Without a question, the single most famous portrait painting of The Renaissance and in the Western world as a whole, a true icon of artistic excellence, and the image which represents aesthetic beauty, enigma, and mystery. It's believed to have been painted between 1503-1504 by Leonardo da Vinci, and he maybe worked on and off for a decade until 1517. The painting entered the personal collection of King Francis I of France and is famously housed in the Louvre Art Museum in Paris.
Also known as La Gioconda and La Jocondenote , the painting's famous title was coined by art critic Giorgio Vasari (who first described the flowering of art and culture from the time of Giotto as rinascita). Vasari said that the painting was a portrait of "Mona Lisa" which is an Italian shortening of Madonna Lisa (My Lady Lisa/M'lady Lisa would be the correct English translation) and referred to the subject, Lisa del Giocondo, wife of Francesco del Giocondo. Of course for many years, there wasn't hard evidence to corroborate this. In 2005, a research found important marginalia in an old book in the University of Heidelberg, written by one Agostino Vespucci (cousin of Amerigo Vespucci, yes that one). In it Agostino wrote in Latin about:
- "Apelles the painter. That is the way Leonardo da Vinci does it with all of his paintings, like, for example, with the countenance of Lisa del Giocondo and that of Anne, the mother of the Virgin. We will see how he is going to do it regarding the great council chamber, the thing which he has just come to terms about with the gonfaloniere. October 1503."
As such, most academics believe for a certainty that the subject of this famous portrait is Lisa Gherardini (June 15, 1479 July 15, 1542) in 2005. Upon her marriage to Francesco del Giocondo, she became Lisa del Giocondo, and Vasari himself identified her as the subject of the painting, but for centuries "Common Knowledge" revolved around the mystery of the subject, and what it means when one considers her enigmatic smile.
The portrait has long fascinated art historians and theorists for Leonardo's mastery of sfumato which is an Italian word with no proper English equivalent, but one that refers to the airiness, the blurred quality, and fineness of objects, much like smoke which is visible despite being without colour and form in the air. It's been noted that if one looks at the portrait closely, it's very hard to locate the exact beginning of the smile, but on standing back, the effect is quite clear. Indeed the phrase "mona lisa smile" often refers to unique nature of the smile and different observers are convinced that the subject is not actually smiling but gazing plainly while others are certain that she is smiling happily. The size of the painting (77 cm × 53 cm) draws special attention to her expression, which gazes outwards to the observer, almost convincing people that the painting is actually seeing them. This is especially the case when one considers the background which is generally quite flat and vague, with Lisa sitting against a balcony illuminated with a greenish light, her arms crossed and resting on the right arm-rest of her chair.
Mona Lisa was an immediate hit and widely influential on the next generation of painters, the likes of Raphael Sanzio especially drew on it for his famous portraits (such as Baldassare Castiglione). Giorgio Vasari, in his landmark book Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects praised it for its realism, but that hasn't stopped legends and concepts cropping up around it. In the 19th Century, it became celebrated for being the painting, with much ink and works spilled on it, with the art critic Walter Pater lionizing it, and many artists and critics writing weird theories and concepts about who Mona Lisa is. In the 20th Century, it was already considered overexposed by the likes of Marcel Duchamp, the Surrealists, and others. A landmark incident of art-theft, brought new attention to the painting and further cemented its legend. It also has had the effect of making the painting completely inaccessible since its now sealed in a special glass container with heavy guards in the museum, thronged by a gaggle of tourists.
- Dated History: For a long time everyone believed that the Mona Lisa and its subject will forever be a Riddle for the Ages and Shrouded in Myth. The common traditional answer that it was the wife of a Florentine nobleman was dismissed for being "boring" until it was confirmed in 2005.
- Early Installment Weirdness: Contrary to modern depictions of the painting with the greenish sky, the brown clothing, and the ochre skin, the colors used to be brighter and more vibrant, with one critic even describing her skin as "rosy and tender".note Centuries of varnish, cleaning, and exposure made it as it is today. True Art Is Ancient indeed.
- Famous for Being Famous: It's the most famous painting in the world, and by extension its female subject is one of the most universally-recognized faces. Art historians generally agree that Mona Lisa is not the best painting, nor the most important. However its fame has become self-sustaining. The mythical status of its painter Leonardo da Vinci also adds to its mystique.
- Mona Lisa Smile: Trope Namer, Trope Maker, Trope Codifier. The particularly deft way Leonardo created the effect of the smile, almost but not quite fully smiling, and which from another angle doesn't seem to be there, is one of the greatest mysteries in art history. The fame of the painting has also made it a popular object of spoof.
- Mustache Vandalism: Marcel Duchamp codified this with his famous spoof of the painting, where he put a mustache on a postcard of her. Salvador Dalí also painted his own thin, upward mustache on a black and white copy of Mona Lisa, with a man's hands holding coins in place of her hands, calling it a "self portrait".
- No Brows: How she is always depicted. She used to have brows, but centuries of cleaning have removed them.
- Proper Lady: The painting is the emblem of the proper lady, and the ability of a woman to moderate and hide her expressions in social situations. As noted by Walter Isaccson in his article for the November 2017 issue of The Atlantic:Walter Isaacson: "So the worlds most famous smile is inherently and fundamentally elusive, and therein lies Leonardos ultimate realization about human nature. His expertise was in depicting the outer manifestation of inner emotions, but here in the Mona Lisa he shows something more important: that we can never fully know another persons true emotions. They always have a sfumato quality, a veil of mystery."
- Shrouded in Myth: A lot of fiction revolves around theories on who sat for the Mona Lisa painting. Particular theories even argued that it was Leonardo himself in drag, because apparently some think Lady Lisa looks like a Dude
- Wolverine Publicity: Most art critics believe that the effect and aesthetic greatness of the painting is endangered by its constant overexposure. Almost anything to do with Leonardo features the Mona Lisa. For instance, the book cover of The Da Vinci Code and the posters of its film version features the painting even if it doesn't have anything to do with her (the so-called "da vinci" code revolves around Conspiracy Theory surrounding Leonardo's notebooks, scientific research and Dan Brown's fantasies).
- Vox, in their Overrated series, expressed this trope when the painting was put into popularity after the art theft.
Works featuring Mona Lisa:
- Mona Lisa appears at the start of Hudson Hawk, being painted by Leonardo.
- In the 2011 French film L'Apparition de la Joconde (The Appearance of the Gioconda), a divorced Parisian screenwriter is visited by a strange woman named Lisa who pretends to come out of the painting itself. The two of them visit the Louvre to see the painting at one point.
- Again, The Da Vinci Code has the painting on its most common book covers (and only its eyes on most of them).
- In the DLC "The da Vinci Disappearance" of Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood, the unfinished painting can be seen in a cutscene where Ezio Auditore visits Leonardo at his workshop in Rome, circa 1506. Ezio thinks Leonardo is doing a "decent work" on it, and Leonardo is much more critical of his own work, thinking she is "badly drawn" and that her smile is "overdone and meaningless".
- "I can tell you chaps one thing: it's not always easy to hold this smile."