Follow TV Tropes


Comic Book / Wild CA Ts Wild Storm
aka: Wild CATS

Go To
The one and only WildC.A.T.s!

A comic book by WildStorm, later adapted to a Saturday Morning Cartoon for CBS by Nelvana. The characters debuted in WildC.A.T.s #1 (August, 1992). Their original title lasted for 50 issues (August, 1992-June, 1998), plus a couple of special issues. Vol. 2 lasted another 28 issues (March, 1999 - December, 2001). Wildcats Version 3.0'' lasted 24 issues (October, 2002 - October, 2004). Vol. 4 was an abortive effort, consisting of a single issue (December, 2006). There was some fanfare because said issue was written by Grant Morrison and drawn by Jim Lee, but the hectic work schedule of the famous creators led to an early demise for the project. Vol. 5 lasted 30 issues (September, 2008-February, 2011).

While the series has produced a number of popular characters over the years, its various spin-offs tend to be short-lived. In the 2011 Continuity Reboot of the various titles owned by DC, some of the featured characters of Wildcats were granted solo titles again while being integrated into the larger DC Universe, mostly Voodoo and Grifter having their own titles and the other members appears in diverse titles.


Several millennia ago, two ships crashed on Earth. The crew of one ship were Kherubims, the inhabitants of planet Khera, while the other belonged to the Daemonites from planet Daemon. During all this time, the Daemonites have been possessing human hosts and created the organisation known as the Cabal. Oppossed to them, some Kherubims and halfbreed Kherubim descendants form the Wild C.A.T.s (Covert Action Team).


This comic book series provides examples of:

  • Absurdly Sharp Blade: Nemesis' Creation Engine Blades can cut through pretty much anything, including Majestic's body. Warblade's claws are also extremely sharp.
  • Accidental Aiming Skills: The first time Halo accountant Edwin Dolby handles a gun on the shooting range, his hand's shaking and he fires with his eyes closed, but he still manages to hit the target's ten-ring. His almost accidental marksmanship skills lead Cole to recruit him for a mission.
  • Action Figure File Card: The toys had them.
  • Adaptational Villainy: Warblade was made a villain in the New 52 when Wildstorm merged with DC.
  • Adventurer Archaeologist: Savant.
  • After the End: When earth was annihilated in the Wildstorm universe, one of the few titles featured the team picking up after the mess.
  • Ancient Astronauts: It's implied that the Kherubim and Daemonites (note the names) are the inspirations for many Earth legends.
  • Animate Dead: During her time studying voodoo magic, Voodoo learned how to commune with and raise the dead (though the latter does leave her exhausted the first time she tries it).
    Voodoo: 'Voodoo' isn't just the name I danced under. It's who I am. [beat] Well, Defile? The dead of Los Angeles await your answer.
  • Artificial Human: Spartan.
  • Ascend to a Higher Plane of Existence: In volume 2, Lord Emp was becoming a High Kherubim Lord and wanted his arch-nemesis to kill him as part of the ascension process. His body had become shriveled and deformed, but he didn't care because he was about to transcend mortal concerns.
  • Bad Future: Alan Moore's Spawn/WildCATs miniseries is entirely based on this trope. Spawn and the WildCATs get thrown into the future where the world is ruled by a tyrannical super-sorcerer and most of our heroes are secretly fighting against him. The twist is that Spawn himself turns out to be the tyrant, having been given the idea by visiting this future in the first place. Our heroes manage to undo the bad future when Spawn finds out one of the resistance members is actually his ex-wife's daughter, who then she dies a moment later. Spawn promises to never let that happen, which undoes the timeline.
  • Beast and Beauty: Maul and Voodoo. They start out as Just Friends, with Voodoo ensuring that Maul remains a sane Gentle Giant. They do eventually get together at the end of volume 2.
  • Beethoven Was an Alien Spy: Several Kherubims and Daemonites have been historical characters. For example, Emp was Napoleon, and the Coda have inspired the myth of the Amazons.
  • Big Bad Ensemble: From the three Daemonite lords who were on the ship, the two survivors, Defile and Helspont, went separate ways and both have their own plans against mankind.
  • Bigger on the Inside: Savant's bag not only holds a wide variety of artifacts that would never fit a normal bag of that size, but, as revealed in the WildCATs: Savant Garde mini-series, it also contains entire rooms within it. Humans can enter the bag, but it tends to be pretty disorienting.
  • Body Backup Drive: Spartan can do this, thanks to being an android.
  • Brains and Bondage: The Beef Boys are never seen without their bondage gear; Cedric, in particular, is very intellectual.
  • Butterfly of Doom: Referenced when the WildCATs travel back in time and find themselves fighting a group of barbarians.
    Spartan: We are in an untenable situation. According to my calculations, to ultimately prevail we shall have to leave casualties among them.
    Grifter: And risk altering history? Isn't that braking Rule #1 of time travel?
  • Captain Ersatz: Some members of the original team had similarities to X-Men members:
    • Grifter is a Loveable Rogue in a Badass Longcoat like Gambit. His guns substitute for Gambit's throwing cards.
    • Spartan's general design and "stoic leader" attitude are similar to Cyclops.
    • Voodoo had a costume and powers similar to Jean Grey, plus an interest in the stoic leader, but a different personality.
    • Warblade is a Wolverine Wannabe, see below for more details.
    • Zealot was the "ninja" aspect of Psylocke, which turns her more into an ersatz of Elektra. Since her "Hand" equivalent, the Coda, were like Amazons, DC created Artemis, a Zealot ersatz, in Wonder Woman.
    • Majestic while a pretty blatant copy of Superman in ability, is more akin to Monet St. Croix / M both in power stocking and personality.
  • Captain Obvious: H.A.R.M. loves to point out the obvious, although it was probably hardcoded into his AI. When transformed into a hover-like craft: "Entering vehicle mode!". Get hit by a Wild CAT: "Damage!".
  • Cat Fight: Gender Inverted and Logical Extreme. When the Wildcats encounter Paris and the Kindred, Ladytron gets aroused by Grifter and Paris fighting, even though they're pretty much trying to kill each other.
    Ladytron (upon returning to find the fight's ended): Aw, damn it. I knew I'd miss the good part! Who won? Anyone get his clothes "accidentally" torn off?
  • Chaste Hero: Majestic. He finds the idea of having sex with a human unthinkable, and believes that entering into a sexual relationship of any kind would distract him from his war against the Daemonites. Then again, at one point Cole and his brother Max find themselves traveling back in time to the days of the Roman empire, and there they discover Majestic is in love with a human woman, to their surprise, so this might be that Majestic is Not So Above It All.
  • Chrome Champion: Void.
  • Civvie Spandex: Grifter has the longcoat, cargo pants, combat boots version, combined with a Cool Mask.
  • Cool Plane: The Wildcats have MIRV (Multi-Purpose Intercept/Reconnaissance Vehicle), a huge, hi-tech plane that was the team's secondary mode of transportation (Void usually just teleported them everywhere). MIRV was presumably mothballed off-panel, because it disappeared after Alan Moore's run ended, and wasn't seen again until a new version appeared early in volume 5.
  • Corporate-Sponsored Superhero: They've been sponsored by various sources in the past.
  • Counting Bullets: Cole confronts Dolby at a gun range, Dolby being there for target practice. Dolby threatens Cole with his revolver, but Cole counted Dolby's shots, and knew he was out of ammo. Cole doesn't even flinch when Dolby pulls the trigger, while Dolby himself is shaken by the fact that he just tried to kill someone.
  • Crimefighting with Cash: In the animated series, when the team itself was temporarily unavailable and with no evidence strong enough to bring the government in to stop the Daemonites, Marlowe crippled the villain's plan by figuring out what highway the enemies were going to have to travel down, buying it, and turning it into a toll road (somehow managing to do this in one night). When the Daemonite transport runs the tollbooth without paying, this provides him with the evidence he needs to bring the government down on them. He also figures about where the villain's trucks will run out of gas and buys all the fuel in the area, and has caltrops scattered on the road before buying all the truck tires. These actions insure that the government forces make it in time.
  • Crossover Punchline: When Voodoo and Spartan were vacationing, they were noticed by familiar-looking honeymooners named Scott and Jean. Helping the gag is the fact that Jim Lee drew X-Men for years.
  • Dark Age of Supernames: Warblade, Grifter, Maul, Zealot, etc.
    • Wild Covert Action Teams isn't too far from a dark supername either. Interestingly, the team name changes slightly throughout the first three volumes, which reflects how dated the name had become. Volume one had Wild Covert Action Teams, volume two had WildCATs, and volume three had WildCats.
  • Decoy Getaway: To recover the character of TAO, there was a retcon saying that the one who died really was shapeshifter Mr White.
  • Drowning My Sorrows: Grifter is prone to doing this. After he leaves the team (and basically loses his chance to get back together with Zealot) during the Wildstorm Rising event, the first thing Cole does is hole up in a hotel room with a bottle of cheap whiskey.
  • *Drool* Hello: Happens to Warblade during the WildCATs/Aliens crossover.
  • Duck Season, Rabbit Season: Used in a rather darker fashion in Alan Moore's run as Tao repeatedly switches positions in a debate with Fuji, leading to Fuji's being psychologically crippled.
  • Dumb Muscle: Maul actually gets dumber as he gets bigger. He once got so big he forgot how to return to normal size. He is a bizarre case: while his power is that he can swap brains for brawn, in his "normal" form he's a nobel laureate so, when he doesn't grow too much, he retains enough smarts to be more like a Genius Bruiser.
  • Eagleland: Type II. In many ways, the American government is the secondary antagonist of year two of Wildcats 3.0. The government's so threatened by Halo developing an alternative energy source that they actually put a hit out on Jack Marlowe.
  • The Empath: Nemesis. Also, Voodoo's psychic powers allow her to sense emotions, even without reading someone's mind.
  • Family Relationship Switcheroo: It was revealed that Zealot, who has looked out for her 'little sister' Savant since she was born, is actually Savant's mother (and that Majestic was her father).
  • Famous-Named Foreigner: Void's real name is Adrianna Tereshkova, just like Valentina Tereshkova, who was a cosmonaut (and the first woman to be sent to space) just like Adrianna before becoming Void.
  • Fantastic Ghetto: When the team visits Khera, it turns out the Kherubim-Daemonite war ended centuries ago everywhere except Earth. Khera is ruled by the wealthy and technologically advanced Kherubim while the planet's indigenous population, a race of Size Shifters from which Maul is descended, has been displaced into underground cities, and Daemonite civilians living on Khera are confined to a low-tech ghetto. Having one Daemonite ancestor is enough to get Voodoo, a Kherubim-human hybrid like her teammates, forced into the ghetto.
  • Fights Like a Normal: Grifter has psychic powers, but never uses themnote .
  • Flying Brick: Majestic.
  • Gambit Pileup: The whole episode 5 is this. the Daemonites fails to break into one of Halo's facility to steal an x-ray device, so they place a bug on an old friend of Grifter who's been released from prison. The Daemonites learn that the convict will breach Halo's facility in order to test its security. What the Daemonites don't know is that Jacob knows about the bug and has the WildCATs. waiting for the Daemonites, once the convict finished his break-in. However, the convict has been working for the Daemonites all along since they paid for his bail. He then steals the x-ray device and gives to the Daemonites. All this is rendered moot for Helspont, because Jacob swapped the x-ray device for an explosive before the convict made his breach.
  • Galactic Conqueror: The Kherubim are revealed to be a galactic conqueror race in the Majestic ongoing series. They actually destroyed their home planet and have been terraforming other planets to their liking and causing genocide and enslavement of its indigenous races ever since. Any races that they don't wipe out completely, they integrate into their society as second-class citizens or a servant race to be crammed into ghettos immediately or face death. Their new home planet of Khera is actually one of those planets with Titans and Daemonites serving as slave races until the Daemonites started a rebellion which kickstarted the Kherubim-Daemonite War.
  • Genius Bruiser: Maul is a Nobel Prize-winning scientist who gets dumber as he uses his powers to get larger and stronger. For a while, he was also able to make himself smarter by shrinking, but that turned out to have unwanted side effects.
  • Genre-Busting: The third volume. While it is technically a super-hero comic, there aren't many super-heroics, and the titular team isn't even assembled until the last story arc. It is also very philosophical, topics ranging from questioning if a corporation can be truly good, to how far people will go to maintain the status quo, or adapt to new situations.
  • Good-Guy Bar: Clark's; the Expy owner won't serve anyone until they show a secret ID.
  • Half-Human Hybrid: Team members Maul, Voodoo, and Warblade, and antagonist Pike.
  • Hooker with a Heart of Gold: Voodoo
  • Huge Guy, Tiny Girl: Maul and Voodoo.
  • Hulking Out: Maul has the power to grow in size and strength at the cost of intelligence. If seriously provoked he sometimes forgets himself and grows past the point where he can tell friend from foe.
  • Human Aliens: the Kherubins.
  • Human Alien Discovery: Voodoo was an exotic dancer saved by the Wild CATS who has the "gift" of knowing who was possessed by a Daemonite and who is not, also splitting the alien from the host. After joining the team and got in a coma by a bullet, she and his friends discovered the truth: she was a descendant of Daemonites with Kherubin roots.
  • I Have Many Names: Lord Emp has gone by Saul Baxter and Jacob Marlowe and, depending on how much one can trust his crazed rant from WildCATs Annual 1, Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • I Know You're Watching Me: In one issue, one of the heroes freaked out when the villain of the week looked him straight in the eye while being spied on (he was using long-range binoculars rather than the camera, but the effect is the same.)
  • Implacable Man: Vol 3. has Agent Orange. He's the successful surviving remnant of defunct superhuman operative program formed by the FBI with robotic-like determination and a number of powers that make him a human Terminator. Not to mention he never speaks.
  • In the Past, Everyone Will Be Famous: The WildCATs are sent back in time to 1917, and land smack-dab in the middle of occupied France during World War I. While there, they run into a young ambulance driver for the Red Cross named Ernest.
  • Is It Always Like This?: After watching Maul, a civilian says, "Wow, a guy just turned into a giant blue-skinned monster. You don't see things like this every day," to which another answers, "Tell me, you're new in the city."
  • Jerk with a Heart of Gold: Most of the cast. Majestic stands out.
  • Journey to the Center of the Mind: Void enters an "electronic enhancement" of Voodoo's mind to help her awaken from her Convenient Coma, discovering in the process that Voodoo has both Kherubim and Daemonite ancestors.
  • Knowledge Broker: CC Rendozzo is a particularly ruthless information broker. She's so good at her job, she says she probably knows more about Khera than even Jack Marlowe.
  • The Lad-ette: Agent Chandler of the FBI. Though her case presents a deconstruction of the trope by showing just how her masculine and aggressive tendencies have made her divorced from her husband because of her job, bitter, violent, desperate for shared moments of tenderness, and eventually suicidally insane after her partner, the only person she could actually form a relationship with, gets killed.
  • Legacy Character: The Wildcats' Backlash is Jodi Slayton, daughter of the original one
  • Look Behind You: The second ever issue ends with Maul bearing down on a Daemonite baddie. When the bad guy warns Maul that there's something behind him, Maul almost laughs. "Do I look that stupid?" Turns out that there really is something behind him — Youngblood. Badrock opines that, yeah, Maul does kind of look that stupid.
  • Mascot: Babytron, Halo's mascot, based on former team member Ladytron.
  • Magma Man: Slag from the Troika.
  • Manipulative Bastard: The first arc has the Gnome, who plays the C.A.T.s and the Cabal against each other to get the Orb. Alan Moore's run has TAO
  • Matriarchy: The Coda.
  • Meaningful Name: Pike seems to be a good codename to a villain carrying a baton or "pike" as his Weapon of Choice, but then we find his father's name is Daniel Pike, therefore "Pike" is the character's surname.
  • Mistaken for Gay: Ladytron thinks Warblade is gay, despite him denying it.
    Warblade: Wait, you think I'm—? Spartan, tell her about my girlfriends!
    Ladytron: Oh, come on. The costume? The ponytail? Being "artistic?" The world's ended, dude. Time to embrace who you are.
  • My Death Is Just the Beginning: Lord Emp needs to ditch his corporeal body in order to complete his ascension into an Energy Being, but the rules dictate that he can't do it himself. Because the process of ascending releases enough energy to incinerate the killer, Emp tries to trick his long-time nemesis into killing him, thereby killing two birds with one stone. However, it turns out the nemesis is apparently so obsessively attached to their ongoing rivalry that, unable to accept the situation, he kills himself instead, so Emp moves on to plan B, getting the Nigh-Invulnerable Spartan to do the deed instead.
  • Mystical White Hair: Zealot.
  • Names to Run Away from Really Fast: The Daemonites are good with this. Also, Troika members H.A.R.M. and Slag.
  • Non-Action Guy: Dolby, suffering from some trauma as a result of his ill-fated first and only mission as Grifter, asks to go along with Cole in his attempt to rescue Zealot, thinking it might get it out of his system. Dolby's only condition is that he won't carry a gun or take part in any of the fighting.
  • No Such Thing as Space Jesus: The Kherumbim inspired many of Earth's myths and legends. Nemesis' appearance and exploits are attributed to Greek goddess Nemesis, while Promethos, the bad guy from the Zealot mini-series, inspired the myth of Prometheus.
  • Oddly Small Organization: During the first volume, it seemed like the entire Halo corporate empire was made up of Jacob and his assistants Jules and Stanfield.
  • One-Hit Kill: Grifter pulls this off masterfully against CC Rendozzo's goons in Wildcats 3.0 #3, taking them out in seconds, one after the other, with perfect headshots.
    Grifter: Lesson number one... an assload of goons doesn't mean shit. Just means more bodies to bury.
  • Pardon My Klingon: Javin, the Shaper's Guild leader, constantly says "Shape my thoughts" to his underlings, that being presumably a common expression amongst guild members.
  • Pay Evil unto Evil: Jack Marlowe (Spartan), tends to be more than willing to give someone a second chance (maybe a little too willing, at times). Starting with Volume 2, however, Jack has no problem executing people who he considers truly evil, like when he confronted the government assassin known only as "Nameless".
    Nameless: Wait a second... please... no...
    Jack Marlowe: "Please...?" Interesting. Tell me something... the children you murdered... did they beg? For the future they will never see... I act on their behalf.
  • Poisonous Person: Instead of blood, Agent Orange has dioxin (a highly toxic substance found in the defoliant used by the U.S. military during the Vietnam War from which the agent takes his name) flowing through his veins. Luckily, since Agent Orange has been known to take concussion grenades point blank like they were nothing, it usually takes something major to break his skin.
  • Post Cyber Punk: 3.0. A huge Mega-Corp answerable to none buying out entire conglomerates, technological advances leading to social upheaval, and ineffective governments looking out for their own economic interests. All the elements of a Cyberpunk world, but with a twist; the Mega-Corp is entirely altruistic. Interestingly, most of the characters are Genre Savvy enough to be very aware of the implications. Even the two people who know the Mega-Corp best wonder if a Mega-Corp can actually be anything but malicious.
  • Power Perversion Potential: Agent Wax. He uses his mind control powers to rape his boss Agent Downs' wife Miriam, force Agent Downs to kill himself after he tried to murder Wax and Miriam, and then took over Downs' identity.
  • Pre Ass Kicking One Liner: Majestic is great at these.
    Majestic: "This is your last moment. Try, for once in your life, to look it in the eye."
  • Puppeteer Parasite: The Daemonites.
  • Putting the Band Back Together: Sometime after the first Wildcats ongoing ended, the team broke up, so, in WildCATs/Aliens, Grifter and Void discover an alien threat in Skywatch (Stormwatch headquarters) and have to convince their old teammates to get back together and deal with the threat.
  • Reed Richards Is Useless: Averted. In Wildcats 3.0, Spartan sought to use the advanced extra-terrestrial technology that belonged to his creators to change the world. The limitless batteries alone caused quite a stir.
  • Relocating the Explosion: Majestic does this when Tao removes Ladytron's cooling tubes and the small nuclear reactor that powers her goes into meltdown. Majestic has to slice Ladytron in half, taking her lower half with him into space, which he manages to do right before it explodes. Majestic emerges pretty much mostly unharmed from the explosion.
  • The Remnant: Happened to both sides. The Khreubim/Daemonite war has been over for a long time, with the Daemonites falling to the Kherubim and effectively being subjugated. Unfortunately, neither side bothered to send an envoy to Earth, so the war continued to rage here for centuries.
  • Replacement Goldfish: When most of the first team is presumed dead, Savant and Majestic attempt to put together a new team, including Grifter's younger brother.
  • Robosexual: Voodoo when it comes to her relationship with Spartan/Jack Marlowe. She's a half-breed stripper from Florida and he's an alien android construct. Their relationship could be a homage to the relationship between the Vision and Scarlet Witch from Marvel due to Jack's continuous doubt of his humanity and Voodoo's continuous reassurance of him being the man she loves.
  • Robotic Psychopathic Womanchild: Ladytron is basically the world's most annoying teenage girl with robotic death cannons installed.
  • Rule #1: In an issue of Alan Moore's run, one of the Mercs says: "Rule number 1: Don't @#$%& us. There's no rule number 2."
  • Shapeshifter Guilt Trip: Rare heroic example. When the team was fighting Lord Entropy, an impossibly powerful madman who wanted to take revenge on Lord Emp from killing his wife, Voodoo used her illusion to look like Entropy's wife. Entropy was so confused that Emp has enough time to prepare to wipe the floor with him.
  • Shapeshifter Weapon: Warblade and the members of the Shaper's Guild. At one point, Warblade even becomes a weapon, turning into a huge sword so his friend Maul, in his giant form, can wield it against Lord Defile.
  • Skull for a Head: Helspont has a flaming horned skull for a head due to his possession of an Acuran host.
  • Stab the Scorpion: When the Black Razor Benito Santini is about to shoot shapeshifter Mr White, who is disguised as one of the WildCATs, it seems he's going to shoot Grifter, but he shoots Maul instead, who is behind him.
    Ben Santini: Grifter... get down!
  • Super Zeroes: Voodoo, whose ability to spot people possessed by the evil aliens was actually pretty useful, but countered by her lack of the most basic combat skills. Zealot gave her some Coda training to change this.
  • Talking Through Technique: According to the "Hawaii 2.0" arc, the Coda have a martial art that doubles as a language. Zealot and Nemesis use it to talk past an immortal madman with microscopic vision and superhearing.
  • Time-Passage Beard: Grifter has some light stubble when he makes his cameo in the Number of the Beast mini-series, that scene being set right after the Armageddon event. At the start of Wildcats volume 5, set some time later, he's now got a full beard.
  • Too Dumb to Fool: Tao (the Tactical Augmented Organism) is the ultimate manipulator, capable of bending anyone to his will with time. However, when he tries his tricks on Ladytron, they simply don't work. She spells it out for him: He can influence the way rational people think, but she's a violent, stupid criminal — anything but rational. It's then immediately subverted when he switches tactics and uses effective emotional manipulation on her just long enough to take her out.
  • Two Girls to a Team: Played Straight and Subverted at different times. While the first incarnation of the team, as well as the post-Armageddon one are pretty much evenly split between guys and girls, Savant and Majestic's team only has two: Savant herself and Ladytron. Savant even hangs a lampshade on it at one point.
    Savant: I wouldn't mind it if this banding-together-to-fight-evil routine wasn't so old. There's always three well-known previous loners, a giant guy and two bimbos that nobody's heard of.
  • Weaponized Teleportation: After he gains Void's powers, this becomes Jack Marlowe's go-to move.
  • Withholding the Cure: TAO claims to have the cures for AIDS and all forms of cancer, as well as a genetic patent on a strain of corn that will end world hunger forever. He uses these as bargaining chips when he gets in trouble. Majestic doesn't care.
  • Wolverine Publicity: Wildstorm tried to pull this off with Grifter and Zealot, by having them make as many guest appearances as possible.
  • Wolverine Wannabe:
    • Warblade, a Half-Human Hybrid of human and Kherubin who has the ability of growing metal claws from his hands at will, making him more as a Gender Bender version of Marvel's Lady Deathstrike. Warblade also is one of the more savage members of the team when fighting, also having previous knowledge of martial arts before the discovery of his powers.
    • Grifter is another rip-off but without the claws, apart of that has many of the traits of Logan: he was a former military in Team 7 and part of the unwilling experiment of radiation to becoming a Human Weapon. Like most of his partners of the Team 7, he rebelled against their bosses and deserted to get a career as a superhero by his own, joining to the WildCATS. He has an advanced Healing Factor, in one time he was the "Betty" in the Love Triangle between the amazon Zealot and The Hero Spartan, and has the Wolverine Publicity for the WildStorm publisher.
  • Yawn and Reach: In the WildCATs Special, Cole tries to pull this on Pris, but she shuts him down on the spot.
    Pris: Uh-huh, another gesture like that will cost you in teeth.

Alternative Title(s): Wild CATS


How well does it match the trope?

Example of:


Media sources: