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    Union of Britain
Official Name: Socialist Union of Britain
Ideology: Syndicalism

The British economy was in a slump following the Weltkrieg, and the Conservative-National coalition government attempted to stimulate the economy through tariffs on Germany. However, Germany easily bypassed the tariffs, and raised their own tariffs on British goods. This led to a rapid rise in consumer good prices and unemployment, with the coal industry being the worst hit.

On March 6th, 1925, the Trade Union Congress (TUC) called for a general strike to protest the tariffs. After five days, a group of strikers were violently suppressed at the Tarenni Colliery. Motivated by the Tarenni massacre, the general strike escalated into a revolution. Within weeks, revolutionary militia had taken over the isle, and the British elite fled to Canada. The TUC took over all political authority, and declared the Union of Britain. The new syndicalist nation joined the Commune of France and the Socialist Republic of Italy to form the Third Internationale.

  • Chummy Commies: They established a more democratic version of syndicalism which became known as Radical Socialism.
  • Dirty Communists: Should the Totalists under Mosley assume power, however, the country devolves into this crossed with Commie Nazis.
  • Fun with Acronyms: The Union of Britain can found the Revolutionary Exportation Directory (R.E.D.), a revolutionary spy agency that works to support revolutionaries around the world.
  • Rule of Cool: There is no reason for a socialist republic to put the royalist Union Jack on their flag. The in-game flag is left as is because it looks cool and because it's been with Kaiserreich for a long time.
  • Spark of the Rebellion: In 1925, a miner strike exploded into a total syndicalist revolution when the strike was violently crushed, eventually leading to the fall of the United Kingdom and formation of the Union of Britain.
  • Weird Trade Union: The ruling body is the Trade Unions Congress, which is for all purpose and intents the former parliament with districts replaced by trade unions.

Philip Snowden
Ideology: Syndicalism

The current Chairman of the Trade Union Congress, Snowden maintains the unity of the factionalized TUC by showing himself as an impartial neutral candidate. However, he has been hinting that he will resign soon after the 1936 Congress of Trade Unions. The aftermath of his resignation would surely create an uncertain power struggle between the four factions of the TUC.

  • Neutrality Backlash: Snowden's neutrality did prevent escalations of conflicts in the TUC, but it also allowed Mosley's Maximists to rise up.
  • Quintessential British Gentleman: Unusual for a post-revolution socialist leader, Snowden is a very reserved politician and refuses to take part in the petty factional insults in the politics of the Union of Britain.

Oswald Mosley
Ideology: Totalism

Oswald Mosley began his political career as a Conservative who later became a member of the Labour Party. During the British Revolution, he became famous for his organization of the worker's uprising in Birmingham. After the revolution, Mosley founded the Maximist faction, which sets a purpose of enacting of the large-scale centralization of the state and militarization in the face of the foreign counterrevolutionary threat. Being the author of the Totalist Charter, Mosley is seen as the key figure of the Totalist ideology.

  • Big Bad: From both an anti-Syndicalist and moderate Syndicalist perspective, as he is one of the founders of the Totalist manifesto and seeks to override the democratic syndicalist governance of the Union of Britain to usher in a totalitarian government.
  • Commie Nazis: His ideology, Totalism, blends Stalinist-esque planned economics and revolutionary ideology with far-right traits such as Nationalism and Revanchism.
  • Dystopia Is Hard: Seeking to enforce Totalism on the Union of Britain can lead to other Syndicalists such as Eric Blair turning against him, and could result in a military coup against his faction.
  • Evil Cripple: Mosley suffered a flying accident during the Weltkrieg, and walks with a limp.
  • Historical Villain Upgrade: The real Mosley, despite his infamous reputation as the leader of British fascists, didn't hold serious political influence, and just followed the example of Mussolini's fascism. Here, he is not only a potential totalitarian leader of Britain, but also the creator of the most influential far-left totalitarian ideology in the world.
  • A Lighter Shade of Black: Mosley can be played as this if you manage to not give him control of everything and allow Blair to succeed him, making Totalist Britain democratic enough to maintain a satisfied populace.
  • Pragmatic Villainy: Instead of taking the very unpopular decision to appoint himself Chairman-for-Life, Mosley can keep a facade of syndicalist democracy by appointing Eric Blair as his General Secretary.
  • Smug Snake: For all his insistence that he's the strong leader the Union needs, Mosley's ploy to become dictator can go wrong in any number of ways, if it works at all.
  • Tyrant Takes the Helm: Upon taking power, Mosley can (unconstitutionally) declare himself the permanent Grand Protector, uniting the powers of General Secretary and Chairman. He then strengthens his position, eliminating any possible opposition to his tyrannical rule if he isn't stopped by Blair.

Niclas y Glais
Ideology: Radical Socialism

Niclas y Glais, a famous Welsh poet and once a pacifist activist, is the leader of the Autonomist faction who stands for higher autonomy for Scotland and Wales, not excluding the option of full independence of these countries from the Union of Britain.

  • Balkanize Me: As a Devolutionist, Niclas favors breaking the Union of Britain into the Unions of England, Scotland, and Wales. Depending on how negotiations go, Scotland and Wales may be either wholly independent, or subservient to England.
  • Nice Job Breaking It, Hero!: Prior to version 0.5.2, Niclas could devolve the Union of Britain before the Second Weltkrieg (after v. 0.5.2, the Union of Britain will not devolve until after the Second Weltkrieg is concluded, provided Canada didn't successfully invade, which happens 9 times out of 10), which dramatically weakens the Third Internationale, as the devolved states lack the industry or military cohesion of the Union of Britain and as such, cannot field as well-equipped of divisions as a united Britain.

Eric Blair
Ideology: Totalism, Radical Socialism (potentially)

Eric Blair is a popular writer, an orthodox Maximist, and a long-time ally of Oswald Mosley, believing in Mosley's promises that temporary centralization is necessary to fully complete the societal revolution.

  • Allohistorical Allusion: His rejection of Totalism after Mosley's abuses of his powers is supposed to allude his disappointment with Stalinism in real life during the Spanish Civil War.
  • Badass Bookworm: Aside from being a prominent writer, Blair is also a popular militia commander and a potential military minister for the Union of Britain.
  • Different World, Different Movies: By 1944 he writes a book called "Union in 40 Years", which has a very broadly similar premise to Nineteen Eighty Four, but it's presented as a utopia, describing a world of peace and prosperity, rather than one of eternal war, misery, and totalitarian control of lives and thoughts.
  • Driven to Suicide: If Mosley is dictator, Blair will have a falling out with him and may commit suicide on a cold, wet day if the event to attempt a coup doesn't fire in time.
  • Heel–Face Turn: Can launch a coup against Mosley if the latter seizes dictatorial power for himself. If this happens, Blair abandons totalism and becomes a radical socialist.
  • Historical Villain Upgrade: Orwell never supported any form of Totalitarianism at any point of his life. Yet, in KR he becomes a vocal supporter of Totalitarian Socialism.
  • Intellectually Supported Tyranny: A prominent writer and intellectual, Blair fervently supports the Maximist ideology and can become Mosley's Number Two.
  • Irony: The man who wrote about the dangers of totalitarianism becomes a major supporter of the totalitarian form of Syndicalism in the Kaiserreich world.
  • Number Two: Can be appointed as the General Secretary for Chairman Mosley.
  • Richard Nixon the Used Car Salesman: The real Orwell, despite his considerable influence in political culture, never actually became a politician. In this timeline, he is a political ally of Oswald Mosley, and can potentially become General Secretary or Chairman of the Union.

Sylvia Pankhurst
Ideology: Syndicalism

A prominent Congregationist leader favoring the continuation of the orthodox syndicalist Union of Britain under the Trade Union Congress.

  • Breaking the Glass Ceiling: If elected, the news event specifically mentions that she's one of the very few female heads of state in the entire world.


    Republic of Ireland
Official Name: Republic of Ireland
Ideology: Authoritarian Democracy
Irish desires for independence from Britain reached new heights during the Weltkrieg. In April 1916, Irish republicans, backed by Germany, launched the Easter Rising. In March 1919, they launched another German-backed uprising in response to the UK implementing conscription in Ireland. When Britain pulled out of France, they moved their tired troops to Ireland, turning the uprising into a messy guerrilla war as both sides struggled to defeat the other.

By 1921, the British public was sick of fighting, and everyone wanted the Irish war to end. Following the Peace with Honor, the British government signed the Anglo-Irish Treaty, allowing Irish independence, Ulster included, as a British dominion known as the Irish Free State. Michael Collins, leader of the Irish uprising, would serve as the leader of the Irish Free State. Despite the controversies surrounding the treaty, and Ireland's instability following the war, the Irish Free State persisted even as Britain collapsed.

Following the British Revolution, Collins drafted a new Irish constitution and declared Ireland a republic. A unionist uprising in Ulster was crushed, securing Collins' power. Riding on a wave of unbeatable public support, with only a minor coalition calling themselves the democratic opposition opposing him, Collins has unofficially become the dictator of Ireland.

  • Chummy Commies: One foreign policy option Ireland has in their focus tree is to negotiate an agreement with the Union of Britain that guarantees Irish independence and resumes Anglo-Irish trade.
  • Enemy Mine: Despite the historical enmity between Ireland and Britain, Ireland might choose to side with the exiled British government against their common enemy, the Union of Britain, in exchange for the UK recognising Ireland's independence.
  • The Federation: In order to appease the Protestant unionists in the Six Counties, Ireland can reform into a federation, with a parliament for each of the island's historic provinces.
  • The Fundamentalist: Ireland has an option to declare itself an officially Catholic state and can support the Carlists in the Spanish Civil War.
  • The High King: Hugo O'Neill and his son Jorge become this if Ireland is puppeted by Spain or Portugal.
  • Historical Villain Upgrade: Ireland under Collins is a dictatorship with fixed elections and most of the Irish starting cabinet are historical fascists. Worst of all is the security minister Gearóid Ó Cuinneagáin who is described as an efficient sociopath in-game and historically called for the removal of Jews from Irish society.
  • Multiple Endings: While Collins usually stays in power in most games, if he loses an election and allows the opposition to take over, Ireland can reform into a democracy or become syndicalist.
  • Occupiers Out of Our Country: Annexing Ireland as the Union of Britain or United Kingdom gives some harsh modifiers and recurring events to represent Irish resistance. Ireland can also have to deal with an Ulster unionist uprising backed by the resurgent United Kingdom.
  • Rightful King Returns: If Ireland is conquered by Portugal or Spain they can crown Hugo José Jorge O'Neill, a Portuguese aristocrat and long lost descendant of 16-17th century Irish rebel leader Aodh Ó Néill, as High King of Ireland.
  • Teeth-Clenched Teamwork: Although the predominantly conservative and monarchist unionists in the Six Counties have no love for the Republic of Ireland and would rather serve the Crown, the fall of the United Kingdom and exile of the Royal Family to Canada mean that they have no choice but to live under Irish rule for the time being, for they hate the syndicalists even moreso than the Irish. If Ireland mismanages its relations with the unionists, it might have to deal with an uprising.

Michael Collins
Ideology: Authoritarian Democracy

Michael Collins is considered a hero of Ireland. He fought in the 1916 Easter Rising, and led the 1919 Irish War of Independence, organizing the Irish Republican Army into fight an efficient guerrilla force. He extracted the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 that saw Irish secure all thirty-two counties as a semi-independent state. After being expelled from Sinn Féin, due to his pro-Treaty stance, by the anti-Treaty SF leader Éamon de Valera, Collins founded Fine Gael and soon surpassed SF in popularity. Now leading an independent Ireland as its undisputed leader (through both legitimate popularity and illegitimate election riggings), Collins plans to revitalize the country and truly secure Ireland's independence.

  • Cincinnatus: If he loses an election he can voluntarily relinquish power to the democratic opposition.
  • The Generalissimo: Retains his title as commander-in-chief of the Irish Republican Army even while serving as head of state.
  • Glorious Leader: While he secures his power with fixed elections, he is genuinely popular among the Irish public.
  • President for Life: Following the British Revolution he has become a dictator (albeit being described as a reluctant one) using fixed elections to secure his power and his government cabinet is primarily composed of Irish fascists.
  • Rebel Leader: During the Irish War of Independence, he led the Irish Republican Army against the British.
  • Reluctant Ruler: He is described as a reluctant dictator in-game.

    United Kingdom
Flag of the Kingdom of Great Britain 
Official Name: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Kingdom of Great Britain (if the claim to Ireland is waived)

  • Emergency Authority: Immediately after the conquest of the Union of Britain, the British Reconstruction Authority is formed and empowered with broad governing powers to oversee the process of rebuilding Britain. After its work is done, the BRA's last act is to return the UK to civilian rule.
  • Exact Words: In 1921, after the Irish War of Independence, the United Kingdom surrendered its claim to Northern Ireland in a peace treaty with the Irish Free State, a country that was a member of the British Empire and Commonwealth. In 1925, the Irish Free State abandoned that status and became the Republic of Ireland. A resurgent UK could thus declare the previous treaty null and void (as the Irish Free State no longer exists) and reassert its claim on the Six Counties.
  • Former Regime Personnel: Soon after the Union of Britain is defeated, many soldiers who once fought for it will seek to re-enlist in the British Army. The UK government is free to accept or refuse.
  • Kangaroo Court: The trials for syndicalist leaders can devolve into this depending on how they're handled, further exasperating efforts at Reconstruction.
  • The Leader: Soon after its restoration, the UK will reassume its place as the Entente's leader from Canada.
  • The Remnant: Even if the Entente manages to defeat the Union of Britain, a Syndicalist resistance will form in opposition to the new UK government, leeching off public discontent at the choices made by the Reconstruction authority.
  • The Resenter: As the British citizens who left the Union of Britain to flee syndicalist rule return home after the UK's restoration, they're subject to resentment from those who stayed, for having been 'untouched by war and poverty'.
  • Resurgent Empire: After Reconstruction is finished, the United Kingdom will focus on getting its more immediately prized possessions, namely Ulster, Gibraltar, the Falklands, Malta and its Caribbean islands, all of which had been under direct rule not more than 30 years ago. After that, the question of going on a quest to restore the full extent of the Empire will be done, but perhaps times have moved on from such things.
  • Retcon: In older versions, it was possible for T.E. Lawrence to peacefully reform the Union of Britain into the United Kingdom. Since 0.11, the only way to bring back the UK is through a victorious Entente invasion of Britain.
  • Rightful King Returns: When the UK is restored, the incumbent King will return from the Dominion of Canada to London, there to be crowned in a ceremony at Westminster Abbey, attended by monarchists across Britain.
  • Won the War, Lost the Peace: It's British Reconstruction Authority's duty to ensure that this doesn't happen.

Western Europe

    German Empire
Official Name: German Empire
Ideology: Authoritarian Democracy

Flush with victory from the Weltkrieg, the German Empire has finally acquired its place in the sun as Europe's (and, indeed, the world's) preeminent Great Power. Under the wise and benevolent oversight of Kaiser Wilhelm II, the Empire has seemingly gone from strength to strength, from the acquisition of a vast new colonial realm to the successful military intervention in China to the restoration of a pliant Qing Dynasty to its traditional seat of power (in exchange, of course, for certain extremely favorable concessions to German corporations which do business in China).

Beneath the surface, however, Imperial politics have turned heated and divisive with factions on both sides of the spectrum chafing under an uncomfortable status quo; a newly-energized and revanchist Syndicalist France sits on their doorstep, waiting for the perfect opportunity to avenge a string of defeats stretching back to the crushing of the Paris Commune; and rumors are spreading that the Empire's prosperity is founded on a massive speculative bubble that may collapse at the slightest jolt. The German Empire remains impressive on paper, but its strength and stability will be tested severely in the coming years.

  • The Alliance: Germany leads the Reichspakt, an alliance of states in Eastern Europe that were carved out of Russia after the German victory, and the economical union of Mitteleuropa.
  • Balkanize Me: A defeated Germany can be split into four chunks: Hanover, Prussia, Bavaria, and the Rhine.
  • Cool Ship: The Kaiserliche Marine is one of the foremost proponents of aircraft carriers, starting with two on active duty in the Mediterranean and the Pacific and three in the reserve fleet. That said, the majority of their ships are from the Weltkrieg and are in need of replacement.
  • The Empire: With their victory in the Weltkrieg, the fall of France and United Kingdom to Syndicalism and the USA facing a persistent economic crisis, there was no other country with capability to rise in the power vacuum other than the German Empire. Although they don't control a vast territorial empire, they have colonies through all continents and virtually all countries in the world have economical, political, social or cultural ties.
  • Hegemonic Empire: The German Empire leads the Reichspakt military alliance, granting it significant influence around the globe.
  • Kaiserreich: After their victory in the First World War, the German Empire continued instead of becoming a republic and later a fascist dictatorship. That said, the actual political structure of the Reich is more likely than not to change, for good (the 1937 or 1941 elections can continue the Kaiserreich's evolution into a more Westminster-style parliamentary democracy by Wilhelm sticking to the post-Weltkrieg tradition of choosing a chancellor from the winning coalition despite being faced with a coalition whose ideology he dislikes) or ill (Kurt von Schleicher's scheming can undermine the Reichstag and set up a dictatorial junta).
  • Paper Tiger: Where many nations will hold out until their capital is overrun, or even beyond that, there's a good chance that Germany will simply collapse if a number of important cities are taken, even if the vast majority of the country (including several major industrial centres) are still in German hands. While their army is still large and generally well-equipped, all it takes to win is to break their lines a few times, and secure a corridor to a few cities.
  • Puppet State: Germany runs a large number of friendly governments around the world.
  • United Europe: Not yet developed, but this will be one of the biggest objectives to Germany to follow with the The Dream of Paneuropa focus. Germany already has planted the first seeds, with the Reichspakt as a common defense alliance and Mitteleuropa as a common economic zone.
  • Vestigial Empire: While they are the most powerful empire on the planet, and still own a ton of overseas territories in 1936, they are definitely slipping by 1936. As one user analyzes, Germany has a lot of issues: they have a lot of allies, but no major allies-they alienated the Entente when they went in and occupied their former territories. The German colonial management of Mittelafrika and East Asia is in short, a total disaster. Their overcommitment to foreign intervention have stretched their forces too thin to have any kind of reasonable support to their colonies when they rebel. Their poor management of their economy is what directly caused the Black Monday economic crash. In the end, the collapse of Mittelafrika and German East Asia is almost unavoidable.

Wilhelm II
Ideology: Authoritarian Democracy

German Kaiser and King of Prussia, Wilhelm's nearly five-decade reign has seen the German Empire go from strength to strength, with its triumph in the Weltkrieg securing his place in history and in his people's hearts as a hero without peer. While he wields much more personal power than his rival in the British Empire's Westminster-style constitutional monarchies, in the decades since the war the Kaiser has largely stepped out of the political limelight, leaving the details of governance to the Chancellor and the legislature.

  • Big Bad: The Kaiser is seen as the symbol of the German hegemony and imperialism all around the world and opposed by anti-German forces and particulary the Syndicalist world.
  • Big Good: The German people looks upon him as a strong ruler who brought prosperity and victory, while the elites of Reichspakt countries see him as the guarantor of their power and stability of their countries.
  • The Emperor: The Kaiser of Germany rules over the largest empire in the entire world.
  • The Good King: In contrast to his real life reputation, which is usually not the most flattering one, in KR, history remembered Wilhelm more fondly for leading the German people towards the victory in Weltkrieg and achieving for Germany a place under the sun.
  • Reluctant Ruler: After the Weltkrieg, he prefers more to spend time with family rather than rule over Germany and usually comes to the Reichstag just to approve the decisions of the Chancellor.

Adolf Hitler

An Austrian soldier who fought in the Imperial German Army during the Weltkrieg. He died during the war and his memoirs were collected into a book called Unser Kampf, which has posthumously turned him into a national hero.

  • Demoted to Extra: Due to his death in 1920, Hitler was nowhere as influential as his real life counterpart.
  • Different World, Different Movies: Mein Kampf (known as Unser Kampfnote ) in the Kaiserreich world is a diary of a patriotic and conscientious German soldier rather than a collection of Hitler's political rants.
  • Historical Villain Downgrade: From one of the the cruelest dictators of the 20th century to an ordinary German soldier, who is widely regarded as a national hero.
  • Posthumous Character: Hitler died during the German intervention in Russia in 1920.
  • Propaganda Hero: As the main hero of Leni Riefenstahl's movie adaptation of his diary, Hitler is presented in Germany as an exemplary German soldier.

Official Name: Kingdom of Flanders-Wallonia, Kingdom of Belgium (if the monarchy is returned), Belgian Republic (if reformed into a republic)
Ideology: Authoritarian Democracy

The Belgian army, commanded by King Albert himself, was the first who fought the German armies during the Great War and among those vanquished during the defeat of France. With the motherland under German occupation, Belgium was forced to comply to every single term: Belgian Congo becoming another German holding in Africa, Belgian Luxembourg was occupied and even the country ceased to exist under her name. German experts concluded that a federal state was the best option in order to reduce the contacts between Flemish and Walloons and avoid the creation of a unified resistance of all the population of the country. With the Peace With Honour, Adalbert von Hohenzollern, the Kaiser's third son, was crowned Adalbert I, King of Flanders and Wallonia.

In 1936, the buffer state of Flandern-Wallonien is coming to a boiling point, between the Flemish population, wanting to join the neutral Netherlands, the Walloon population, whose nationalism turned to French-fashioned syndicalist views, and the whole population, tired of German domination...

  • Civil War: Sometimes the people from Flanders-Wallonia can try to free themselves from the German yoke in the Second Belgium Revolution. Usually is a Curb-Stomp Battle, but it can be a great opportunity for the Commune of France if they are invading.
  • Divided We Fall: The main reason for Germany to form Flanders-Wallonia as a federal unit instead of separating Wallonia from Flanders, since it provides a strong buffer state between France and Germany.
  • Puppet State: While the Reichspakt is formed by German puppets, Flanders-Wallonia is one of the most heavily German controlled countries among them.
  • We ARE Struggling Together: Both Flanders and Wallonia deeply hate the German occupiers and both groups can unite to attempt a Second Belgian Revolution. However, Wallonia believes that Flanders is collaborating with the German Empire while Flanders is afraid of the rising power of the syndicalist resistance and constantly struggles to maintain the small scraps of power that it holds.

Adalbert I
Ideology: Authoritarian Democracy

  • Abdicate the Throne: When the Belgian rebellion approaches Brussels, Adalbert can sign a formal ceasefire treaty, resulting in his immediate abdication, the withdrawal of all German forces from Flanders-Wallonia and a truce between the reborn nation of Belgium and the German Empire.

Albert I

  • Government in Exile: After Belgium was defeated in the Weltkrieg and replaced by the Kingdom of Flanders-Wallonia, King Albert went to exile. He lived in Britain for a short time, before the syndicalist revolution forced him to follow the British royal family to Canada.
  • Rightful King Returns: After the German pretender Adalbert is ousted, the royalist faction of the Belgian government can choose to bring King Albert back home and return him to the throne.

    Commune of France
Official Name: Federation of Communes of France
Ideology: Syndicalism
Tired of the prolonged and gruesome war, the French proletariat's patience was finally exhausted in spring 1919, when the working class, guided by Syndicalist, Socialist and Anarchist forces, declared the creation of their own political structure and called for general strike all across the country in order to paralyze the capitalist French state. On the ruins of the Third Republic, the Red forces emerged victorious against the forces of the counter-revolutionary Provisional Government in the ensuing Civil War and proclaimed the creation of the Commune of France, the first Syndicalist state, in 1921. Even though the young Commune had to comply with territorial and economical losses caused by the Weltkrieg, it poses itself as the leading Socialist state in the world (especially in the wake of the failed Bolshevik revolution in Russia) and the strongest opposer to Pax Germanica in Europe. Slowly recovering from scars of the past, the Commune now has to be prepared for future conflict with the German Empire, which will determine the success of the Syndicalist experiment and the fate of Europe as a whole.

  • Arch-Enemy:
    • To the German Empire, as the strongest representatives of their opposing ideologies (Syndicalism and Capitalism), as well as the main contenders for hegemony in Europe.
    • And, of course, to National France, since the very existence of one of these states is a challenge to the legitimacy of the other.
  • Commie Land: Being the birthplace of the Syndicalist Revolution and the leading country of the Third Internationale, the Commune of France carries the torch of the Syndicalist Revolution worldwide.
  • Evil vs. Evil: Though the Jacobins and the Sorelians are both far-left extremist factions, they have very different and mutually incompatible views on what "advancing the Revolution" means in practice. If one faction manages to take full control of the Commune, the other will inevitably be purged.

Nestor Makhno and Sébastien Faure
Ideology: Radical Socialism

Formed by the former Ukrainian Anarchist revolutionary Nestor Makhno, "Pure Anarchists" argue for greater regional freedom and decentralization in the Commune.

  • Anarchy Is Chaos: Averted - neither putting the Anarchiste party in power nor the rule thereof is significantly more punishing on national stability than electing either totalist party or keeping the Travailleurs in power, and in general, the society they build is just as stable as any other.
  • Good Scars, Evil Scars: Nestor Makhno sports a gnarly dueling scar, though whether you see it as a good scar or an evil scar likely depends a lot on your own views on him and his politics. In general, from the Entente, Reichspakt, and Russia's point of view, it's an evil scar born by a dangerous ideologue who tried to cast Ukraine into chaos and is trying to do the same with western Europe, while from the Third Internationale's point of view, it's a good scar and a reminder of his personal efforts and sacrifices to try to liberate the workers and peasants of Ukraine and his commitment to liberating Europe's working class.
  • We Have Reserves: Makhno's Anarchiste party's war philosophy, inspired by the massive scale of the Weltkrieg and a belief that any future war would require even greater numbers of men under arms, is centered around vast militia armies armed with vast numbers of cheap rifles, rather than the tank armies favored by the Travailleurs, the centralized army command favored by the Jacobins, or the squad-centric army favored by the Sorelians.

Marcel Déat
Ideology: Totalism

The self-proclaimed successors to Lenin and his revolution, currently led by Marcel Déat. They want to form the united Communist party to lead the French revolution against reactionary forces, as well as to cleanse the Commune from any Syndicalist and other non-Marxist elements.

  • Commie Land: They can turn France into a full-fledged Communist government if they take power.
  • Dirty Communists: The Jacobins are die-hard Leninists wanting to return Communism (discredited with the failure of the Russian Revolution) to the world. Once in power, the Jacobins will turn France into a Communist state along the lines of what we would recognize, clamping down on the democratic system, worker unions, and build a one-party state. The Jacobins are Totalists like the Sorelians, though they're non-charter-affiliated Totalists who don't espouse ultranationalism.
  • The Friend Nobody Likes: While they were allies of the French revolutionaries from the start, they're not especially liked by other factions, especially by Sorelians, because of their unscrupulous methods and schismatic tendencies. This feeling is mutual, as the Jacobins consider them as mere opportunists, and can launch a purge against any non-Leninst element in French politics or limit it only to Sorelians.
  • Nice Job Fixing It, Villain!: If the Jacobins' attempts to overthrow the Syndicalist government lead to a civil war, Germany and National France can take the opportunity and attack the weakened Commune and usually emerge victorious.
  • The Plan: Jacobin military doctrine emphasizes extensive planning by a centralized high command above individual initiative, mass conscription, or vast armored forces.
  • The Purge: Launches one against the Sorelians if they take power.
  • The Revolution Will Not Be Civilized: The Jacobins carried out the worst excesses of the French Revolution during the Civil War, such as mass executions and violent attacks on men of upper classes. If brought to power in the 1936 elections, they'll aim to finish the job by purging the Sorelians and other counterrevolutionary threats, real and imagined.
  • The Starscream: As the entire faction, the Jacobins regard the Commune at its current stage as an opportunist mockery of ideas of true Communism and, if they are elected, they can attempt to abolish Syndicalist structures and install a new regime, based on Leninist principles instead of those of Revolutionary Syndicalism. That's, of course, if they aren't overthrown by the military or defeated by National France and Germany beforehand.

Georges Valois
Ideology: Totalism

The followers of Georges Sorel's thought, led by Georges Valois, the Sorelians believe in the necessity of economic centralization and militarization of the state to secure the revolution and take revenge on Germany for past humiliations.

  • Commie Nazis: As a charter-affiliated Totalist party, their ideology combines Stalinist-esque policies with revanchism against Germany and a dose of anti-semitism.
  • Elite Army: Sorelian military doctrine is centered around empowered junior officers and superior capabilities at the squad level, and as such, they get a general bonus to infantry capabilities.
  • The Purge: Launches one against the Jacobins if they take power.
  • Revenge: Their foreign policy is the one that most revolves around seeking vengeance against the Germans for causing France's defeat in the Weltkrieg.
  • Warhawk: The Sorelians are the most aggressive socialists out there, and seek militarist and revanchist policies for everything.

Benoît Frachon and Léon Jouhaux, possible heads of state for the Travailleurs
Ideology: Syndicalism

The current faction in charge of France, led by the highly unpopular Marceau Pivert, which presents itself as the faction of compromise, seeking to extend the unionist democracy and support Orthodox Syndicalist principles in economy.

  • Internal Reformist: While the other parties want to radically change the governance of the Commune of France, the reigning Travailleurs wish to maintain orthodox syndicalism and use the existing governmental structure to rejuvenate the economy in more or less its current form.
  • "Shaggy Dog" Story: If the Travailleurs reach the majority in the 1936 Communard elections, they can reinstate Marceau Pivert, whose unpopularity and resignation caused such tense elections in first place.
  • Tank Goodness: The Travailleurs' military philosophy is based heavily around armored and otherwise mobile warfare, in contrast to the other parties, which all support some manner of infantry-centric warfare.

Maurice Gamelin
Ideology: Syndicalism

  • Defector from Decadence: If the Commune of France goes down the Jacobins route hard and Gamelin's coup fails, he and his mutineers will defect to National France, and help them prepare an invasion.
  • Heel–Face Door-Slam: If Gamelin's coup fails, he will try to defect to National France. However, there is a chance that National France rejects Gamelin since he was one of the main revolutionary generals, and they still consider him a traitor. Gamelin's mutineers will then get crushed by the Jacobins.
  • Military Coup: If the Jacobins are elected and decide to abolish the syndicalist democratic system, Field Marshal Maurice Gamelin may launch a coup to depose them and restore the Travailleurs as the ruling party of the Commune, with himself at the helm.
  • The Purge: While not part of normal Travailleur politics, if Gamelin deposes the Jacobins, he reinstates the Travailleurs and the entire Jacobin party is purged.

Official Name: Swiss Confederation
Ideology: Market Liberalism

  • Neutral No Longer: In the aftermath of the Savoyard Crisis, Switzerland might be forced to renounce its long-time neutrality to either ally with or defend itself from France, Germany, Austria or Italy.

Eugen Bircher
Ideology: National Populism

  • Kangaroo Court: The Bern Trials are a series of show trials conducted by Bircher's government to get rid of military officers from French- or Italian-speaking regions, or those known to harbour Syndicalist leanings, in order to strengthen the officer corps' loyalty.
  • Military Coup: Citing the previous government's failure to both protect the Swiss people in the Romandy and secure foreign assistance, the Schweizerischer Vaterländischer Verband paramilitary can decide that it has failed and Switzerland can only be revitalised by an entirely new government with Bircher at the helm.
  • The Purge: Due to his pro-German, anti-syndicalist leanings and personal rivalry with the French-speaking officer Henri Guisan, Bircher can sentence Guisan and several other French-speaking officers to death for the alleged crime of collaborating with the Commune of France.


    Kingdom of Spain
Official Name: Kingdom of Spain
Ideology: Paternal Autocracy

  • Civil War: The Spanish political crisis inevitable explodes into a civil war between republicans, socialists, and the monarchy.
  • Vestigial Empire: Spain hasn't been in a good shape for more than a hundred years. Three Carlist Wars, a failed Republic, a controversial Restoration, and the loss of the last remnants of Spain's colonial empire to the rising United States left the country to enter the 20th century in humiliation and profound socio-political division.

Alfonso XIII
Ideology: Paternal Autocracy

  • You Have Failed Me: With Black Monday supporting him and his conspirators, King Alfonso decides to finally make his move and dismiss Prime Minister Miguel Primo de Rivera.

    Spanish Republic
Ideology: Social Liberalism

  • Enemy Mine: Although the liberals and the socialists disagree on most subjects, the Rivera regime's repression has caused them to unite under a single enemy of the regime. This uneasy alliance is unlikely to last, as the monarchy's power wanes during the civil war.
  • The Purge: All liberal parties will need to purge the government of rightist holdovers.

    Spanish Popular Front
Ideology: Syndicalism

  • Enemy Mine: Although the liberals and the socialists disagree on most subjects, the Rivera regime's repression has caused them to unite under a single enemy of the regime. This uneasy alliance is unlikely to last, as the monarchy's power wanes during the civil war.

Official Name: Kingdom of Portugal
Ideology: National Populism
Portuguese-German tensions gradually built up over the course of the First Weltkrieg, until the young Portuguese Republic joined the war siding against the Germans. However, Germany defeated Portugal in both Mozambique and France, and the now-powerless republicans found itself in a monarchist counter-revolution, ending with the restoration of King Manuel II, with Duarte Nuno being declared his successor. Since then, the collapse of the British Empire, German territorial ambitions, and the Spanish political crisis have caused endless trouble for Portugal. King Duarte II presently heads a government fully controlled by the radical Integralismo Lusitano, who have desires for Integralist reforms to create their ideal "Organic Kingdom".

  • The Alcatraz: Absolute Monarchy Portugal can create the Tarrafal prison camp situated on the Cape Verde islands, intended for the most dangerous Portuguese criminals and syndicalist political prisoners.
  • Binding Ancient Treaty: Under AI control, it has a fairly good chance of joining the Entente, choosing to continue to honour the Anglo-Portuguese Alliancenote  by helping the remnants of the British Empire.
  • In Spite of a Nail: Downplayed. Salazar still enters politics under the Integralists, but is otherwise just another minister in the government.
  • Let No Crisis Go to Waste: Portugal can take advantage of the Mittelafrikan collapse to restore their old African colonies and claims, taking Zambia and Barotseland, demanding control over Kongo, and take over everything between Angola and Mozambique to realize their Pink Map claims.
  • Patriotic Fervor: Integralist Portugal is a monarchy with far-right patriotism, including things like a patriotic youth league.
  • Token Evil Teammate: Among the monarchies, Portugal is the least democratic of them all. Going down Absolute Monarchy will result in a Parliament directly controlled by the King that bans both Republican and Socialist parties. Going down Integralist Monarchy will result in the Integralists suspending the Parliament to stop "the bickering of politicians", and ending with the Parliament being abolished altogether.
  • Token Good Teammate: On the other hand, for a National Populist nation, Portugal is fairly liberal to its people, with Integralist Portugal granting local autonomy for all of their subjects.

Eastern Europe

Flag of Iron Guard Romania 
Official Name: Kingdom of Romania
Ideology: National Populism

  • Allohistorical Allusion: Given the lack of Nazi Germany in Kaiserreich 1936, some of their traits are present in Romania. They take on a very similar, if more regional role as Nazi Germany.
    • Like Germany in real life, Romania in Kaiserreich was a former power which that was defeated in the First World War, and subject to harsh treaties that caused them to cede their territories to their enemies (Romania lost Dobrogea and the Carpathian passes in the Treaty of Bucharest, while Germany lost a lot of stuff in the Treaty of Versailles). After a period of destabilization, a revanchist far-right party took power, with an anti-Semitic leader that desires to reconquer their lost territories and possibly gain new ones.
    • In gameplay, Romania, like Nazi Germany, can start off trying to militarily contest a border region that was ceded to their enemies after the First World War (Carpathian Mountains versus Rhineland). After that, they can begin their road to reconquest by first reclaiming territories lost after WWI (Dobrogea versus West Prussia and Alsace-Lorraine), then go on to press for more territories where their ethnic groups live in (Transylvania versus Sudetenland).
    • The circumstances surrounding Codreanu's rise to power mirrors Mussolini's in real life, where a radical nationalist faction was empowered by the monarchy, though in Codreanu's case, the royals willingly appointed the fascists as the ruling party, instead of being forced to. Also like Mussolini, Codreanu's Romania is the forerunner for national populism, similar to how Fascist Italy was the forerunner for fascism in Real Life.
  • In Spite of a Nail: The Iron Guard can still assume power, given the right circumstances. The resulting regime, which is rather similar to its real world counterpart, is as close to OTL fascism as it gets in the setting, even by National Populist standards.
  • Teeth-Clenched Teamwork: In 1933, King Carol II and Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, leader of the Iron Guard, formed an alliance as they both sought to undermine parliamentarism and bring about an authoritarian regime to lead Romania into a 'rebirth', leading to the Legion winning the 1933 election by a landslide. However, the King and his Prime Minister are far too ambitious to share power; they still work together to forge a Greater Romanian state, while also quietly plotting against each other behind the scenes. Once their common goal is achieved, the Royalists and Legionaries will fight it out until one comes up on top.

Carol II
Ideology: Paternal Autocracy

  • Cult of Personality: Once secure in his position as King of Greater Romania, Carol will build a cult of personality around himself. The king must be depicted in a way that truly shows his power and his God-appointed mission to lead the Romanian people, and the nation should venerate their Saviour-King as He brings forth a golden age for them.
  • Puppet King: If Codreanu wins the power struggle and arrests King Carol, he could choose to leave him alive under house arrest, so he would only have to deal with a feeble, familiar threat that he can easily be rid of should the need arise.
  • The Purge: After killing Corneliu Zelea Codreanu and emerging victorious in his power struggle with the Iron Guard, King Carol can eliminate the rest of the high-ranking Legionaries in order to ensure that they can no longer plot against him.
  • You Have Outlived Your Usefulness: After the conquest of Transylvania, King Carol no longer needs the Iron Guard and will dispose of their leadership to cement his own power.

Corneliu Zelea Codreanu
Ideology: National Populism

  • Allohistorical Allusion: King Carol can decapitate the Iron Guard by having the Gendarmerie drag Codreanu to Jilava Prison and shoot him, then claim that he was killed when trying to escape custody in Tâncăbeşti, exactly like what happened in real life.
  • Commie Nazis: Despite being a fascist, Codreanu also seeks to dismantle large estates and redistribute land to landless agricultural workers, creating a strong class of smallholders, improving the quality of life for peasants and the rural economy. This puts him at odds with King Carol, who represents the interest of the aristocracy.
  • Decapitated Army: The Iron Guard's expanding size and growing popularity means that he also has to keep the emergent factions of the organization under control in addition to his duties as Prime Minister.note  This can also lead to a huge drop in the IG's organization should he die... but it may also give the more radical strands and ideas of the IG free reign, leading to a plot against King Carol as well and a possible Cantacuzino takeover.
  • Dragon with an Agenda: Prime Minister Codreanu is stuck in a power struggle against his king, even as they work together toward their shared goal of forging Greater Romania.
  • Landslide Election: In 1933, the Legion won a sweeping electoral victory, elevating Codreanu to the post of Prime Minister.
  • A Nazi by Any Other Name: Unlike many other National Populist factions, which are usually ambiguously fascist, the Iron Guard is completely unambiguously fascist and virulently anti-semitic.
  • President Evil: If neither Codreanu nor Carol wins their power struggle, resulting in democracy returning to Romania, Codreanu (if he survived) could still end up winning the elections and becoming Prime Minister again, putting a somewhat-defanged Legion back into power. If Codreanu is dead, his successor (either Ion Moța or Horia Sima, but not Alexandru Cantacuzino) can fulfill a similar role.
  • You Have Outlived Your Usefulness: Once their shared goal of establishing Greater Romania is achieved, Codreanu will turn on King Carol and have the Avengers assassinate him. Afterwards, Codreanu can then execute them as well in order to appease the Legion's monarchist old guard and alleviate the fear of the people that no one is sacred to the Iron Guard.

Alexandru Cantacuzino
Ideology: National Populism

  • Putting on the Reich: Cantacuzino assumes the title Conducător (historically held by fascist dictator Ion Antonescu during World War II), which translates to Leader, like Führer.
  • Regent for Life: After ousting the Hohenzollern dynasty, Conducător Cantacuzino assumes the mantle of Regent until a fitting new monarch is chosen (which he'll never actually do).

Mihai Stelescu

Ideology: National Populism

  • Commie Nazis: Stelescu, though still very radical and nationalistic, also calls for social reforms such as decent minimum wages and an 8-hour work day. He claims that the Iron Guard has betrayed the working class, and they in turn condemn him as a pawn of the Judeo-Socialist conspiracy.
  • Defector from Decadence: Either out of envy, ambition or idealism, Stelescu and his followers broke off from the Iron Guard and formed their own movement, called White Eagles.

Michael I

  • The Good King: If he dismisses the Legionary government, he can usher in a restoration of parliamentary democracy, either under the old dominant National Liberal Party or the relative newcomers of the National Peasant's Party. However the Iron Guard can also reprofile themselves and try to retake power via elections, at least for a while.
  • Puppet King: If the Iron Guard wins their power struggle and King Carol is either killed, exiled or forced to abdicate, Michael will be crowned as a powerless figurehead. Can be Subverted however, as he also can choose to dismiss the government instead, paving the way for a restoration of democracy.

    Kingdom of Poland
Official Name: Kingdom of Poland, Polish Socialist Republic (Totalist, Radical Socialist or Syndicalist), Polish Republic (other ideologies, if the monarchy is abolished), Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (if the Commonwealth is reformed)
Ideology: Authoritarian Democracy

For more than a century before the end of the Weltkrieg, there had been no Polish nation. What had once been Poland had been carved up and partitioned between Prussia, Austria, and Russia in 1795. Despite persistent uprisings throughout the 19th century, the foreign powers maintained their hold on the Polish lands.

Polish fortunes appeared to change with the Act of November 5th, 1916, when the Polish lands occupied by the German Empire were granted autonomy from the collapsing Russian Empire. This success, however, came at a price. The Germans made a concerted effort to colonize a portion of their land known as the Polish Frontier Strip.

Meanwhile, the election of a new King of Poland has been fraught with difficulty. Janusz Radziwiłł and the Regency Council has been unable to form a consensus on who exactly should be elected. Complicating matters, both Germany and Austria have involved themselves in the debate as whomever is elected could tie Poland to either country's royal house, the Hohenzollerns or the Hapsburgs. With no clear end in sight, Poland's "Eternal Regency" is set to continue.

Regency Council
Ideology: Authoritarian Democracy

Poland was reestablished by the Central Powers in formerly Russian lands after over a century of foreign rule. Competition between Austria and Germany for influence in Poland, both during and since the Weltkrieg, has left the regency council unable to perform its principle duty, the selection of a new monarch. The, so called, 'eternal regency' lords indecisively over a Poland which remains much the same as it was before the Weltkrieg - poor and restless.

Since its independence in 1916, Poland is stuck in a regency council that will choose a new king, with the candidates begin a Hohenzollern king from Germany, a Habsburg from Austria, Mindaugas III from Lithuania or a new entire new Polish king. The council however, is notably ineffective and the competitions between the various outside powers influencing the election made the country stuck with a bickering council known as the "Eternal Regency". But now with the Black Monday and a new Weltkrieg in the horizon, the council is in a crossfire, if they can't choose a leader for Poland then Poland will choose a leader for itself.

  • Not-So-Omniscient Council of Bickering: The Council is notoriously ineffective, debating thing like the minimum height and table size of the new King. Justified since various foreign powers are influencing the elections and a bickering council is better than a rival candidate rising to the throne.
  • Regent for Life: Not for long! As the game starts, the whole world is destabilized by the Black Monday. The Council will have to quickly choose a king, otherwise it will open the opportunity for a Military, Syndicalist, Nationalist or Republican takeover.
  • Riddle for the Ages: If there's a Military, Syndicalist, Nationalist or Republican takeover the "Polish Question" of the new King will never be answered.
  • Succession Crisis: Poland is stuck with the Regency Council for a long time because they have no idea who should they choose to be the new King.

Augustyn I

Augustyn Józef Czartoryski, though not a descendant of any historical Polish monarch, has been enthroned as its new king. The Czartoryski family, ethnically Polish, were influential both in the days of the old Commonwealth and following Russian annexation. With Augustyn, the new Polish nation at last has a truly Polish king.

Fryderyk Krystian

Fryderyk Krystian Saski, born Friedrich Christian von Wettin, king of Saxony, has ascended to the Polish throne. Fryderyk Krystian's status as both king of a constituent state of the German Empire and Poland is alarming to many Poles, who think him subservient to the Kaiser. Subservient or not, Fryderyk Krystian's coronation does indicate increased German influence in Poland.

Jakub Hanecki
Ideology: Radical Socialism

Jakub Hanecki was the chief financial minister of the Bolsheviks from Lenin's return to Russia until the bitter defeat of the revolution. He fled the collapsing Soviet Russia under the cover of darkness, bringing with him troves of financial documentation and ledgers linking various foreign socialists to the revolution, and thus saving many from imprisonment or worse. Hanecki, with the death of Dzierżyński, has triumphed over his political rivals. He intends to inject much needed fiscal responsibility into the new socialist Polish government.

Róża Luksemburg
Ideology: Syndicalism

Róża Luksemburg's reputation precedes her; she is considered by many to the ideological progenitor of an entirely new strain of Marxism. Luksemburg, a Leninist, criticized the lack of internal democracy within the old Bolshevik party. She also advocates the necessity of a world socialist revolution; such is the only way, she argues, to secure the revolution at all.

  • Retcon: In earlier versions of the mod, Rosa Luxemburg was portrayed as a Totalist, despite being considered one of the more democratic Marxists in Real Life. She was changed to a Syndicalist in later versions of the mod.
  • The Spymaster: Establishes a international Syndicalist spy ring in her path in the Polish National Focus tree.
  • State Sec: Establishes the "Ministry of Public Security" in her path in the Polish National Focus tree.
  • Take Over the World: Seeks to bring forth "world revolution".

Feliks Kon
Ideology: Totalism

  • Commie Nazis: Kon combines authoritarian syndicalism with Polish nationalism, and teaches his people that they are exceptional, the strongest and greatest people in all of Europe.

    White Ruthenia
Official Name: Kingdom of White Ruthenia
Ideology: Authoritarian Democracy

The lack of an historic Byelorussian state did not prevent the Germans from establishing the Kingdom of White Ruthenia along ethnographic lines following their victory in the Weltkrieg and the collapse of Russian power. Despite the lack of an historic identity, the legitimacy of the new state was secured during the reign of Kaiser Wilhelm II’s brother Heinrich, who used the strong constitutional royal prerogatives to promote land reform, education programs, and balance the interests of the various factions within his Kingdom.

Unfortunately, upon Heinrich’s death in 1929 the throne passed to his son Waldemar, who has not been able to live up to the standards set by his father. In 1936 Weißruthenien is an increasingly divided society and the young kingdom appears to be approaching a crisis as power slips away from the legitimate monarch to his younger brother Sigismund, who has managed built up a formidable power base through the "National Security Services" and various Byelorussian extremist groups unhappy with the current situation.

  • Allohistorical Allusion: The Kingdom of White Ruthenia actually existed briefly as the Belarussian People's Republic or White Ruthenian Democratic Republic, estabilished by the German Empire from 1918 until their invasion in 1919 by the Soviet Union when they became the Byelorussian SSR. Without the German army pulling out due the internal conflicts caused by the defeat of the German Empire and the fall of the Soviet Union to the Whites, Belorussia averted its fall, and after their victory, the Germans crowned a Hohenzollern as king of their new satellite state.
  • A Nazi by Any Other Name: The Byelorussian nationalists. Ironically, they rally around the king's brother Sigismund, a German noble.
  • Puppet State: One of the states estabilished by Germany to serve as a buffer state between them and Russia.
  • Ruritania: White Ruthenia is a poor and backwards country with barely any wealth, a huge class divide between the German aristocracy and the native population. The sole reason for the country to exist is to serve as a buffer state between Germany and Russia.
  • Secret Police: The "National Security Services", led by the king's brother Sigismund.
  • This Is My Name on Foreign: Due the influence of German and Russian, as well its native Belarusian, the country has been called Belorussia, Belarus, Byelorussia, White Ruthenia and Weiß Ruthenien.

Uladzimir I
Ideology: Authoritarian Democracy

King Uladzimir is the son of the King of Belorussia and the Kaiser's brother Heinrich. As his father was quite overshadowed by his brother, Prince Waldemar grew up in a relative distance from the German court, just as a simple German Prince. What made his life worse was his illness, hemophilia, which lead to a reclusive life. Everything changed in 1921, after a vote by the newly elected Rada of Belorussia, his father Heinrich was proclaimed King Genrikh of White Ruthenia and he moved to Minsk. Under the pressure of local prominent citizens, Waldemar was made Crown Prince, as the Germans were preferring his healthier brother Sigismund. After his father's death on April 20, 1929, Waldemar was crowned King Uladzimir I of Belorussia.

  • The Good King: Through several focuses where he decide to modernize and democratize the Kingdom owing to his hemophilia and poor health, then stopping his brother's coup attempt, he can become this.
  • Ill Boy: Uladzimir has hemophilia, making him constantly ill and forcing him to live in reclusion.
  • Inadequate Inheritor: Due to his haemophilia, King Uladzimir has not been able to live up to the standards set by his father Genrikh.
  • Puppet King: Puppet King of two different parties. First the Germans, as his reclusiveness and lack of control of the country permitted the military control and vassalization of White Ruthenia, which were impossible during his father's reign, and also by his brother and heir, Prince Sigismund, reinforced by his position as Head of National Security Services and his links with the Orthodox Church and the nationalist groups, making him the true ruler of the country, along with Prime Minister Pyotra Krecheuski.
  • Reluctant Ruler: He was the son of the brother of Emperor Wilhelm II, a minor German prince, and such was never trained to be a ruler. Although he expressed interest in the Byelorussian people, he barely speaks Byelorussian or Russian and his constant hemophilia crisis also make his job of ruling the country worse, so he prefers to stay away from everyday politics.
  • Royally Screwed Up: Uladzimir has hemophilia due his great-grandmother Queen Victoria.
  • This Is My Name on Foreign: Uladzimir is his Byelorussian name, but he's also refered as Vladimir, which is the Russian version, and also by his original name in German Waldemar.
  • Took a Level in Jerkass: He can attempt to make the kingdom an absolute monarchy if he decides that his lack of power is what is holding the country back.

Sigismund I
Ideology: Paternal Autocracy

  • Evil Chancellor: Sigismund can be considered the true leader of Belorussia, due to his brother's reclusiveness and preference to stay far away from daily politics, and Sigismund's alliances with several key factions and his control over the "National Security Services", which allow him to repress and assassinate any opponents.
  • The Evil Prince: Sigismund is the scheming heir apparent of Belorussia, and is supported by various factions such as the Belorussian Orthodox Church and Nationalists to use his position as chief of the National Security Services to eliminate any threats to his power.
  • The Man Behind the Man: De facto the ruler of White Ruthenia, but is "only" the heir apparent and chief of the National Security Services.
  • The Starscream: Sigismund currently holds a lot of power in the kingdom. If his brother Uladzimir decides to open the country more to democracy, Sigismund can attempt a coup and install himself as the new King.
  • This Is My Name on Foreign: Like his brother, he's usually called by his German name "Sigismund von Hohenzollern", but he also has a Belorussian name, Zyhimont, which he will be called if he becomes King of Belorussia.

    Ukrainian State
Official Name: Ukrainian State
Ideology: Paternal Autocracy

Following centuries of subjugation under the Russian Empire, Ukraine was liberated following the "Peace of Nations" at Brest-Litovsk. Originally Ukraine got its independence when the combined armies of the German Empire and Austria-Hungary marched through Russia; taking opportunity of Russia's civil war and supported by the Central Powers, the Central Council of Ukraine declared indepedence as the Ukrainian People's Republic, however, a coup in 1918 turned the republic into the Ukrainian State, an authoritarian regime under Hetman Pavlo Skoropadskyi, a regime that exists mostly to support large landowners. Since then Ukraine has been transformed (thanks mainly to German investment and favouritism in trading arrangements) into an agricultural giant.

Now Ukraine is one of the most important allies of Germany and member of the Reichspakt and can be considered the 'Breadbasket of Europe'. However, the lack of a representative government, the increasingly desperate position of the masses as well the increasingly deteriorating relationship between Russians and Ukrainians has resulted in the rise of radical socialists inspired by Georgia. This internal threat combined with the dangers posed by ambitious states on her frontiers has lead many observers to doubt Ukraine’s ability to survive the coming years.

Official Name: Kingdom of Lithuania
Ideology: Authoritarian Democracy

Mindaugas III (Mendog III)
Ideology: Authoritarian Democracy

  • Inadequate Inheritor: Mindaugas III lacks his father's stature and skills to lead a country. While Mindaugas II was a great boon to a nation as culturally and politically divided as Lithuania, Mindaugas III swiftly became a liability.
  • Reluctant Ruler: Being a second son, Karl Gero has always expected his older brother Wilhelm to succeed their father, and pursued his dream of being an architect. However, when Wilhelm chose to renounce the throne to marry Elisabeth Theurer, a woman beneath his station, Karl Gero was practically dragged out of the street, brought to Lithuania and crowned King Mindaugas III. Even he doesn't see himself as a legitimate heir.
  • This Is My Name on Foreign: If elected King of Poland, Mindaugas III's Polish subjects will refer to him as Mendog III.
  • Unexpected Successor: A second son, Karl Gero never expected himself to succeed his father until his elder brother suddenly chose to renounce the throne to marry a woman under his station.

Kazys Škirpa
Ideology: National Populism

  • The Gulag: Under Škirpa, political prisoners (of which there are no shortages) are sent to a 'vacation' in Varniai, where a seminary used to be.
  • A Nazi by Any Other Name: Škirpa is the leader of the radical ultranationalist Party of Lithuanian National Interests and the paramilitary Iron Wolves. If he comes to power, he'll immediately arrest German representatives in Lithuania, declare himself Tautos Vadas (meaning great leader, like Führer or Conducător), deport all Germans and declare Slavs second-class citizens, adopt a new authoritarian constitution, and unleash the Iron Wolves on all whom they seem unfit or hazardous for the Lithuanian nation.

    United Baltic Duchy
Official Name: United Baltic Duchy, Free City of Riga (post-collapse)
Ideology: Social Liberalism

  • Balkanize Me: If the United Baltic Duchy cannot curtail the Forest Brothers rebellion, it will collapse as Estonia and Latvia declare independence, leaving the Free City of Riga as the last holdout of German rule.
  • Elite Army: The Baltische Landeswehr is the most competent army in the eastern member states of the Reichspakt, boasting trained and professional officers, supplied from Germany, and seen as prestigious by Baltic German nobles. The United Baltic Duchy can either double down on this professionalism and develop a small, truly crack military force, or sacrifice this advantage and start integrating native Latvians and Estonians into the military for more numbers.
  • The Federation: The United Baltic Duchy can best be described as a federal oligarchic semi-constitutional monarchy. It is devolved into five Cantons, each with their own Landtags and Land Colleges, and the autonomous city of Riga. The federal government is composed of the Landtag of the United Baltic Duchy and the Convent of the Land Administrators. If the Baltic Knighthoods take power, they'll further decentralise the Duchy, turning it into a confederal monarchy of monarchies, composed of the duchies of Kurland, Livland and Estland.
  • Land of One City: The United Baltic Duchy becomes reduced to the city of Riga if it fails to deal with the Forest Brothers, resulting in Latvia and Estonia regaining independence.
  • Puppet State: The nominally independent United Baltic Duchy is a puppet of Germany in all but name, with all positions of power held by Germans.
  • La Résistance: The Forest Brothers are a group of Estonian and Latvian partisans who seek to free their countries from German rule.

Adolf Friedrich of Mecklenburg

  • Offered the Crown: At the end of the Weltkrieg, Adolf Friedrich's experience as a colonial governor and great prestige among the German upper class led to Adolf von Pilchau's Regency Council offering the throne of the United Baltic Duchy to him.
  • You Have Failed Me: If the Democratic Party fails to restore order in the Landtag in time after Black Mondey, Duke Adolf Friedrich will step in, dismiss them and hand over power to the Baltic Knighthoods.

Paul Schiemann

Ideology: Social Liberalism

  • Almighty Janitor: Schiemann could not assume any position in the Landratskollegium because of his non-noble birth, but nevertheless leads the incumbent government from his lowly position.
  • Emperor Scientist: According to Schiemann's meritocratic liberalism, the government should be composed of delegates from all social groups and political professionals. The right to rule should be reserved to those who have the merit and ability to rule, and educated individuals should have inherently more political rights than the uneducated lower masses do.
  • Internal Reformist: Paul Schiemann and his party blame the collapsing economy on the unbridled free market and proposes plans for progressive social reforms, including federally instituted minimum wages and pensions and greater federal control over the Duchy's economic affairs.
  • The Man Behind the Man: The Baltic-German Democratic Party's nominal leader is Friedrich von Samson-Himmelstjerna, but everyone knows that Schiemann holds the true power.
  • Passing the Torch: If the Duchy fails, Schiemann retires as the Democratic Party's leader and leaves Wilhelm Munter to succeed him.

Axel von Freytagh-Loringhoven

Ideology: Paternal Autocracy

  • Rightful King Returns: The Baltic Knighthoods restore Gustav Biron, head of the Curonian House of Biron which once reigned over the duchy of Courland-Semigallia, to his birthright.

Rüdiger von der Goltz
Ideology: National Populism

  • Aristocrats Are Evil: Count von der Goltz cooperates with the Baltic Brotherhood, a millenarian Christian fundamentalist, Baltic German supremacist, pan-German nationalist secret order composed of younger Baltic German nobles.
  • Culture Police: The Baltic Brotherhood censors modern art, viewing it as degenerate, un-Christian, and rooted in villainous syndicalist thought.
  • Dry Crusader: Goltz cracks down on alcohol, cigarettes and gambling, as they make men sin and thus cast them out of Heaven.
  • The Fundamentalist: The Baltic Brotherhood pronounces a new reading of The Bible, dismissing the Old Testament and viewing Christ as a saviour from the Jewish god.
  • Military Coup: If the civilian government fails to curtail the Forest Brothers uprising, the Baltische Landeswehr will grow disappointed at its leadership and begin to plot. Under the guise of protecting the United Baltic Duchy from likely destruction and supported by the Baltic Brotherhood, the Landeswehr will lay siege to the Landtag, arrest the Riga Democratic Bloc and appointing Goltz as emergency Regent.
  • Puppet King: Despite becoming Regent of the Baltic Duchy after the Baltic Brotherhood takes power, Goltz is little more than a figurehead for them. Otto von Kursell, leader of the Baltic Brotherhood, describes him as a fine commander but a senile buffoon and excellent figurehead who only needs glorious parades, a patriotic vocabulary and a few assurances.
  • Putting on the Reich: If the German Empire capitulates, and the Baltic Brotherhood is in power, they can try to reform Germany (a borderline impossible mission considering the size of UBD) as a National Populist German State, with extremely blatant Nazi references in their focus tree such as Gleichshaltung, Blut und Boden, and even "Das Dritte Reich", or The Third Reich.
  • Regent for Life: After Duke Adolf Friedrich vanished during his coup, Goltz proclaims himself Regent of the United Baltic Duchy, with a focus called A Permanent Regency.
  • Secret Circle of Secrets: The Baltic Brotherhood operates in secret circles and grows its power by infiltrating Baltic German nobles, especially appealing to younger, disillusioned and ambitious ones.
  • Warhawk: The Baltic Brotherhood seek to assume totalitarian control over the Duchy, transform its economy into a supplier for the Baltische Landeswehr, and rapidly industrialise the country in order to prepare it for a war against Russia and the Syndicalists.

Helmuth Stegman
Ideology: Social Conservatism

  • Internal Reformist: Stegman has established a democratic, pluralistic government in Riga with his reforms since the 1930s, rendering the city free of Forest Brothers and allowing it to stand if the Duchy falls and Latvia declares independence.

Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter
Ideology: Paternal Autocracy

  • Allohistorical Allusion: In real life, Scheubner-Richter was an early high-ranking member of the Nazi Party who was killed in the Beer Hall Putsch. In Kaiserreich, he advocates for the unification of all Germans into one pan-Germanic state, similar to what the Nazis did in real life.

Wilhelm Munter
Ideology: Social Liberalism

  • Les Collaborateurs: Munter advocates for opening the borders of the Free City to Latvians and Estonians who would prefer to live under a German-ruled liberal democracy than under a native-ruled dictatorship.


  • We ARE Struggling Together: In 1918, three authorities sought to represent the interests of the Latvian people: the Riga Democratic Bloc, the Iskolat and the Latvian Provisional National Council. Ultimately, none of them managed to declare an independent Latvian state, so Latvia missed the one chance when it could assert its independence and was left behind.

Jēkabs Peterss
Ideology: Radical Socialism

  • The Remnant: Peterss leads the remnants of the Latvian Red Riflemen and the Iskolat, who fled to France and then Britain after the Bolsheviks were defeated. To this day, he is still loyal to Lenin's interpretation of Marxism.

Ideology: Paternal Autocracy

Artur Sirk
Ideology: Paternal Autocracy

  • Government in Exile: In 1930, Sirk became leader of the Estonian government-in-exile. Under his leadership, the Estonian exiles have rebounded and began to support the resistance movement back home far more thoroughly.
  • State Sec: Sirk has turned the Omakaitse as his own paramilitary forces, loyal only to himself.

Nordic Countries

Official Name: Kingdom of Denmark
Ideology: Social Democracy

Danish neutrality in the Weltkrieg gave it a better relationship with the victor of the Weltkrieg and the new hegemon of the world. A member of the Mitteleuropa economic system, Denmark profited from the German economic boom of the 1920s. Politically, this economic boom brought the social democrats led by Thorvald Stauning to power, who desire to build a functional and democratic welfare state. However, the Landsting (county councils) is controlled by the conservative opposition, who continues to block proposals to reform. Meanwhile, radical syndicalist trade unions demand for more radical reforms, and discontent with German influence are motivating many political radicals. While the small nation's future seems bright, how will the nation interact with the increasingly unstable world is still an uncertainty. And under the pleasant diplomatic surface Denmark maintains towards the German Empire, some degree of bitterness about the loss of the province of Schleswig back in 1864 still lurks, especially from the more nationalist parties.

Official Name: Kingdom of Iceland, Republic of Iceland (if independent), Commune of Iceland (socialist)
Ideology: Social Democracy

Official Name: Kingdom of Norway
Ideology: Market Liberalism

  • Quantity Versus Quality: In order to modernise its army, Norway can choose to follow the plan of either Carl Gustav Fleischer, who proposes a small, well-armed, well trained professional army, familiar with Norway's conditions, or Otto Ruge, who favours mass mobilisation.

Vidkun Quisling
Ideology: Paternal Autocracy

  • Historical Villain Downgrade: While Quisling in Kaiserreich is as sympathetic to far-right ideologies as in OTL, he would never sell out Norway to a foreign power, especially not Germany.
  • Military Coup: If the Labour Party is elected in 1936 and does not outlaw the paramilitary Samfundsvernet, they'll help Quisling overthrow the government after a couple of days.
  • State Sec: If Quisling's Nasjonal Samling comes into power, they'll consolidate power by forming their own paramilitary and private navy to replace Norway's old armed forces.
  • Tyrant Takes the Helm: When Quisling seizes power, Parliament will pass a law granting him the power to enact laws, before he indefinitely suspends Parliament.

Official Name: Kingdom of Sweden
Ideology: Social Conservatism

    Kingdom of Finland
Official Name: Kingdom of Finland
Ideology: Paternal Autocracy

Carl Gustaf Mannerheim
Ideology: Authoritarian Democracy

  • Cincinnatus: Mannerheim can be appointed head of state to stabilize the country after he puts down the far-right Lapua Movement and the far-left Red Guard. After he's done stabilizing the country, Mannerheim relinquishes his control of the state back to the Finnish democracy, no strings attached.


    Austrian Empire
Flag of the Austrian Empire
Flag of Austria-Hungary 
Official Name: Austrian Empire
Ideology: Social Conservatism

For centuries the Habsburg dynasty has ruled a great part of Europe, carving out a great empire that has lasted for ages. In 1914, the heir the the throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, was murdered by Serbian nationalists, and the reaction of the Austro-Hungarian Empire lead to the start of the largest war the world has ever seen: The Weltkrieg. The war was a disaster for the Empire, the fight with the Russians in the east resulted in thousands of casualties due incompetence within the officer corps, organizational issuesnote , and the sheer stubbornness of the Russians, made worse when the Italians betrayed the Central Powers and attacked from the west, looking to reclaim their lost lands. With great sacrifice and spilled blood the Empire survived, the Russians fell to the October Revolution while the Italians were pushed back all the way to Rome, resulting in the fall of the Kingdom of Italy and a civil war, where Austria supported the Italian Republic.

Despite standing amongst the victors of the Weltkrieg, the war revealed the divisions of culture, class and ideology within the Empire ever so clearly, and the inner unrest continued on as the war ended. Kaiser Karl, following in the footsteps of the assassinated Franz Ferdinand in trying to reform the multinational Austro-Hungarian Empire into something that could survive in the twentieth century, launched a series of large scale reforms; however, his efforts were largely blocked by nobility of the Hungarian side of the Empire - slowing the progress of his plans of federalisation, and only occurring in the Cisleithanian side of the Empirenote .

Today the Empire is on the brink, ethnic tensions are on boiling point, negotiations with the many kingdoms of the monarchy will be held in the next Ausgleich, the Hungarians seem eager to break the fragile union, the Balkan countries are moving to remove the influence of Austria in the region, while the Republic of Italy is ever rebellious and ever threatened by the Syndicalists. With enemies within and without, the Habsburg domination may be coming to an end.

  • Civil War: The Empire is in a very fragile union, the constituent kingdoms can attempt to rebel against Austria if the Ausgleich negotiations go wrong. Hungary seems to do this a lot.
  • The Federation:
    • One of the most peaceful ways to unite Austria-Hungary and avert its dissolution is to transform the Empire into this. The new federation will hold all the territories the separate constituent kingdoms had, with all industry, military forces and population united under one central government. If the social-conservatives federalize the empire it will be called United States of Greater Austria and if the social-democrats do it the name will be Danubian Federation. However, the Habsburgs will still be in power, meaning it will be both The Federation and Hegemonic Empire.
    • Or Austria can just ignore this, send military forces to crush any rebellion and centralize the Empire by force. As of 0.8 Austria has to crush Hungary to be able to set up the Danubian Federation/United States of Greater Austria, although it is planned to be possible, with luck, to peaceful federalize once the Hungary focus tree is done.
  • Hegemonic Empire:
    • As The Sound of Martial Music points out, Austria-Hungary is a union of various nations having no connection to one another except their joint allegiance to the house of Habsburg-Lorraine, a bizarre system straight from feudalism that looks outdated in an era of nationalism and nation-states.
    • The Donau-Adriabund, which the Habsburgs could establish, is ostensibly an alliance meant to be a counterweight to Germany's Reichspakt. In practice, however, it also serves as a looser, more modernized form of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Multinational Team: The Habsburg Empire is formed by five different constituent nations and a lot of ethnicities. If there's a war their armies will look like this.
  • Obstructive Bureaucrat: The Hungarians (Transleithania) are constantly trying to halt and revert any federalization efforts, as they realized they won't be the second place of the Empire, but only one more state among others while Austria still keeps their leadership.
  • Paper Tiger: Austria looks imposing with their starting position, a large territory and a lot of puppets. However, due to its descentralized organization, the constituent countries have their own armies and industries with almost no cohesion between themselves and capitulating Austria can take the entire empire down.
  • Resurgent Empire: Should Austria pull through its predicament, the Habsburgs can potentially reemerge as a major regional, if not global power. The Donau-Adriabund could even challenge Germany's Reichspakt as Europe's hegemonic bloc.
  • Vestigial Empire: Almost this, the Empire is already very decentralized and ethnic tensions are on its breaking point. The objective of Austria is to prevent this, if not reassert its place in the modern world, either by federalization or by force.

Karl I / IV. Károly
Ideology: Social Conservatism

After his uncle Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in 1914, Karl von Habsburg-Lothringen became the designated successor of Kaiser Franz Josef, upon whose death Karl inherited the many thrones of the Habsburg Empire in late 1916. In spite of victory in the Weltkrieg, Austria remained burdened by an archaic political system and unrest. Emperor Karl now has the arduous task of reforming the ailing Empire despite numerous internal and external threats.
After the assassination of his uncle, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Karl found himself as the heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, succeeding in 1916 after the death of his great-uncle Emperor Franz Joseph. Karl had to hold what little was left of an empire full of internal turmoil and on the brink of collapse. As the empire pushed and defeated Italy, and the collapse of France under a revolution, the fall of Austria-Hungary was averted, at least for now. Since the end of the war, Karl has been trying to keep the efforts of federalization of the Empire started by his uncle Franz Ferdinand alive, by decentralizing and establishing autonomous countries within the empire.

  • The Emperor: Starts off as the Emperor of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in a tradition spanning since from 1273, when Rudolf I von Habsburg became the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • The Good King: Is attempting to establish an Imperial Federation, where all the ethnic groups that compose his Empire are equal. He can also establish a pretty social government for its citizens. He has even been considered for sainthood in real life.
  • Good Is Not Soft: To form the Danubian Federation or the United States of Greater Austria, Karl has to take extreme measures and crush the Hungarian nation as they rebel against Vienna's attempts to federalize the country.
  • This Is My Name on Foreign: The Kaiser of Austria is known as Karl I von Habsburg-Lothringen in Austria, Habsburg-Lotaringiai IV Károly in Hungarynote , Karlo IV in Illyria, Karel III in Bohemia and Karol I in Galicia-Lodomeria.
  • Unexpected Successor: Karl never expected to be the emperor of the Austrian Empire, a job that has always been destined for his uncle Franz Ferdinand. However, with his uncle's assassination and the death of his great-uncle Franz Joseph, he had to assume the throne and lead the Empire.

Otto I
Ideology: Social Conservatism

Emperor Otto von Habsburg-Lothringen has succeeded his father, Karl, as monarch of Austria. Otto, despite his young age, has grand ambitions of an Empire whose disparate peoples share but one national identity. His laconic speech, perhaps slightly scandalous love-life, and youthful charm have culminated in Otto garnering frequent media attention.

The only son of Emperor Karl I, Otto will come to the throne a young man who will come to continue, or even finish his father's work in establishing an Imperial Federation.

  • A Child Shall Lead Them: In earlier versions of Kaiserreich, Karl I still died at his original death date, meaning that Otto would have become Kaiser and King of Austria-Hungary just eight months shy of his tenth birthday. Averted in current versions, as he would be in his mid-thirties by the time of his ascension to the throne.
  • The Emperor: Succeeds his father as Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary.
  • The Good King: As much so, if not more so than his father, considering he is also seeking to federalize the Empire.
  • King Bob the Nth: Interestingly, although styled as King Otto of Hungary, he isn't the only King named Otto who ruled in Hungary. However, unlike the current Otto, he styled himself as King Béla V instead. Also of note was that he was baptised as Franz Joseph Otto as Karl was trying to promote the young man as Franz Joseph II, although it didn't stick.

    Kingdom of Hungary
Official Name: Kingdom of Hungary
Ideology: Paternal Autocracy

  • Civil War: In order to reclaim Transylvania, the Romanian government will start swaying ethnic Romanians in the region to support the approaching Romanian Army. If left unchecked, a substantial uprising will erupt in Transylvania, weakening Hungary before the eventual Romanian invasion.

Official Name: Kingdom of Illyria
Ideology: Social Liberalism

  • Allohistorical Allusion: The formation of Illyria can have some parallels with the formation of Yugoslavia: After the end of the war the winning side decide to create a major Pan-Slavic state under the leadership of a major South Slavic ethnic group. Yugoslavia was created by the Entente giving the Slavic parts of Austria-Hungary to Serbia, while Illyria unites the old South Slavic parts of the Empire plus Montenegro and the Slovene parts of Italy under the Croats.

Stjepan Radić
Ideology: Social Liberalism

Karl I's representative in Illyria.

  • Irony: In Real Life, Radić was opposed to a South Slavic Union, yet he is serving as the Kaiser's Governor-General in a country that is loosely the Habsburgs' variation of Yugoslavia. Downplayed mostly because this union would be more Croat-dominated than Serb-dominated, which was the reason of Radić's opposition.

Official Name: Kingdom of Bohemia
Ideology: Social Liberalism

Johann II zu Schwarzenberg
Ideology: Social Liberalism

Karl I's representative in Bohemia.

Official Name: Kingdom of Galicia-Lodomeria
Ideology: Authoritarian Democracy

Karl Albrecht von Habsburg-Lothringen
Ideology: Authoritarian Democracy

Karol Olbracht Habsburg-Lothringen, Austrian by birth, is a stalwart advocate of Polish independence. When Emperor Karl plotted to annex Polish lands to Austria, Karol Olbracht advocated fiercely against it. Though amicable to his native Austria, as king of Poland, Karol continues to fight for the Polish people.

Karl I's distant cousin, and his representative in Galicia-Lodomeria. He is also one of the potential candidates for the Polish throne.

  • Going Native: Karl Albrecht went native as Polish after moving to Galicia-Lodomeria, and because of his support for the Poles in his own lands, he could be offered the throne.
  • Offered the Crown: Is one of four potential candidates to become King of Poland. Should Karl Albrecht become King, he would entrust governorship of Galicia-Lodomeria to his friend, Józef Haller von Hallenburg. Interesting to note, that Karl Albrecht's father, Karl Stephan, was also a candidate to the Polish throne during the Weltkrieg (as he was as well in Real Life).
  • This Is My Name on Foreign: Known in the Austrian Empire by his German name, Karl Albrecht. If he becomes King of Poland, he would be styled by the Polish Karol Olbracht.


Official Name: Kingdom of Greece
Ideology: Social Liberalism

  • Cheaters Never Prosper: Cheat on either side for the Greek referendum, and if you get caught then the consequences are either a military takeover that results in the restoration of the monarchy, or a Syndicalist rebellion.
  • Retcon: In earlier versions of Kaiserreich, Crete was owned by Germany instead of Greece.

Official Name: Kingdom of Serbia
Ideology: Authoritarian Democracy

  • The Federation: Serbia forms a personal union with Montenegro once the latter secedes from Austrian Illyria, which will become the Federation of Yugoslavia once Serbia conquers the rest of Austria's South Slavic-speaking territory.
  • Revenge: Serbia created the Belgrade Pact with Romania and Greece to take revenge on Bulgaria, who took territory from all three nations (Macedonia from Serbia and Greece and Dobruja from Romania) after winning World War I on the side of the Central Powers.
  • Rising Empire: When Black Monday forces Austria to withdraw its troops along the two countries' border, Serbia finally gets the chance to realise its ambition: take back Macedonia from Bulgaria, then invade Austria and unite its South Slavic population under a Federation of Yugoslavia.

Petar Bojović
Ideology: Authoritarian Democracy

  • Regent for Life: Bojović has been regent of Serbia for almost a decade in order to prevent Austrian aggression, even though Crown Prince Alexander is already 47 years old by 1936. As his hold over Serbia weakens, Bojović might either crown Alexander, step down and let a republic take over, or continue ruling Serbia as regent.
  • State Sec: If Bojović continues the Regency, he and Prime Minister Milan Stojadinović will form the Greenshirts, a paramilitary inspired by the Iron Guard, for the purpose of protecting his government and ensuring that any attempt to depose Bojović will be harshly punished.

Alexander I
Ideology: Paternal Autocracy

  • Internal Reformist: King Alexander wishes to bring the backward, agrarian nation into the modern age.
  • Rightful King Returns: If General Petar Živković takes power in 1937, he'll invite the former Crown Prince Alexander back to Serbia and crown him as the new King.

Slobodan Jovanović
Ideology: Market Liberalism

  • Cincinnatus: If appointed provisional President of Serbia, Jovanović will help draft a new republican constitution, reverse the political oppression of the Bojović Regency, and when the time is right, call fresh elections.
  • Emperor Scientist: Slobodan Jovanović is a professor at the University of Belgrade's Faculty of Law. If he becomes President, he'll argue that more investment in education is needed, and ensure that higher-education instutions have funds to advance research.

Official Name: Tsardom of Bulgaria
Ideology: Authoritarian Democracy

  • Western Terrorists: The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (VMRO) is an ultranationalist, revolutionary terror group who long fought for a Bulgarian Macedonia. Following the Weltkrieg, the VMRO went inactive as their goal was achieved, but will be restored and declare war against Belgrade if Serbia reconquers Macedonia.

Alternative Title(s): Kaiserreich Austria Hungary


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