unsympathetic little man who often threw himself into temper tantrums and made amusing facial expressions and nervous tics (he said he modeled his screen persona after Donald Duck, so go figure). Sure, it was textbook typecasting, but that's what he felt he did best, and audiences never failed to show up and ask for more.

One of his most iconic roles is Gendarmerie officer Ludovic Cruchot in Le Gendarme de Saint-Tropez (1964), about a local military police force in the South of France. It spawned five sequels in total until 1982.

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Tropes featured in his works:

  • Adolf Hitlarious: In The Big Restaurant, he does an hilarious routine while explaining a recipe to a German patron. "Muskatnuss, Herr Müller!" With some shadows "coincidentally" adding a pencil mustache and black hair just in the right spot.
  • Angrish: A common gag for his characters when stressed out is to speak gibberish.
  • Beam Me Up, Scotty!: In Germany, he is often attributed to having the catchphrase "Nein? Doch. Ohh!" ("No? Yes. Ohh!"), representing the quick jump from being confused to understanding to being shocked by an observation in the time of a few seconds. However he never says all three words himself, but it's actually part of an exchange and it only ever appeared in the movie Jo. Nevertheless, in Germany it's often refereed by a single person saying all three words and often thought to appear in many of his movies.
  • Butt-Monkey: The jerkassery of his characters is usually tempered with them often being a target of Laser-Guided Karma.
  • Catchphrase:
    • "Saligaud !" ("Jackass!")
    • "La barbe !" (which simply translates to: "Shut up!")
    • "Foutez-moi l'camp ! Foutez-moi l'camp !" ("Get Out!")
    • "Ma biche..." (could translate as "Honey")
  • Character Tics: Grimaces were the bread and butter of his comedic acting. Although he claimed, "I don't grimace, I'm doing expressions."
  • French Cuisine Is Haughty: Word of God says that French Gastronomy was a subject De Funès was passionate about.
  • Greed: A common trait of his characters — including, of course, Harpagon himself in Molière's The Miser — to better mock it.
  • Ham-to-Ham Combat:
    • In a mythic scene for French cinema, the dispute between de Funès's character Jambier and Grandgil (Jean Gabin) in La Traversée de Paris. The script required for Gabin's character to be as loud as possible; Gabin was a living legend and de Funès was not the King of French Large Ham yet. Nevertheless (and despite being visibly intimidated), de Funès held his own, and was noticed by a lot of people. Bonus point for the argument involving literal ham.
    • De Funés and Gabin were reunited in the movie Le Tatoué, and most of their interactions there are Ham-to-Ham Combat.
    • Not to forget many of his scenes alongside Michel Galabru, such as in The Miser, Jo, or especially the Gendarme series, where Cruchot and Gerber often compete with each other on who can ham it up the most (particularly in the last films).
  • Height Angst: De Funès was rather short (1.64m / 5'4½"), and thus a common gag for his characters is to be annoyed by taller people.
    • Notably in Delusions of Grandeur, where Don Salluste forces his valet Blaze (Yves Montant, who was 1.85m [close to 6'1"] tall) to kneel next to him while serving breakfast. Also, the other Spanish noblemen all tower above Don Salluste — the actors were deliberately chosen by the director to be as tall as possible, to make De Funès look even smaller in comparison.
    • In Jo, Antoine Brisebard has a special spot on his sofa that makes him look taller than people sitting next.
  • Hurt Foot Hop: A favorite slapstick move of his is to cause hopping following a foot-stomp, either as part of dirty fighting or as a "Be Quiet!" Nudge.
  • In-Series Nickname: His character (in Le Gendarme series and other movies) always nicknames his wife "Ma biche" (literally: "My doe", another word for "Honey").
  • Jerkass: Most of his characters are pretty obnoxious individuals.
  • Jerk with a Heart of Gold: In La Grande Vadrouille and The Mad Adventures of Rabbi Jacob. And approximately half of his roles.
  • Large Ham: The Patron Saint of this trope for French comedy.
  • Lovable Coward: In most of his roles, despite his grandstanding, he's prompt to cower when confronted with someone outranking or physically dominating him.
  • Mean Boss: Any of his characters in a position of power is invariably odious toward his subordinates. In his defense, several of the jobs he hold are in a very cutthroat environment like Restauration, Police, Corporate Business or Ballet.
  • Meddlesome Patrolman: Ludovic Cruchot from the National Gendarmerie as a Sergeant (Le Gendarme de Saint-Tropez). He is extremely passionate about his job and often tries to arrest people at the wrong place (nudist) or at the wrong time (higher-ups).
  • Milking the Giant Cow: His characters chew the scenery with moves too.
  • The Napoleon: Small, bossy and short-tempered: about all his characters.
  • Nervous Wreck: Again, most of his roles. He toned it down after his heart attack in 1975.
  • Paper-Thin Disguise: About any time his characters are disguised in a movie, it ends up being this trope. There's just no way his highly recognizable face, not to mention his Character Tics, could go unnoticed (especially when in drag), and yet other people are fooled. Rule of Funny in application, of course.
  • The Perfectionist:
    • Humor was, paradoxically, quite the Serious Business for De Funès. He couldn't stand that the timing for his gags was anything but perfect. It was in fact well-known, when he felt a shot was sub-par but about to be accepted by the director, that he would deliberately ruin it to force a re-shoot, to try again and give his best.
    • As mentionned in the Mean Boss entry, his characters are very controlling about their subordinates for an optimal performance.
  • Playing Against Type:
  • Prima Donna Director: Two of his most well-known characters are tyrannical perfectionists who direct theirs groups with an iron fist.
  • Production Posse: He frequently worked with directors such as Gérard Oury (4 movies) or Jean Girault (12 movies in total, including the six Gendarmes).
  • Professional Butt-Kisser: Many of his characters (especially Cruchot in Le Gendarme series) are prone to this with their superiors — while being odious to their underlings.
  • Saying Sound Effects Out Loud: Another part of his comedic routine, he often used it to hilarious effect.
  • The Scrooge: Every rich character he played was comedically stingy. The apex were Harpagon in The Miser (of course) and Don Salluste in Delusions of Grandeur. As a matter of fact, he was quite interested by "Pantaloon" characters from the Commedia dell'Arte who are powerful and wealthy but stingy, greedy, lecherous and petty.
  • Serious Business: Anytime he is cast as a Mean Boss in a artistic field (ranging from restauration and gastronomy to ballet and philarmonic orchestra), he will invariably have a perfectionist iron fist on his performers or subordinates.
  • Sleazy Politician:
    • Don Salluste, Marquess of Montalegre-Baron Del Pisco, Minister of Finances and Police under Charles II of Spain and tax collector (Delusions of Grandeur). Disgraced by the queen for allegedly fathering an illegitimate child, he plots his revenge by sending his handsome nephew and then his own valet in order to regain his wealth and power.
    • Guillaume Daubray-Lacaze , Mayor of a small town in France (La Zizanie). He coerces newlyweds into voting for him, abuse his authority and gloats about being unchallenged for his reelection.
  • Spotlight-Stealing Squad: Inevitable when he is cast in a supporting role. The most blatant case has to be his role as Commissioner Juve in the Fantômas trilogy, where Jean Marais (as Fandor and Fantômas) was supposed to be the lead.
  • Star-Making Role: De Funès's small role in The Trip Across Paris, facing big-stars Bourvil and Jean Gabin, is considered to be the beginning of his rise to stardom.
  • There Are No Good Executives: Although they are not his most famous roles, they are his most recurring ones: a wealthy and powerful but short-tempered , snobbish and greedy businessman.
  • Those Two Actors: De Funès was frequently paired with the same actors, even in unrelated films:
    • Notably, Robert Dhéry, Michel Galabru, Paul Préboist, Jean Lefèbvre and Maurice Risch as a Foil or Bumbling Sidekick. Sometimes, De Funès felt the need to have someone to comedically dialogue with in pictures where it wasn't in the script, phoned his good friend Galabru, and the latter came on set without even having been originally cast by the director.
    • Most specially, Claude Gensac played his wife in seven movies, including three times in Le Gendarme series. And she still had minor roles in three others — The Wing or the Thigh, The Miser and La Soupe aux choux.
    • His two highest-grossing movies (The Sucker and La Grande Vadrouille) were with another French comedy superstar, André Raimbourg, better known as Bourvil. (They also played together in La Traversée de Paris, where De Funès had a small role.) La Folie des grandeurs (Delusions of Grandeur) was planned to be their fourth together, but it was derailed by Bourvil's death. Yves Montand took his place after his wife Simone Signoret told Gérard Oury about him, and the whole story was rewritten to match differences between Montand and Bourvil.
    • After his memorable scene with Jean Gabin in La Traversée de Paris (1956), they were reunited in Le Gentleman d'Epson (1962) and Le Tatoué (1968), where they're an Odd Couple for the whole movie.
    • In both Jo and The Big Restaurant, he's facing Bernard Blier as a Sympathetic Inspector Antagonist (and Straight Man).
  • Throw It In!: De Funès was well-known for ad-libbing, especially when it came to physical comedy. On theater especially, he could make a mere walk-in role last longer and longer with every play by adding new gags. This often happened with movies too, naturally; just watch these 20 famous improvised scenes.
  • Typecasting: De Funès starred in dozens of comedy films and always played the same kind of role, or close to it. He never felt at ease in dramatic roles, and never sought to play one.
  • Ugly Guy, Hot Wife: Each time he was paired with Claude Gensac in a movie.
  • Unsympathetic Comedy Protagonist: Many of his roles were this; he kept the sympathy of the public by the amount of catastrophes befalling on him — and sometimes also learning An Aesop by the end of the movie. The best example has to be Victor Pivert in The Mad Adventures of Rabbi Jacob.
  • We Were Rehearsing a Play: Antoine Brisebard (Jo) is a famous playwright who has killed his blackmailer by complete accident. He tries to dispose of the body with his wife but often use this excuse when someone coming into their house is getting too suspicious.
  • What Could Have Been:
    • Louis de Funès was planned to take the role of Grand Vizier Iznogoud in a movie before his untimely death.
    • He was supposed to play a South American dictator in The Crocodile, directed once more by Gérard Oury. Two consecutive heart attacks prevented the filming.
    • He was also about to play in Papy fait de la Résistance when he died. His role went to one of his fellow comedians, Michel Galabru.

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