- Historical Villain Upgrade: OTL Turkey, love it or hate it, clearly avoided joining Hitlerite militarism, and many nationalist top members helped Jews escape the Holocaust and helped the Allies, and the government sent aid to Italian occupied Greece. Turkey in TNO joined the Axis after the British were kicked out of Africa, leading to an influx of National Socialist ideas into Turkey and a subsequent far-right coup.
- Rising Empire: Turkey's expansionist policies target all their neighbors, especially the Italian Levant, resulting in tension with Italy.
- Shout-Out: Burgundy refers to Turks as "cockroaches" and their army as "Black Bull" in their focus tree which is a shoutout to 4chan's /pol/ board referring to Turks (and vice versa) as such.
- State Sec: The Grey Wolves are a paramilitary group that regularly raids disloyal minority groups in order to terrify them into behaving.
- Genghis Gambit: When the Turkish economy stagnated after the Mediterranean was drained, in order to hold on to power, Türkeş doubled down on the rhetoric of nationalism and pan-Turkism, painting the Italian Levant as a target for expansionism.
- Military Coup: The current Turkish political state dates to 1942, when Colonel Alparslan Türkeş led his fellow right-wing officers in a coup that ousted President İsmet İnönü.
- A Nazi by Any Other Name: The strain of Kemalism promoted by Türkeş was heavily inspired by German National Socialism (enslaving Armenians and Kurds to rebuild trade ports as seas recede inlands and organizing terror raids to Kurdish villages using Grey Wolves similar to SS), but direct association with the NSDAP ended after Turkey turned against the Reich.
The Italian colonial governorate in the Levant, encompassing Palestine, Lebanon, Southern Syria, the Sinai Peninsula, and the the Emirate of Transjordan, the last of which is effectively an Italian vassal state.
- Allohistorical Allusion: In spite of the Nazi victory, Arab-Israeli conflicts are still happening in the Levant. As Italy took in a lot of Jews during the German-Italian split, Zionism still exists in TNO, and the Italian colonial government struggles to manage the Jews and the Arabs in the Levant, who are at each other's throats, just as in real life.
- Balkanize Me: If Italy defeats Turkey and the Jerusalem Conference ends in success, the Italian Levant can be partitioned between independent Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, Jordan, South Syria, and the neutral city of Jerusalem, with Sinai handed over to Egypt.
- Black-and-Grey Morality: Most factions in the Levant are various shades of grey, except the unambiguously evil Lehi and PLF-GC.
- Earn Your Happy Ending: It is possible for both the Israelis and Palestinians to peacefully get their own states in the Levant, but both will have to successfully negotiate with the Italians, which will certainly involve plenty of tough compromises and dealing with the radicals of their respective nations.
- Elite Army: The armed forces of the Italian Levant are composed of the finest veterans of the Italian sphere, who are accustomed to fighting in the Middle East thanks to the constant rebellions launched by both Zionists and Arab nationalists.
- The Federation: One of the possible outcomes of a successful Jerusalem Conference is the transformation of the Governorate of the Levant into the Levantine Confederation, a country for Jews and Arabs alike.
- Mêlée à Trois: The political battlefield of Italian Palestine is divided between the Jews, Arabs, and Italians. There are numerous paramilitaries of various ideologies, both Jewish and Arab. The most prominent moderate groups are the Jewish Haganah and Palestinian Fatah, both of whom are more willing to negotiate with the Italians; they don't get along with each other well, however. There are also more radical groups, like the Revisionist Zionist Irgun and the predominately leftist Arab Nationalist Movement. They see negotiation with the Italians as pointless, and mostly try to gain independence through violence and terrorism. Needless to say, they aren't very fond of each other, either.
- Peace Conference: The Jerusalem Conference, a major event in the storyline of Italian Levant, is a conference between Italians and the moderate Arab and Jewish groups, aiming to decolonize and possibly partition the Levant. There are many possible outcomes to the Jerusalem Conference, including different partition plans (with good or bad borders), the possibility of creating a democratic multicultural Levantine Confederation, and the possiblity of failing to reach a solution at all and the Italians deciding to just hand everything over to the Emir of Transjordan or the Jewish Resistance Movement. It might also not happen at all should Italian Levant fall into chaos.
- Your Terrorists Are Our Freedom Fighters: Jewish and Arab paramilitaries are seen by their respective peoples as liberators against the Italian occupiers, while the Italians and the people opposing them see them as terrorists.
Carlo Alberto dalla Chiesa
The Governor-General of the Italian Levant, dalla Chiesa was a Carabinieri general and WW2 veteran whose skill in pacifying terrorism in the Levant led to his promotion to Governor-General. Even though his actions have suppressed radical activity in the Levant and brokered a truce between more moderate groups, dalla Chiesa understands that the Governorate won't last, and a more permanent agreement has to be found.
- Cincinnatus: Dalla Chiesa doesn't think that the Italian Levant will last, and wants to hand over power to the locals eventually.
- Genghis Gambit: During the Italo-Turkish War, dalla Chiesa tries to instill the idea that Jews and Arabs may effectively work together to defend their homeland, in order to bridge their mutual distrust and hatred.
Hussein ibn Talal
Huseein is the Emir of Transjordan, and a close ally to Italy in the Levant. His loyalty granted Transjordan significant autonomy in the Governorate, and Italy places great trust in Hussein's loyalty. Beneath the surface of turst however, Hussein has been using his vast Italian wealth to secretly fund the fedayeen group Fatah, causing some issues for Italy.
Should the Italians achieve hegemony over the Middle East after winning the Second Italo-Turkish War, they may see fit to award their whole Governorate to Hussein, as only an Arab king can keep the region stable in the long run.
- Offered the Crown: Hussein might be crowned by the Italians as King of the Levant after they defeat Turkey, if they view an Arab king as the solution to stabilise the region in the long term.
- Playing Both Sides: Hussein makes himself as a close ally of Italy and reaps the benefits of collaboration, while also secretly funding Fatah to undermine the Italians.
- Evil Colonialist: If Italy loses the Second Italo-Turkish War, leading to the assassination of Governor dalla Chiesa, Francesco Colombo will replace him and then violently crack down on either the Arabs or the Jews.
- Failure Is the Only Option: Colombo's brutal crackdowns on the Jews and Arabs in order to keep the Levant under Italian rule could only further radicalise both populations before Rome forces him to pull out, leaving a militant group to take charge of the Levant.
Yitzhak Rabin is the leader of Haganah, the largest Jewish militia in the Middle East. Rabin is both a militant defender and an open-minded compromiser. He is willing to negotiate with the Italians and the Arabs to bring peace to the Middle East, and he is also willing to use force to defend the Jews if their safety is being threatened again.
- 100% Adoration Rating: If the Jerusalem Conference succeeds, Rabin becomes regarded as the father of the Israeli nation and the great compromiser who brought peace to the Middle East and ensured that there would be no war between Israel and Palestine; to state that he is popular would be an understatement.
Yisrael Galili is a prominent member of the Haganah, and an advocate for both active struggle against the Italian fascists and unity among the Jewish groups for a united Jewish front.
Should the Italians find themselves unable to manage the communist Harakiyyin, they may choose to seek the help of the Jewish Resistance Movement united under Galili to pacify the Levant.
- Enemy Mine:
- Galili and the Jewish Resistance Movement are appointed by the Italians to lead the Levant when the communist Arab nationalist group Harakiyyin gains traction and threatens to turn the Levant red.
- The Jewish Resistance Movement itself is a ramshackle alliance formed from a dozen different Zionist militias, including the rival Haganah and Irgun. They are united by their opposition to the communist Harakiyyin.
Menachem Begin is the leader of Irgun, a Revisionist Zionist paramilitary with an unwavering resolve to topple the Italian occupation and create a nation for the Jewish people. Their rebellions helped to drive out the British from the Middle East, and their resistance continued when the Italians came and replaced the British. Irgun and Begin will never collaborate with their enemies, and will resist to the end, until Israel is liberated.
- Rebel Leader: Begin leads the Irgun, a Jewish nationalist paramilitary that actively fights back against Italian (and earlier, British) rule in the Levant in order to create a Jewish nation. They managed to assassinate the previous Italian Governor-General Rodolfo Graziani.
- Won the War, Lost the Peace: If the Irgun overthrows the Italian occupation, they will find themselves creating a minority government on large swathes of majority-Arab lands, who bitterly resist their rule.
- Your Terrorists Are Our Freedom Fighters: The Irgun, who seeks to kick the Italians out of the Levant and build a Jewish nation, is seen as a terrorist organisation by the Italian colonial administration.
Avraham Stern leads Lehi, a Zionist group with an extremist vision for a pure and beautiful Israeli nation. For many years, Stern and his fighters fought their own cruel and bloody war against their enemies, but their influence remained fringe and minor. However, should disaster strike and radicalize the Jewish people to share Lehi's vision, Lehi's dreams may be turned into a reality. Israel shall become a great nation for Jews and Jews only.
- Became Their Own Antithesis: Is willing to build a Jewish state using German methods, despite the Nazis' genocidal intentions towards the Jews. As commenters have pointed out, this represents nothing less than the final victory of Nazi ideology over the Jewish people: corrupting and assimilating them to accept their cruel logic of racial superiority through violence and genocide.
- Dark Horse Victory: Lehi coming to power is easily the worst possible outcome for the Israel-Palestine conflict in TNO as well as the least likely, as it's contingent on Italy bungling the situation as badly as possible.
- From Nobody to Nightmare: Lehi is a fringe group at game start, and only comes to prominence if the Italians lose the Second Italo-Turkish War and plunge Italian Middle East into a state of chaos.
- Historical Villain Upgrade: Stern was already a deeply unsavory figure in real life, having been a fascist terrorist whose group was responsible for numerous bombings and murders, with their victims including Walter Guinness, the British minister of the middle east, and Folke Bernadotte, a Swedish diplomat who'd negotiated the release of thousands of Jewish concentration camp prisoners during the war. In this timeline, Stern has become a quasi national socialist dictator who intends to implement his own "final solution" against the Arabs.
- Horrible Judge of Character: Stern considered Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy as a possible ally against the British, despite being aware of the ongoing Holocaust.
- Master Race: Stern believes in a master race like the Nazis, but instead of the Nordic Aryans that the Germans believe in, Stern believes that the Jews are the master race of the world, and that they've been chosen by God to reclaim the Holy Land.
- A Nazi by Any Other Name: Inspired by Nazi Germany, Stern is fanatically and violently dedicated towards building a pure Jewish ethnostate, and believes that his people are the master race of the world. In the game, his ideology is classified as National Socialism.
- Non-Indicative Name: Lehi's Israel is known as the "Kingdom of Israel", but it's not a royalist monarchy and is instead a fascist dictatorship. Their use of the name is apparently to invoke the old Kingdom of Israel and symbolize its rebirth.
- Politically Incorrect Villain: He seeks to create a purely Jewish state and remove all non-Jews from Israel.
Yasser Arafat is a prominent leader of the Palestinian struggles, and one of the many founders of Fatah, a fedayeen group that campaigns for a democratic Palestine. Being one of the few Arab leaders in the Levant willing to negotiate with Italy, Arafat will both talk and fight his way to create a free Palestine.
- Being Good Sucks: If the two-state solution is reached, Arafat's willingness to negotiate with Italy and Israel and his reformist policies create many enemies for his democratic government, including the reactionary supporters of Hussein ibn Talal and the radicals who view Arafat as a traitor to the cause of Arab nationalism by tolerating Israel's existence.
- Realpolitik: Arafat is willing to negotiate with the Italians and the Jews to create an independent democratic Palestine, even though he gets accused of selling out to the fascists and the Zionists as a result.
- Retcon: In an older dev diary, Arafat was the leader of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party in Iraq, and is ideologically A Nazi by Any Other Name. He is now the Social Democrat leader for Palestine following a successful Jerusalem Conference.
George Habash leads the Arab Nationalist Movement (also known as Harakiyyin), a coalition of left wing nationalist groups in the Levant that refused to negotiate with the Italians and the Zionists. A Marxist and a Christian, Habash aims to create a secular socialist republic in the Levant free of fascism and imperialism. The revolution will be difficult, but Habash will not stop until it is achieved.
- Rebel Leader: George Habash leads a left-wing Arab nationalist front that wages a guerrilla war against the Italian authorities in the Levant.
Ahmed Jibril commands the Palestinian Liberation Front - General Command, an Arab nationalist organization that seeks to liberate Palestine by any means necessary. His aims are resolute and uncompromised, and his methods are ruthless and horrific. While his forces are small for now, should the Arabs embrace his leadership after the Italians show their true colors, then he will have a chance to achieve the true liberation of Palestine.
- From Nobody to Nightmare: Ahmed Jibril's PLF-GC is a fringe group at game start, not even being mentioned in the starting national spirits. But if the Italians lose the Second Italo-Turkish War and cause the Levant to descend into violence, many Arabs will radicalize and join Jibril's extremist group, giving him a chance to take over all of the Levant and declare the ultranationalist Palestinian Arab State.
- Knight Templar: Jibril sees himself as the only leader fit to lead the Arabs against the Italian and Jewish imperialists, and he believes that no price is too great for the liberation of Palestine.
- Middle Eastern Terrorists: Ahmed Jibril leads a militant organization that can be unambiguously described as a terrorist organization, and uses terrorism to achieve his goals of liberating Palestine.
- Young and in Charge: Jibril was born in 1938, making him 24 by 1962 and around 25 by the time he takes power as leader of the Palestinian Arab State.
Italy's corpus separatum in the holy city of Jerusalem, created following a successful Jerusalem Conference that partitioned the Governorate.
- The Neutral Zone: If the Jerusalem Conference succeeds, Jerusalem becomes a neutral area between Israel and Palestine, garrisoned by Italian troops and administered by a council elected from all religious and ethnic communities who live in the city.
Umberto La Rocca
- Reconcile the Bitter Foes: La Rocca is appointed to lead Jerusalem and ensure that Palestine and Israel remain at peace.
- Allohistorical Allusion: There was a 14 July Revolution in Iraq in real life; the revolution in real life overthrew the pro-western Hashemite monarchy, while the revolution in-game overthrew the pro-Axis Golden Square Party.
- The Revolution Will Not Be Civilized: Iraq was originally ruled by the authoritarian pro-Axis Golden Square Party, but a revolution broke out on July 14th, 1958, toppling the GSP. However, the revolution soon collapsed into anarchy, as the rebels of all different kinds of ideologies turned on each other. It took Qasim launching a coup and creating his own government to put things back on track again.
- Revolving Door Revolution: The pro-Axis Golden Square Party, in real life and in TNO, took power by ousting the pro-British monarchy. In TNO, they were later overthrown in the 14 July Revolution, putting Qasim's authoritarian democracy in charge. It is heavily implied that the political instability in Iraq will result in Qasim getting ousted himself, and replaced with the Islamists or the Ba'athists (the latter of which happened in real life).
Abd Al-Karim Qasim
- Internal Reformist: Qasim pushes reformist policies, including land reform, social reform and education campaigns, in order to bring Iraq to the modern age.
- Military Coup: General Qasim came into power by launching a military coup which put an end to the anarchy that followed the 14 July Revolution.
- Realpolitik: Qasim is both a leader of the July 14th revolution, and a man with close ties with the Italians. He negotiated a deal with Italy to maintain Iraq's independence while allowing Italian influence, all so he can calm the country down and modernize it without the Italians straight up taking it over.
Saud bin Abdulaziz
- Abdicate the Throne: Just like in real life, in 1964, King Saud is forced to abdicate, leaving the throne to his younger brother Faisal.
- Internal Reformist: In the chaos of the 1940s and 1950s, King Saud did his level best to continue with the reforms he had put into place in education and infrastructure, bringing Saudi Arabia into the modern world.
Ahmad bin Yahya
- King on His Deathbed: The Imam of Yemen is growing old. His mind grows ever more feeble thanks to his endless use of morphine, and he no longer remembers the names of his subjects. A few are already sounding alarms about how little prepared Yemen is for a future without the firm hand of its ruler.
- Rage Within the Machine: Under the British, the Imam of Yemen swore loyalty and friendship to the empire even as he worked to undermine it. Under Italy, he is much the same.
Said bin Taimur
The Italian governorate in the Persian Gulf, encompassing Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and the Trucial States, established following the Second Italo-Turkish War.
Governor of the Gulf if Italy loses the Second Italo-Turkish War.
Governor of the Gulf if Italy wins the Second Italo-Turkish War.
- Plot-Triggering Death: Mattei's death is one of the contributing factors to the Oil Crisis.
- Retcon: In the diary dedicated to the Italian colonies, Mattei was initially portrayed as an Evil Colonialist governor of Italian East Africa (which was a very liberal interpretation of the real Mattei). As development went on, Mattei instead became a potential governor of the Italian Gulf after an Italian victory in the Italo-Turkish war, ruling his domain in a far more reasonable manner.
- Outside-Context Problem: Dasgupta is the leader of Indian socialist revolutionaries in the Italian Gulf, who can launch a revolution and turn the Gulf red. Though the setup may sound ridiculous, the actual situation makes a lot more sense; the Indians were immigrants who came from India to work in the Gulf.
- Allohistorical Allusion: In this timeline, the coup that ousted Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in 1953 happened exactly like it did in real life, in response to Mosaddegh nationalising the same oil company controlled by a foreign superpower. The difference is that unlike in real life, the instigator of the coup was Germany instead of the USA and the UK, as they took control over the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and renamed it to the Deutsche-Ölgesellschaft after their victory in World War II.
- A Child Shall Lead Them: The Shah's eldest son Crown Prince Reza is only a child when his father is assassinated, forcing his mother to serve as regent and lead the Imperial State of Iran as civil war erupts.
- Civil War: Iran will inevitably descend into a multi-sided civil war between the Pahlavi monarchy and a coalition of its many enemies within the nation: constitutional monarchists, Islamists, US-backed republicans, communists and Balochi nationalists. Once the Pahlavis are deposed, the revolutionary alliance collapses and its members start fighting each other (except the Balochis, who simply peace out).
- Regime Change: In 1953, in response to Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh nationalising the Deutsche-Ölgesellschaft, Germany orchestrated a coup that ousted him and empowered the Shah as a pro-German puppet.
Mohammed Reza Pahlavi
- And There Was Much Rejoicing: News of the Shah's death leads to celebration across Iran, as his so-called White Revolution reforms have turned much of the nation against him.
- Plot-Triggering Death: The Shah's assassination leads to unrest across Iran and the military stepping in to put down rioting in several major cities, which eventually escalates to a full-blown civil war.
- Puppet King: The Shah was greatly empowered to lead a pro-German regime in Iran after Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh was overthrown.
- The Theocracy: The Islamic Republic of Iran, as its name would indicate, is ruled by Imam Ruhollah Khomeini according to the law of God.