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As has been stated on the main page, Slavic mythology is still unclear to a large extent. Since we lack sources, a big part of it — pretty much the whole part about the relations between the gods — had to be reconstructed. Don't treat what is written here as a reliable source; it is perhaps closer to a quick round-up of the mythology as it is generally considered to have been, or a list of tropes one might expect of fictional appearances of the Slavic deities, together with explanations, put together for your convenience. For actual reliability, much more research would need to be done.

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Major deities

The gods and goddesses described here are considered to have been the most important in Slavic pantheon, or at least the characteristic ones. Fiction (at least the up-to-date) striving to show its work in depiction of Slavic mythology will probably attempt to include some of them.

    Perun 
The thunder god (his name literally means "lightning"), locked in constant fight with his nemesis (and antithesis), Veles. He was associated with sky, fire, wind, and lightning, and his attributes included axes (preferably stone), carts, and oak tree. He has also been depicted as a man with gold hair and/or copper beard, riding a cart, and carrying an axe, a hammer or a bow. Perun is considered to have been the chief god of the Slavic pantheon, as traces of him are quite common in Slavic folklore, and he fits well the pattern of dominant sky deities. In Slavic creation myths, creation of the world is usually attributed to him.

In comparative mythology, Perun is a descendant of proto-Indo-European Perkwunos and a brother to figures such as Thor (mighty bearded thunderer), Zeus (supreme ruler of the sky) or Lithuanian god Perkūnas (notice the almost unchanged name). It also appears that the Nordic rulers of Novgorod and Kiev embraced him as an equivalent of Thor, or perhaps Odin. In the syncretic Dvoyeveriye cults of Old Russia, he was worshipped as Elijah the Prophet.

  • Oh My Gods!: Rus nobles swore by him, and even today, many Slavs use varieties of his name as an expletive.
  • Top God: The best contender for this position, recorded by Byzantine writer Procopius of Cesarea as the only god of the Slavs, and appearing in pretty much all of Slavdom.
  • War God: He's possibly the purest case; his domains tend to be the most martial of the whole pantheon, and warriors of the Rurikids saw him as their patron. But keep in mind that such ostensibly non-martial deities as Yarilo have also been known as war gods.

    Veles 
Perun was a "dry" sky god, Veles was a serpentine, cthonic, "wet" ruler of earth and water, slithering around to hide from Perun's thunderbolts. The patron of cattle — his name is related to the Slavic words for oxen or hair, which is not as ridiculous as it sounds, as ancient breeds of cattle were pretty wooly. Thus, he is thought to have been depicted as hairy and horned, and possibly partially serpentine. He rules over the underworld, is a patron of magic and music, and as a lord of cattle he is also the giver of wealth. Perhaps because of this, he is considered a common man's god.

Thought to be a descendant of PIE snake deity Welnos, and may be likened to Germanic Loki, the Vanir or even Jörmungandr. In the syncretic Dvoyeveriye cults of Old Russia, he was worshipped as Saint Blaise.

  • Arcadia: How the underworld, Nav, was depicted. This name occasionally served as an alternate name of Veles.
  • Composite Character: Some researchers believe that his patronage over cattle came from an unrelated Byzantine saint of accidentally similar name, St. Vlas (Blaise), whose name Veles assumed in the later syncretic cults (dvoyeveriye).

    Svarog, Svarozic & Dazbog 
A trio of gods who clearly were important deities, as they crop up in various parts of Slavdom. However, their relation to each other is difficult to pin down: does "Svarozic" mean "son of Svarog", or is it merely a diminutive, alternate version of the name?

To solve this conundrum, several theories have been proposed. One of them posits that Svarog is the fire god, and the father to both Svarozic and Dazbog. Another, that there are only two gods, Svarog the sky god, and his son Dazbog the god of fire, Svarozic being an alternate name for one or another.

Svarog himself is mentioned in only one source, where he is the equivalent of Hephaestus. But he is also a contender for the title of the top Slavic god. Dazbog is generally considered a sun god, although according to some, Dazbog had a dual nature as both the diurnal god of the sun and nocturnal protector of the underworld. Svarozic, interestingly enough, is sometimes considered to have been identified with Perun. It seems that regional preferences might have been of matter.

In comparative mythology, analogies are drawn to the proto-Indo-European sky god Dyaeus Pater, a predecessor of figures such as Zeus and Jove; as well as to Hephaestus and other mythical smiths. In the Dvoyeveriye cults, Svarog and Svarogic turned into St.Cosmas and St.Damian (Kuzma i Demyan).

  • Genius Cripple: Some of the folk tales depict Svarozic/Dazbog as lame, which draws interesting parallels with all the rest of the lame smithing gods.
  • Light 'em Up: Svarog literally means "shining god"/"light god". A massive debate about whereas these are solar, lunar or day deities is fueled by their unambiguous connections with light.
  • Lunacy: The moon might have also been Dazbog's area of competence.
  • Playing with Fire: Essentially, the whole trio represents different aspects of fire and heat.
  • The Power of the Sun: If not for Dazbog, it would have been assumed the Slavs had a female solar deity, as much (ie. comparisons to neighbouring peoples) points to that. Go figure. A different possibility is that they were day deities (which are not the same as solar deities, and can co-exist with them, such as Dagr and Sól), something implied by Svarog's possible connections to the proto-indo-european Dyeus Phter, the god of the daylit sky.
  • Top God: Svarog is a contender for this position. His claim is weaker than Perun's, but he seems to be more popular in fiction.
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    Yarilo 
The Slavic patron of the harvest, vegetation, and fertility. The name, in the form of Yarovit, appears only in one written source, but is much more common in folklore. It has been reconstructed that he is one of the life-death-rebirth gods, whose life and death symbolise changing seasons. In this version, he's the son of Perun, abducted by Veles, where he herded his stepfather's cattle. He returned in the spring, bringing new life with him, married his sister Morana on the day of summer solstice, and restored peace between Veles's and Perun's domains, but in the autumn he died together with the reaped wheat — by hand of his wife, whom he wronged, and who in rage and despair brought in the winter. He was probably depicted as riding a horse. As some sources compare him to Mars, his patronage of farming might have gone hand in hand with patronage over warring.

  • Cool Horse: There were temples dedicated to him, where black horses made prophecies by walking over rows of spears.

    Morana 
The goddess of death and winter, and also nightmares, although some researchers hold her to have been on a sub-deity level, as some kind of demonic being. Reconstructions, whether the one described above or others, generally consider her a part of a duo, the other being a deity of life and/or spring.

In comparative mythology she's close to Hecate, but has also been likened to Ceres.

  • Names to Run Away from Really Fast: The Indo-European particle "mor".
  • Seasonal Baggage: A case interesting in comparison. As opposed to, say, Greek mythology, where a single goddess's mood brings both summer and winter, in Slavic mythology winter is ruled by a separate deity. Morana's death allows the spring to come.
  • Woman Scorned: In aforementioned reconstruction.
  • 0% Approval Rating: There is a tradition — notice the present tense — of burning or drowning (or both) her effigy on the first day of spring. In many countries, however, the ancient pagan connection is not well known, and the burned figure is referred to just as "the winter".

    Mother Earth (Mat Zemlya) 
The earth goddess herself. To the Slavs, like to many other peoples, the earth bearing crops was much like a woman bearing a child; thus, as it was particularly evil to assault a pregnant woman, there was plenty of taboos concerning the treatment of the earth before the wheat grew. She can be compared to gods and goddesses of the harvest and/or fertility, not unlike Freyja or Demeter. In the Dvoyeveriye cults, she was worshipped under the name "St. Paraskeve of Iconium" (a saint whose biggest claim to fame is exactly this).

  • Team Mom: More nurturing than most other earth goddesses. Or, at least, not known to be as nasty.

    Dodola 
According to some interpretations, the goddess of rain and the wife of Perun. Mostly known from southern Slavic regions, where folklore retained traces of offerings to her. As in other cases, it's possible that she was a facet or a local variety of another goddess.

  • I Have Many Names: Also known as Perperuna (pretty much "Mrs. Perun"), and one source's mention of a goddess "Dzidzileyla" might have referred to her.

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Pantheon of Kiev

The pantheon of Vladimir of Kiev. Vladimir apparently wanted to codify the pantheon, as a state religion to support his rule, and erected effigies for this purpose. In any case it didn't serve him for long, as it was soon discarded in favour of Christianity. The above mentioned Perun and Dazbog are also members of the pantheon.note 

    Mokosh 
Another feminine goddess. Might have been a wife of Perun. She might be the same as Mother Earth, but if not, she's held to have been a goddess of feminine labours like spinning and weaving. One might say that Mokosh, as a feminine goddess, shows similarity to Hestia. Much like Mother Earth, she was shoehorned into the syncretic dvoyeveriye cults as St. Paraskeve.

    Hors 
A god worshipped in Eastern Slavdom; his effigy was one of the six on the court of Vladimir I of Kiev. Mostly assumed to be a solar god borrowed from Turkic or Iranic peoples inhabiting the steppes, or a merge with Slavic Dazbog, although some claim he was a lunar god. Confusingly, the worship of the Moon is also thought to be an Eastern influence. His apparent sharing of the solar domain with Dazbog has been compared to the relation between Helios and Apollo, Hors representing the Sun as a celestial body and Dazbog personifying its live-giving power.

    Simargl 
Another of the gods from the pantheon of Vladimir. Seems to be nothing more than a borrowing of Persian mythic griffin-dog Simurghnote  by a ruler bent on creating a codified political religion. However, some have tried to find a more Slavic background, divining his name from "seven-headed". He also exists in a story related to the Zoryas.

  • Multiple Head Case: As some scholars think.
  • Sealed Evil in a Can: Hard to say if it was so on Vladimir's court, but definitely in the aforementioned story. Details are in the description of Zoryas.

    Stribog 
The god of the wind, also known among Southern Slavs.


Western Slavs

The Polabiannote  Slavs had a multitude of bigger and lesser gods, of which we know comparatively much due to these peoples' constant fighting with the Germans, and with it, consequent interest of German chroniclers (Danish sources occasionally throw in their two cents as well). The Polabian Slavs were unique in Slavdom for the highly organised nature of their cult; they had a priestly class and erected opulent temples. The Lutici, and later, the Rani tribe hosted sanctuaries of trans-regional influence (offerings came from as far as Denmark), whose priests often had the final word in their politics.

From what we know, it appears each tribe, or possibly even sub-tribal entities had their own patron, often multi-headed or multi-faced. It's unclear whether they were separate from each other, or local varieties of the same deities, much like the multitude of effigies of Mary in folk Catholicism.

    Svarozic 
See above. German chroniclers wrote down his name as "Zuarasic".

    Svantevith 
The four-faced patron of war, divination, fertility, and abundance, and possibly the best-known Slavic deity. His name means "holy lord", although for many years it has been assumed to refer to the four faces, as it sounds very much like "world-seer"; also very much like "Saint Vitus", thus a claim that the saint has somehow been adapted into a Slavic god. His worship is most strongly linked with the fabled Arkona on the Rügen Island, last vestige of Slavic paganism destroyed in 1168. Thus it is possible that he was a local deity of the Rani, or a local variety of another god (presumably Perun, or Svarog alternatively). The most famous depiction of him comes from Ukraine, but nowadays its authenticity is disputed.

  • Canon Immigrant: Possibly, but it's also likely it was a misunderstanding on part of the Christian chroniclers, or even an attempt to fabricate a claim to the island.
  • Cool Horse: Another oracular horse, this time white. Svantevith was believed to ride it around the island in the night.
  • Iconic Item: His drinking horn.
  • Multiple Head Case: Four faces.
  • Spell My Name with an "S": His many-faced effigies caused some confusion about his name, although it'll sound the same anyway to a speaker of non-Slavic language. Somewhat confusingly, the outdated version of his name is considered acceptable for the Zbruch idol, as long as it refers to the idol and not the deity.

    Triglav 
The Three-Headed One. It has been said that his heads watch over the three worlds: the heavens, the earth, and the underworld, though some scholars question that. It is also believed he might have been a syncretic god, whose worship was a reflection of the unification of Polabian Slavic tribes.

  • Composite Character: His three heads are said to be three other gods, for example Perun, Svarog, and Veles. The first two tend to stay, who the third one is varies.
  • Cool Horse: One of his symbols was a black horse.
  • Dark Is Not Evil/The Sacred Darkness: Was often represented by a black horse.
  • Hijacked by Jesus: Some believe the part about watching over three worlds was not his original attribute, but a mistake or an over-interpretation on the part of Christian chroniclers.
  • Multiple Head Case: Three heads.

    Chernobog 
Chances are, he was a local, Polabian deity. But the thing is, his name probably had a lot more influence over his reception than any description of him. The fact that his name is probably the only one recognised globally (but without actual knowledge of the mythos behind him) likely does not help.


Others

Minor deities, local, known from limited sources, or hard to pin down.

    Ziva 
The goddess of life, beauty, and love. Apparently.

    Zaria 
The goddess of beauty and possibly also sunrise. Given how her name sounds very similar to "Zorya", chances are there was some cross-contamination on part of the research.

    The Zoryas 
The two goddesses of sunrise and sunset, charged with opening and closing the gates before the Sun, and keeping the watch over apocalyptic hound Simargl (who in this story is less divine, and more a dog-like mythological beast).

    Berstuk 
Lusatian god of the forest. Seems like these people weren't too keen on communing with Nature, as he seems to have been rather scary and unfriendly deity.

    Lada 
A goddess once considered a popular deity, whose domain would have been that of a protector of hearth or a mother goddess figure. Nowadays, her existence is controversial, but she tends to appear relatively often in fiction, especially when it's somewhat old.

    Rod 
Supposedly a top-level god, patron of fate or the creator god, whose name is related to Slavic words for family and descent. We say "supposedly", because researchers usually have somewhat disapproving views. However, this hasn't stopped certain strands of Slavic Neopagans, amongst whom he's very big. If this god was actually known in the old days, he was likely deus otiosus, or the non-interfering god, who created the world (for example) but generally leaves day-to-day running to lesser deities.

  • Canon Foreigner: Generally the research doesn't attribute that much importance to him as do some modern worshippers.

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