- Casual Danger Dialogue: She spends her fall Down the Rabbit Hole making strange comments to herself and shows little concern for the fact that she's potentially falling to her death.
- Catchphrase: "Let's pretend!" is referred to as her "favorite phrase" in Through the Looking-Glass. In popular culture, the phrase typically associated with her is "Curiouser and curiouser!", which she actually only ever uses once (and with the narration Lampshading the poor grammar, no less).
- Cloudcuckoolander: Alice spends a lot of time talking to herself in both books, including giving herself advice, has an extended monologue to a cat, pretends to be many people at once, and once frightened her nurse by saying Do let's pretend that I'm a hungry hyena and you're a bone! She's probably considered a bit odd in the 'real world', but once she gets to Wonderland she becomes the Only Sane Man.
- Constantly Curious: She is always investigating and exploring the weird places she ends up in, and asking questions of their residents.
- Curiosity Killed the Cast: She has a knack for investigating things that don't seem safe at all, such as large rabbit holes, bottles of ambiguous liquids that say Drink Me, and a queen that is known to order people executed for petty things.
- Damsel in Distress: Very briefly in Through the Looking-Glass, when the Red Knight "captures" her and the White Knight has to rescue. Although, given how incompetent they both were, Alice was probably in no real danger.
- Down the Rabbit Hole: How Alice gets to Wonderland the first time.
- Genre Savvy: After finding the "DRINK ME" bottle, Alice decides not to just immediately drink from it and instead checks to see if it's also labeled "poison"....for she had read several nice little stories about children who had got burnt, and eaten up by wild beasts, and other unpleasant things, all because they would not remember the simple rules their friends had taught them.
- I Fell for Hours: Alice falls for long enough that she can carry on a conversation with herself of where in the Earth she might be, and if she might fall through it to the other side and wondering where she'd end up.
- Innocently Insensitive: She can be a bit tactless. At one point, she talks fondly about how good her cat Dinah is at hunting mice and birds... in front of an audience of anthropomorphic mice and birds. Later, she complains to the Caterpillar about how three inches is "a wretched height to be", not realizing the Caterpillar himself is exactly three inches tall.
- Kid Heroine: She's a little girl and the heroine of the story. She gets into the Wonderland.
- Kindhearted Cat Lover: She adores her cat Dinah (and in the book extends the same adoration to Dinah's two kittens), and gets along famously with the Cheshire Cat, whom she calls "Cheshire-Puss".
- Know-Nothing Know-It-All: She repeatedly tries to show off by reciting bits of scientific trivia, but she almost always gets them wrong somehow.
- Literal-Minded: A few times; for example, when the Mouse says that he has a "long, sad tale", Alice assumes he means his tail and comments "it is very long, but why do you call it sad?" The ensuing tale is actually shaped like a tail.
- Little Miss Snarker: Despite being a sweet little girl, she will often have a snarky comment or response to whoever she meets, especially when she disagrees with what they're saying or thinks it's silly.
- Lonely Rich Kid: Implied, moreso in Looking-Glass. Her family is apparently well-off enough to have servants and a governess at their household, she talks to her cats rather than her siblings, and her parents (assuming they're present) are never mentioned.
- Ms. Imagination: She did dream all that wackiness up after all (in most adaptations where it is All Just a Dream).
- Nightmare Fuel Station Attendant: Alice has her moments, such as when she frightens her nurse by shouting, "Nurse! Do let's pretend that I'm a hungry hyena and you're a bone!"
- Not So Different: She's just as prone to being a Cloud Cuckoo Lander and Insane Troll Logic as the creatures she meets, which others will sometimes point out to her. Sometimes they even seem more sensible than her!
- Only One Name: She's only referred to by "Alice" in the book. (However, most adaptations give her the last name Liddell (or a variation), after the real Alice Liddell she was inspired by.)
- Only Sane Woman: By default. She's a bit of an odd child, but since everyone else in these books is inscrutably weird, she spends a lot of time trying to make sense of other people's insanity.
- Shrinking Violet: Many times she's described as saying or doing something "shyly", "timidly" or "cautiously".
- Sizeshifter: Mostly thanks to the "Eat Me" and "Drink Me" items, she changes sizes frequently throughout the first book.
- Talking to Themself: Alice talks to herself a lot in the books, often pretending to be two people.
Dinah, Snowdrop and Kitty
- Adapted Out: Snowdrop (the white kitten) and Kitty (the black kitten), who are Dinah's kittens, appear only in the book of Looking Glass. They never appear in any adaptations, where Dinah is the only real-world cat to appear (and is often portrayed as a kitten herself).
- And You Were There: Played with in Looking Glass. As Alice wakes up, the Red Queen "turns" into a kitten in her hands, and she discovers that she's holding an actual, purring kitten (the kitten she fell asleep cuddling). Alice takes this as a sign that all three cats were with her in her dream. She identifies the black kitten as the Red Queen and the white kitten as the White Queen, and after a bit of thought decides that Dinah must have been Humpty Dumpty (though she's not completely sure about that last part).
- Cute Kitten: The are cute cat and kittens, adored by little Alice.
- A Dog Named "Dog": A Kitten Named Kitty. While Dinah and Snowdrop have proper names, the black kitten is never called by any name other than Kitty and is usually referred to as "the kitten" by the narrative.
- The Unseen: Dinah in the first book. Though Alice often talks about her (especially in earlier chapters), she never actually appears. She does appear in the second book, with her two kittens.
- Aloof Big Sister: Implied to be this.
- Aw, Look! They Really Do Love Each Other: At the beginning, Alice complains about her sister's activities not being exciting enough, but at the end she's all too happy to share the details of Wonderland with her.
- No Name Given: Though she was based off of Alice's real life sister, Lorina, so some adaptations give her that name.
- Only Sane Woman: Although she never goes to Wonderland (except perhaps at the end), she could be seen as this with Alice, at least. She is the Only Sane Character overall, though.
- Write Who You Know: It's believed that she was based off of the real Alice's older sister, Lorina.
- Flat Character: He knows at least some Latin... and that's all we know about him.
- The Ghost: Didn't know Alice had a brother? He's incredibly easy to miss, only mentioned off-hand in a single sentence in Chapter 2, when Alice recals looking at her brother's Latin book, so most probably don't even know he exists. He never appears in any adaptations either.
- No Name Given: Much like Alice's sister.
- Cloud Cuckoo Lander: Practically everyone Alice meet is this in some way.
- Everyone Calls Him "Barkeep": The majority of the characters in Wonderland are referred to only by their title or what they are. The only exceptions are Bill the Lizard, the Hatter, and the March Hare (named Hatta and Haigha, respectively) and even then the names of the latter two are only revealed in the sequel.
- Funny Animal: Many of the animal wear clothes and act like humans.
- Playing Card Motifs: Alice meets the Queen and King of Hearts, and they're subjects.
- Talking Animal: Almost all the animals that Alice meets talk, even if they don't otherwise act human.
The White Rabbit
- Catchphrase: "I'm late!" and "Oh my ears and whiskers!"
- Composite Character: A few adaptations have combined his role with that of the March Hare.
- Foil: According to Word of God, he's this for Alice."And the White Rabbit, what of him? Was he framed on the "Alice" lines, or meant as a contrast? As a contrast, distinctly. For her 'youth', 'audacity','vigour', and 'swift directness of purpose' read 'elderly', 'timid', 'feeble' and 'nervously shilly-shallying', and you will get something of what I meant him to be. I think the White Rabbit should wear spectacles. I'm sure his voice should quaver, and his knees quiver, and his whole air suggest a total inability to say 'Boo' to a goose!"
- Follow the White Rabbit: The Trope Namer, since Alice follows him to get to Wonderland the first time.
- Funny Animal: Aside from going down the rabbit hole in the beginning, he acts no differently from a nervous human.
- Grumpy Old Man: How he acts around his servants (including Alice, who he mistakes for one) - although to be fair, his servants are infuriatingly strange.
- Half-Dressed Cartoon Animal: He wears a waistcoat but no pants.
- Nervous Wreck: He's very nervous about being late for the Queen of Hearts. Considering the kind of person she is, it's understandable. Even moreso in the Disney film, since unlike the original book the Queen's executions are carried out.
- Only Sane Man: Possibly. But that's not saying much. Among his house staff, definitely. Among everyone else, not so much.
- White Bunny: Well, he is an albino rabbit.
- Hair-Trigger Temper: He's extremely easy to anger or offend.
- Jerk with a Heart of Gold: He's grouchy, arrogant and short tempered, but aside from that, he's a generally nice guy as long as you don't offend him.
- Talking Animal: While he acts like a mouse, including a fear of cats, he communicates with Alice just fine.
- Why Did It Have to Be Snakes?: He is understandably very afraid of cats, and doesn't take too kindly when Alice talks about her cat Dinah.
- Author Avatar: According to some sources (Charles Dodgson had a stutter, and would introduce himself as "Do-do-dodgson").
- Other sources point out that Dodgson actually stammered, and so would not have repeated syllables.
- Composite Character: With Pat in the Disney version.
- Dumb Dodo Bird: He's a dodo, and a bit of a Know-Nothing Know-It-All.
- Funny Animal: He talks and acts like a human, and even has hands in the illustrations.
- Know-Nothing Know-It-All: The Eaglet accuses him of being one, see Sesquipedalian Loquaciousness below.
- Most definitely the case in the Disney film
- Nice Guy
- Self-Deprecation: A rumored reason as to why Dodgson specifically chose a dodo as his caricature was a speech impediment he had that caused him to stutter. As such, he would introduce himself as "Do-Do-Dodgson".
- Serious Business: He and the other birds and animals take the prizes at the end of the Caucus Race very seriously. Alice finds this very silly, but decides it would be rude to laugh after seeing just how serious they are about it.Dodo: We beg your acceptance of this elegant thimble.
- Sesquipedalian Loquaciousness: So much that the Eaglet tells him to "Speak English!" and accuses him of not knowing what half the words he uses means.
The Lory, the Eaglet and the Duck
- Bratty Half-Pint: The first line from the Eaglet is to yell at the Dodo for using big words and then accuse him of being a Know-Nothing Know-It-All.
- Know-Nothing Know-It-All: The Lory.Lory: (to Alice) I'm older than you and therefore must know better.
- Literal-Minded: The Duck is implied to be this.
- Talking Animal: They're birds that talk.
- Write Who You Know: They are based on Alice's sisters Edith (the Eaglet) and Lorina (the Lory) and Rev. Robinson Duckworth (the Duck).
- Lampshaded when Alice is noted to talk familiarly with them, "as if she had known them all her life". Though this refers to all the animals in general in the narration, Alice primarily talks to the trio after this mention.
Bill the Lizard
- Butt-Monkey / The Chew Toy: First he's catapulted out of a chimney, then Alice is kind of mean to him when he's part of the jury.
- Oh, No... Not Again!: The way the White Rabbit and Pat react to him shooting out of the chimney implies that things like that happen to him all the time.White Rabbit and Pat: There goes Bill!
- Adaptational Species Change: A variant; some adaptations have him metamorphose into a butterfly at the end of his scene, which he didn't do in the book.
- Catchphrase: "Who are you?"
- Civilized Animal: He's a caterpillar that talks and smokes a hookah.
- Deadpan Snarker: In some adaptations. The 2010 adaptation deserves a special mention, as he's voiced by Alan "Severus Snape" Rickman.
- Intellectual Animal: He talks in a very refined way.
- Jerk with a Heart of Gold: He's haughty, impatient and grouchy... but he does help Alice out.
- Metamorphosis: In some adaptations, he becomes a butterfly.
- The Omniscient: A common portrayal of him in adaptations and reimaginings is that he knows absolutely everything (American McGee's Alice and the Tim Burton adaptation are standouts here). In the book, we have no confirmation that he's omniscient, but compared to all the other animals in Wonderland, he might as well be.
- Only Sane Man: Probably the most level headed individual in Wonderland.
- Power Glows: In the 1999 Hallmark adaptation, especially when he turns into a butterfly.
- Smoking Is Cool: He smokes from a hookah. Quite a few adaptations (the two Disney movies especially) have him inflict Second-Face Smoke on Alice as well.
- Suddenly SHOUTING!: In the Disney adaptation:Alice: The other side of what?The Caterpillar, now a Butterfly: THE MUSHROOM, OF COURSE!
- Telepathy: Implied; at one point, he responds to Alice's thoughts as though she said them out loud.
- Ambiguous Gender: A lot of the animals in Wonderland lack established genders (even the Dodo and the Cheshire Cat were referred to as "it"s by the narrative) but this one is especially confusing; the Pigeon apparently has eggs to hatch, which is why it's so afraid of serpents, but it's never established if it laid the eggs (which, for obvious reasons, would designate it female) or was just hatching them (a job that would go to either gender).
- Nervous Wreck: Possibly more-so than the White Rabbit!
- Talking Animal: Alice definitely hears its voice.
- Why Did It Have to Be Snakes?: After Alice accidentally makes her neck grow to enormous proportions, it mistakes her for a serpent and panics.
The Fish Footman and the Frog Footman
- The Cameo: Possibly. A frog-headed character quite similar to the Frog Footman talks to Alice in Through the Looking-Glass.
- Department of Redundancy Department:The Fish-Footman began by producing from under his arm a great letter, nearly as large as himself, and this he handed over to the other, saying, in a solemn tone, "For the Duchess. An invitation from the Queen to play croquet." The Frog-Footman repeated, in the same solemn tone, only changing the order of the words a little, "From the Queen. An invitation for the Duchess to play croquet."
- Funny Animal: Aside from having the faces of a fish and a frog, they act like regular footmen.
- Lazy Bum: The Frog Footman tells Alice of his plans to just on the steps of the Duchess's house until tomorrow, and for days and days after.
Then they both bowed low, and their curls got entangled together.
- Abusive Parent: To her baby during her first appearance.
- Ambiguously Human: Unlike the other royals in Wonderland, she is not a playing-card character. But, given the enormous size of her head and her Gonk features, she might not be human either.
- Catchphrase/Faux Symbolism: Seems to like bringing up the "moral(s)" to just about anything, even if it borders on Insane Troll Logic. Alice even calls "morals" the Duchess' favorite word.
- Gonk: Her illustrations are based off of THIS◊ for one thing...
- Mood-Swinger: She can go from angry to agreeable pretty sporadically.
- The Napoleon: She's loud and abusive, and small enough to put her head on Alice's shoulder, even though Alice is seven years old and the Duchess is old enough to have a child.
- Nice Hat: Her ermine-trimmed headdress.
- No Sense of Personal Space: When in a good mood, something that Alice finds rather disquieting. She's exactly the right height to rest her chin on Alice's shoulder, unfortunately for Alice.
The Duchess' Baby
- Ambiguously Human: He is the child of the Duchess, who is also Ambiguously Human, and he apparently regularly transforms into pigs and possibly other things.
- Baleful Polymorph: Transforms into a pig. Possibly averted as the Cheshire Cat implies that he's done this before.
- Gonk: Like mother, like son it seems. Alice observes that he looks better as a pig than a human.
- Noodle Incident: The Cheshire Cat's reaction to Alice revealing that the baby turned into a pig implies that it's done this before. He proceeds to imply that the baby also turned into a fig at least once.
- Satellite Character: To the Duchess.
- What Happened to the Mouse?: After he turns into a pig and runs off, the Cheshire Cat goes to look for him. He's never seen or mentioned again and the Cheshire Cat doesn't say what became of him when he reappears.
The Duchess' Cook
- Angry Chef: She's constantly yelling and throwing things at her boss.
- Lethal Chef: Implied, given how much she puts pepper on everything.
- Trademark Favorite Food: Has a weird obsession with pepper.
The Cheshire Cat
- Adaptational Villainy: In the book, he's the closest thing Wonderland has to a Nice Guy and is the only character Alice thinks of as a friend. Quite a few adaptations, including the Disney movie, turn him into a callous Jerkass, and some of them even make him directly sinister and dangerous.
- Affectionate Nickname: Alice calls him "Cheshire-Puss". His reaction implies that he likes this nickname a lot.
- Cats Are Magic: He has abilities that no other Wonderlanders seem to possess, being able to disappear and re-appear at will.
- Cheshire Cat Grin: The Trope Namer
- Creepy Good: Despite his unnerving smile and claws, he is friendly and helpful to Alice.
- Dark Is Not Evil: He's somewhat creepy looking (Alice decides to approach him cautiously, after observing his large amount of teeth and sharp claws) but is pretty much the friendliest individual Alice meets in Wonderland.
- Jerkass: The Disney version, possibly as an instance of Cats Are Mean. Though not overly malicious and seeming friendly in his first two appearances, in the later parts of the film he seems to go out of his way to get Alice into trouble, for no good reason.
- This counts mainly for the actual movie, though. In later appearances in other stories and spin-offs, he's been softened up a bit and is more of a Blue-and-Orange Morality type.
- His portrayal in the Kingdom Hearts series is mainly neutral. He does help Sora with proving Alice's innocence, but later on sends a Trickster to attack him (Though he may have been giving a quick warning before it arrived). He's at his worst in the manga adaptation for Kingdom Hearts: 358/2 Days, where he throws a hedgehog at the Queen of Hearts and frames Roxas for it.
- Kick the Dog: The Disney version. After letting Alice take the blame for his pranks against the Queen, he vanishes, only to return at the end of Alice's trial, after Alice's failed attempt to stand up for herself, to make sure things go as bad as possible for her:Alice: Now as for you, Your Majesty... *starts shrinking* "Your Majesty," indeed! Why, you're not a queen! You're just a fat, pompous, bad-tempered old — *finally realizes she has shrunk down to normal size and is smaller than the Queen* — tyrant.
Queen of Hearts: *smiling dangerously* And what were you saying, my dear?
Cheshire Cat: *suddenly appears* Well, she simply said you're a fat, pompous, bad-tempered old tyrant! *laughs and disappears again*
Queen of Hearts: OFF WITH HER HEAD!
- Seems like some people at Disney thought this made him too much of a Jerkass, though, and in one of the Recursive Adaptation novelizations of the movie, this part is actually changed to the Cat redeeming himself with a pseudo-Big Damn Heroes moment; instead of showing up to make things worse for Alice at the trial, he shows up to confess, and to distract the Queen and the guards with a lot of nonsense, some of which is taken directly from the original book, allowing Alice to escape in the confusion.
- Literalist Snarking: In the Disney version.Cheshire Cat: (while standing on his own head) Can you stand on your head?Cheshire Cat: (while slowly disappearing) You may have noticed that I'm not all there myself.
- Nice Guy: By Wonderland standards, anyway. In the book, he's without question the friendliest character Alice meets, being the only one who actually listens to her without getting unreasonably offended or start insulting or threatening her. It's telling that when he reappears, Alice is actually glad to see him.
- Only Sane Man: In the Duchess's house, at least. Subverted, though, in that he proudly considers himself mad.
- Perpetual Smiler: Something Alice finds unsettling at first.
- Reality Warper: Is capable of things that other Wonderlanders aren't, such as turning invisible, teleporting and even taking himself apart. While in the book he only seems to be able to affect himself, adaptations tend to ramp his reality bending powers Up to Eleven until he's basically the Wonderland equivalent to Q. In the 2010 film, he even transforms into the Hatter to save him from execution.
- Talking Animal: It's might seem like a normal cat at first, but its smile and talking suggests otherwise.
- Teleporters and Transporters: One of his most famous abilities.
- The Trickster: In the Disney film; and what is more, many other versions of this character follow it as well, having the cat get Alice in trouble, but never being truly mean-spirited, just mysterious.
The Hatter (Hatta)
- The Cameo: He makes a brief appearance in Through the Looking-Glass as "Hatta". The illustrations confirm that it's him.
- The Cobbler's Children Have No Shoes: A more literal case, as during the court scene, he states that the hat he's wearing isn't his, and that being a hatter, he has no hat of his own.
- Composite Character: With Humpty Dumpty (the "unbirthday" routine) in the Disney adaptation.
- Dreadful Musician: Well, given that the Queen of Hearts wanted to execute him for his singing at the royal concert, this can be implied, but given her nature, it may be taken with a pinch of salt.
- Eye Take: When Alice reprimands him for making "personal remarks."
- Everyone Calls Him "Barkeep": His real name is Hatta according to Through the Looking-Glass, but he's most often referred to as the Hatter (or The Mad Hatter, in popular culture).
- Given Name Reveal: His real name isn't given until the sequel.
- Heterosexual Life-Partners: With The Hare.
- I Am Not Shazam: He is never called The Mad Hatter, only The Hatter, though the chapter he appears in is called 'The Mad Tea Party', and the Cheshire Cat refers to him and the March Hare as mad.
- Jerkass: He's extremely tactless, especially to Alice and the Dormouse.
- The Mad Hatter: The Trope Namer
- Non Sequitur: His entire conversational style.
- Spot of Tea: He seems to like tea parties.
- Those Two Guys: He and the March Hare are the only pair of dream-characters to appear in Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass (although in the second book, they're called "Hatta" and Haigha").
- Token Human: To the tea party, which he is the only human (or at least humanoid) member of.
The March Hare (Haigha)
- Deadpan Snarker: A bit more so than his friend, particularly in the animated Disney film.
- Driven to Madness: Possiblyhe went mad right after the Hatter and Time quarreled, though it's unknown whether Time caused the Hare to go mad or it was just a coincidence being March ("mad as a March Hare" is the phrase the character's namesake comes from).
- Everyone Calls Him "Barkeep": His real name is Haigha (pronounced to rhyme with "mayor") according to Through the Looking-Glass, but he's most often referred to as the March Hare.
- Given Name Reveal: His real name isn't given until the sequel.
- Funny Animal: He talks and attends tea parties. In Looking-Glass, he is the White Queen's messenger.
- The Gadfly: As Haigha, he teases and picks on the White King, even though he is supposed to be the White King's servant.
- Heterosexual Life-Partners: With The Hatter. Through the Looking-Glass in particular has him almost show a paternal kindness toward the Hatter once he (Hatter) gets out of prison.
- Spot of Tea: Like the Hatter, he seems to like tea parties.
- Suddenly SHOUTING!: In Looking-Glass, after telling the White King to lean in close so he can whisper, Haigha yells in his ear.
- Those Two Guys: He and the Hatter are the only pair of dream-characters to appear in Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass (although in the second book, they're called "Hatta" and Haigha", with "Haigha" pronounced to rhyme with "mayor".).
- Butt-Monkey: Is often the brunt of abuse from both the Hatter and the March Hare. When Alice leaves the tea party, she notices the two of them trying to stuff him into a tea pot.
- Composite Character: With the Mouse in the two Disney films. Though the only trait from the Mouse he gets is his fear of cats.
- Funny Animal: He talks and attends tea parties.
- Sleepy Head: Lampshaded by the Hatter.Dormouse: You might as well say that "I breathe when I sleep" is the same as "I sleep when I breathe".Hatter: It is the same with you.
- Anthropomorphic Personification: To quote the Hatter, Time is not an "it", he's a "he".
- Disproportionate Retribution: Took such great offense at the Hatter's poor performance at the Queen's concert that he froze him at tea time forever.
- The Ghost: He never physically appears, but the Hatter mentions him, explaining why he and his friends are always stuck at tea time.
- Time Master: He is time, so naturally he can manipulate time as he wishes.
- Time Stands Still: Did this to the Hatter.
The Queen of Hearts
- The All-Solving Hammer: Her response to any problem is to threaten someone with beheading.
- Alpha Bitch: She's the ruler of her sector of Wonderland, and threatens anyone who does something she dislikes with beheading.
- Ax-Crazy: She's obsessed with chopping off heads, but never actually does it and her orders for beheading are always pardoned by the kingin the original book, anyway. Nearly every adaptation has her go through with the executions.
- Big Bad Wannabe: She talks constantly about how she'll behead anyone who gets in her way, but they never actually go through with it.
- The Caligula: As the ruler of the cards (and, presumably, Wonderland), she acts like a petulant, tantrum-throwing child, uses living creatures as props in her games, and orders people executed for petty or nonsensical reasons (thankfully, these executions are seldom actually carried out).
- Catchphrase: "OFF WITH THEIR HEADS!"
- Composite Character: With the Red Queen in many adaptations, notably in the Tim Burton film.
- Deadpan Snarker: In the Hallmark TV movie.Knave of Hearts: Would I lie to you?Queen of Hearts: Yes.LaterQueen of Hearts: I am NOT in the habit of talking to myself! And yet, that's the only way I can get an intelligent conversation around here.
- Disproportionate Retribution: Threatened beheading is her response to everything.
- God Save Us from the Queen!: She's a queen who who seems only interested in bossing people around and executing them.
- Hair-Trigger Temper: She seems very easily angered.
- Jerkass: She's mean and spiteful, and that's before she orders your head chopped off.
- Large Ham: She is not subtle in what she feels or wants.
- Evil Is Hammy: One of the loudest and most dramatic characters in the books, and also the cruelest.
- Pimped-Out Dress: In the Disney animated version in particular, her dress is vibrant and rather large. Heart-themed of course.
- Playing Card Motifs: The Queen of Hearts.
- Psychopathic Womanchild: She's basically a spoiled bratty child trapped in the body of a tyrannical adult queen.
- Red Oni, Blue Oni: Red to her husband's Blue.
- Wicked Heart Symbol: You wouldn't expect a queen of hearts of all things to be so cruel.
The King of Hearts
- Cannot Tell a Joke: So he has to inform people that he's telling a joke in order to get them to laugh.
- Henpecked Husband: Made even clearer in the Disney version.
- Manchild: He is petty and sensitive, and while not as tyrannical as his wife, he doesn't seem to care about ruling responsibly any more than her.
- Pet the Dog: While he generally goes along with what his wife wants, he pardons the people she orders executed behind her back.
- Playing Card Motifs: The King of Hearts.
- Reasonable Authority Figure: Tries to be one, anyway.
- Red Oni, Blue Oni: Blue to his wife's Red.
The Knave of Hearts
- Butt-Monkey: He's put on trial for stealing the Queen's tarts, which he may or may not have done.
- Playing Card Motifs: The Jack/Knave of Hearts, and serves the King and Queen.
- Deadpan Snarker: He heckles Alice and the Mock Turtle.
- Finishing Each Other's Sentences: With the Mock Turtle while explaining the Lobster Quadrille.
- Heterosexual Life-Partners: With the Mock Turtle.
- Jerk with a Heart of Gold: He insults both Alice and the Mock Turtle (but mostly Alice) regularly, he's impatient and often rude, but overall he's one of the more amiable creatures in Wonderland.
- Only Sane Man: Seems to consider himself this in comparison to the Queen of Hearts and the Mock Turtle. He's actually just as wacky as everyone else in Wonderland, but he's a little nicer than them at the same time.
- Sensitive Guy and Manly Man: Manly Man to the Mock Turtle's Sensitive Guy.
The Mock Turtle
- Finishing Each Other's Sentences: With the Gryphon while explaining the Lobster Quadrille.
- Heterosexual Life-Partners: With the Gryphon, it seems. They went to school together and are still friends.
- Hurricane of Puns:He seems to like them.
- I'm Crying, but I Don't Know Why: He cries a lot. According to the Gryphon, he has no reason to cry whatsoever.
- Mix-and-Match Critters: He's a turtle with the head and tail of a calf, a reference to "mock turtle soup", which was usually made from calf parts.
- Nice Guy: Like the Gryphon, he does casually insult Alice in between his crying fits, but by Wonderland standards he's one of the nicest.
- Sensitive Guy and Manly Man: Sensitive Guy to the Gryphon's Manly Man.
- Chess Motifs: The whole story takes place during a game of chess, and many of the characters we meet are key players.
- Nursery Rhyme: Odds are, if a character isn't an obvious chess piece, then they're from a nursery rhyme.
- Alpha Bitches: They're really quite rude to Alice.
- One of them is more so in the 1985 TV movie, while the rest is more good-natured.
- Beauty Is Bad: They're pretty, but they're not nice.
- Bitch in Sheep's Clothing: They may look pretty, and they may sound sophisticated and sweet, but often they're really just being condescending and rude.
- Write Who You Know: Two of the flowers are based on Alice's two sisters Rhoda and Violet.
- Ascended Extra: He started off as a character within a poem, but in most adaptations he becomes an actual character.
- Breakout Villain: Has somewhat entered fantasy settings as a monster alongside other creatures like Minotaurs and such.
- Big Bad: Of the Jabberwocky poem.
- Dragons Versus Knights: It is very dragon-like, and is slain by a young but knightly hero with a sword.
- The Dreaded: Implied, since in the poem, his death is met with much rejoicing. It's also implied that the only reason he hasn't already been slain is because everyone in the village was just too terrified of him to go after him.
- Giant Flyer: Implied, since he has a pair of wings on his back and easily towers over the hero.
- Glowing Eyes of Doom: His eyes are illustrated with light lines radiating from them. The text of the poem also speaks of "the Jabberwock with eyes aflame".
- Hybrid Monster: He has a reptilian body, but also the wings of a bat and the head of a fish.
- Our Dragons Are Different: If it can be called one.
- Show Within a Show: It only appears in a book Alice reads.
- Walking Wasteland: In some adaptations, summoning the Jabberwock twists the Wonderland into a hellish nightmare, and killing it cures it. The musical puts it to song:The Red Queen: Now watch as all of your reality unwinds/Release the darkness from the corners of your mind!
- Wolverine Claws: He has "claws that catch", which look quite impressive in the accompanying illustration.
The Red Queen
- Adaptational Villainy: The original version of the Red Queen isn't as nice as the White Queen, but she has no interest in chopping off heads despite what you might have heard. She even explains the rules of Looking-Glass World to Alice and encourages her to become a queen. In many adaptions she is just as aggressively anti-neck as the Red Queen of the first post, as well as truly malicious towards Alice and her subjects.
- Affably Evil: According to Word of God, "she must be formal and strict, yet not unkindly".
- Animate Inanimate Object: John Tenniel's illustrations show that, while she may talk and move like a regular person, she is definitely still a chess game piece.
- Anti-Villain: While she is Alice's rival in the chess game (them being on opposite sides and all), and rather mean and strict, she never directly harms or hinders Alice, and when Alice queens herself the Red Queen accepts it and even goes to her party (albeit still being bossy and demanding).
- Chess Motifs: She's the queen of the red side in a game of chess.
- Composite Character: With the Queen of Hearts in many adaptations, notably in the Tim Burton film.
I pictured to myself the Queen of Hearts as a sort of embodiment of ungovernable passion - a blind and aimless Fury. The Red Queen I pictured as a Fury, but of another type; her passion must be cold and calm - she must be formal and strict, yet not unkindly; pedantic to the 10th degree, the concentrated essence of all governesses!
- Word of God has noted the difference between them to be the following:
- Etiquette Nazi: Representing Victorian formalism and etiquette, she is quite the stickler for rules.
- Evil Redhead: Red Queen, natch.
- Feuding Families: Her and her husband are the opposing team of the White King and Queen and their children.
- Friendly Rivalry: While she is playing against the White Queen and Alice, she doesn't act hostile to them, and is in fact rather friendly aside from some judgmental comments.
- The High Queen: An evil-ish version, that is.
- Pride/It's All About Me: "All the ways about here belong to me!" For bonus points, it's also a chess joke.
- The Stoic: She keeps a stiff upper lip.
- Super Speed: Because, as a Queen, she can move any number of squares all at once. Although she is also noted to have the ability to run as fast as possible without ever actually moving at all.
The White Queen
- Baleful Polymorph: She briefly turns into a sheep.
- The Cake Is a Lie: Part of the payment she offers Alice is "jam every second day" - by which she means "jam yesterday and jam tomorrow, but never jam today" — which Alice is actually okay with since she doesn't like jam. This is actually a Latin pun, if you can believe it - "jam" or "iam" is both the past-tense and future-tense version of the present-tense "nunc" (now).
- Chess Motifs: She's the queen of the white side in a game of chess.
- Cloudcuckoolander: In-universe, SHE'S considered a bit strange.
- The Cuckoolander Was Right: Alice didn't know that her seemingly nonsensical shouts during their boating trip was actually real rowing jargon.
- Friendly Rivalry: She acts quite friendly towards the Red Queen.
- Mad Oracle: Sort of. As noted in Merlin Sickness below, she seems to perceive time backwards, which leads to her being aware of things that will happen in the future and anticipating them. Given that this is the Alice in Wonderland books, she's also mad by default...and indeed, she's implied to be crazy even by their standards.
- Merlin Sickness: She seems to perceive time backwards. For example, she bandages a finger and screams in pain in anticipation of pricking that finger moments later.
- Upper-Class Twit: She's as upper class as they come, being a Queen, and in addition to being a Cloudcuckoolander she's also incapable of dressing herself without help.
The Red King
- Adaptational Badass: In the musical, he takes charge after being woken up by the White Knight's magical box. Immediately, the Red Court stops all nonsense.
- All Just a Dream/Schrödinger's Butterfly: The more obvious example provides the page quote.
- Chess Motifs: Of course.
- Flat Character: Movie. He's got a voice actor, but most people assume he's the wizard, who's credited two seconds later.
- Heavy Sleeper: Nothing Alice or Tweedledum and Tweedledee do wakes him up.
- Rule of Symbolism: The fact that he sleeps all the time and never moves is symbolic of an actual chess king's limited mobility in a game, especially compared to the speed and power of a chess queen.
- Sleepy Head: He spends literally the entire book asleep - although, to be fair, it's not very clear how much time is actually passing in the strange dream-world the story takes place in.
The White King
- Butt-Monkey: He is nagged by his wife, manhandled by a giant Alice, and picked on by every other character.
- Chess Motifs: Of course.
- Reasonable Authority Figure: He seems to be fairly on top of things, especially compared to most of the other Kings and Queens in these books.
- Cannot Tell a Joke: He makes jokes, but does it so sorrowfully and somberly that Alice has to be told when he's doing it, and he even wishes that other people would make the jokes he thinks of.
- Remember the New Guy?: Refers to Alice as an "old friend" despite never appearing before. Alice lampshades it, stating that she doesn't know who he is.
- Talking Animal: He's a talking insect.
- Laser-Guided Amnesia: Forgets that he's a fawn, just as Alice forgets who she is while they're both traveling through a forest.
- Only Sane Man: The most normal character in the second book.
- Reality Ensues: No Alice, the cute little fawn is not going to stay with you after realizing that you're a human.
- Talking Animal: It talks to Alice as they walk together through the woods.
Tweedledum and Tweedledee
- Boisterous Bruiser: Both are fat, loud, and always scrapping for a fight.
- Catchphrase: "Nohow!" for Tweedledum, and "Contrariwise" for Tweedledee.
- Doomed by Canon: When Alice meets them, she recites the nursery rhyme they come from—and sure enough, every single event from the poem happens before her eyes. Tweedledum even seems resigned to it ("I suppose you agree to have a battle?").
- Fat Bastard: A downplayed example—they're both fat, obnoxious, and rude, but can't really be described as evil.
- Nursery Rhyme: Based on one.
- Rant-Inducing Slight: As per the nursery rhyme, Tweedledum completely loses his temper when Tweedledee leaves his "nice new rattle" (a kind of noisemaking toy) on the ground, which ruins it.
- Single-Minded Twins: Maybe the trope codifier. They're definitely not bright.
- Theme Twin Naming They have very similar names.
- Vague Age: It's not clear how old they are. They act childishly, but they talk like adults and in the illustrations, they are so stylized that it's hard to tell what the intent was. Alice herself notes that they look like schoolchildren (and calls them "First Boy!" and "Second Boy!", terms used in British classrooms to note the top students).
- "Weird Al" Effect: More people are likely familiar with them from Through the Looking-Glass than the actual poem they're based on.
The Walrus and the Carpenter
- Adaptational Villainy: The Walrus gets hit with this quite a lot, ignoring the fact that both of them are supposed to be bad guys.
- Big Eaters: Of cute little sentient oysters.
- Con Artist: They thrill the little oysters with talk about a fun journey on land, but it's all a ruse so they can eat the oysters.
- Grey-and-Gray Morality: Alice tries to find reasons to sympathize with both, citing that the Walrus felt remorseful over having eaten the oysters and that the Carpenter had eaten less than the Walrus. However, as Tweedledee and Tweedledum note in response, the Walrus tries to conceal from the Carpenter how much he had eaten by covering his mouth with his handkerchief. The Carpenter clawed for as many oysters he could get his hands on. Dumbstruck by this interpretation, Alice decides they're both unpleasant.
- Mundane Made Awesome: The Walrus."The time has come", the Walrus said,"To talk of many things:Of shoes—and ships—and sealing-wax—Of cabbages—and kings—And why the sea is boiling hot—And whether pigs have wings."
- Civilized Animal: While the Walrus is still a predatory animal, he wears clothes and speaks eloquently.
- Villain Protagonists/Unsympathetic Comedy Protagonists: They're the main characters of the poem, and their main goal is to eat a bunch of sentient oysters alive.
- Attack of the 50-Foot Whatever: While it's not given very much description, it's wings are big enough to stir up strong winds, and Alice is able to hide from it under a tree.
- The Dreaded: Its appearance is the only thing that can stop Tweedledum and Tweedledee from fighting and run away in fear.
The Red Knight
- Affably Evil: He tries to capture Alice, and battles with the White Knight over her, but he's polite and courteous to both of them, fights fairly, and is a gracious loser.
- Chess Motifs: He's the knight piece for the red side, and tries to capture Alice because she's a white pawn.
- Ineffectual Sympathetic Villain: He tries to capture Alice, but is even less capable than the White Knight, and loses the battle to him.
- Punch-Clock Villain: He captures Alice because it's his job, as they're on opposite sides of the chess game. When the White Knight rescues her, they amiably shake hands and the Red Knight rides off with no trouble. He claims to always fairly follow the rules of battle.
- Worthy Opponent: Seems to think the White Knight is this, as they shake hands before the Red Knight rides away.
The White Knight
- Absent-Minded Professor: More of an inventor than a knight.
- Author Avatar: According to some sources.
- The theory about the White Knight is widely believed by most scholars, however (given the fact that he was the only character in either book who seemed genuinely kind and polite to Alice, seemingly representing Dodgson's friendship with the girl he based the character on), although Dodgson himself never confirmed nor denied it.
- Bungling Inventor: Figures out a fantastic way to keep his sandwiches dry in case of wet weather: he simply fastens his lunchbox to his saddle upside down! However, he, ah, forgot to fasten the box shut properly...
- Chess Motifs: The Knight of course. Strange and different from the other pieces.
- Ditzy Genius: Is a smart inventor, but is forgetful with most things.
- Dork Knight: Tries so, so much to be a proper knight that people will respect.
- Heroic Sacrifice: In the musical, he dies in Alice' arms after defending her from the Jabberwock.
- The Klutz: He wants to be a noble knight but ends up bungling that.
- Knight in Shining Armor: In a book teeming with Queens and Kings, he's the only one who acts remotely noble.
- Lord Error-Prone: He's a clumsy, accident-prone knight in shining armor.
- Nice Guy: He's very kind to Alice, who becomes upset when he has to leave.
- Self-Deprecation: If he is an Author Avatar, then Dodgson is portraying himself as a clumsy, scatterbrained fool who is unoriginal with his compositions (Alice recognizes his song of "my own invention" is actually a pre-existing tune). Also, in-universe, the Knight portrays himself in his song as being too scatterbrained to pay attention to a simple conversation and then terrorizing an innocent old man as a result.
- Animate Inanimate Object: He's a talking, clothes-wearing egg.
- Awesome Ego: His defining trait.
- Catchphrase: "It is very provoking."
- Classy Cravat: Alice is unsure if it is a cravat or a belt (largely because, since he's an egg, she can't tell if he's wearing it on his neck or his waist—they're the same thing on his body). He insists that it's the former.
- Doomed by Canon: In a bit of a Dramatic Irony, he tells Alice that he's not scared of falling off the wall, because if he does, the king has promised to send all his horses and all his men. No prizes for guessing what happens.
- Exact Words: As part of his lectures on semantics, he uses this trope to trick Alice:Humpty Dumpty: How old did you say you were?Alice: Seven and a half, exactly.Humpty Dumpty: WRONG! You never said a word like it!Alice: I thought you meant "How old are you?"Humpty Dumpty: If I meant that, I would have said it.
- Ironically, he then inverts the trope with his famous assertion that "When I use a word, it means just what I choose it to mean"—meaning that words as written or stated have no meaning and so cannot be exact.
- The Gadfly: He takes great pleasure in deliberately using confusing language or luring people into making erroneous statements just to show off his own skill with words.
- Insufferable Genius: Humpty's a master of the English language, and never lets anyone forget it.
- Nursery Rhyme: Of course, he's probably the most famous nursery rhyme character to appear in the books.
- Sesquipedalian Loquaciousness: Mixed with You Keep Using That Word. He defends this by saying that he's the boss, not the words—and therefore he can make any word he says mean anything he wants.
- Wake-Up Call Boss: A narrative version - After Humpty falls down, Alice realizes that the war she's been embroiled in is serious. She laments that she just essentially killed a person; regardless of how annoying he might've been.
- The Ghost: He doesn't actually appear, he's only referenced by the White King and Haigha after Alice says that she "sees nobody on the road".
- Who's on First?: Being named "nobody" leads to some miscommunication between the White King and Haigha.
The Lion and the Unicorn
- Boisterous Bruiser: Both of them.
- Faeries Don't Believe in Humans, Either: The Unicorn is probably the most famous example of this in all literature. Eventually he agrees to believe in Alice because she believes in him.
- Miles Gloriosus: The Lion has traits of this.
- No Celebrities Were Harmed: In Tenniel's illustrations, the Lion and Unicorn are caricatures of William Gladstone and Benjamin Disraeli, respectively.
- Nursery Rhyme: Albeit more obscure to American readers—"The Lion and the Unicorn" is about England and Scotland's debate over the throne of the United Kingdom (hence "fighting for the crown").
- Talking Animal: They both speak.