Aida. While the musical isn't that action-oriented, the title character does display some skill wih a sword in an early scene, and plenty of gumption and backbone throughout.
Odabella in Attila, who fights against the Huns along with an entire Amazon Brigade. She earns the approval of her enemies, and Attila himself is smitten with her when he sees her unflinching courage.
Nala and the lionesses in The Lion King, just like in the movie. However, not only are they more prominent in this version, they become Dance Battlers.
Ariel in The Little Mermaid, for the same reasons as in the movie, with the added bonus that in the stage version, she defeats the villain, Ursula, instead of Eric. Not bad for a Disney Princess!
Ruth in Pirates of Penzance. Near the end of the play, a hilarious fight scene breaks out between the pirates and the police, with Ruth participating in it right along with the rest of them.
Agnes Evans is the protagonist of the play She Kills Monsters, and plays through a Dungeons & Dragons campaign as the audience is treated to a whole D&D aesthetic, in which Agnes does precisely what the title states. The role requires an actress to perform plenty of stage combat, with suitably awesome fight scenes.
Her sister Tilly (Tillius in the game), and player characters Lilith and Kaliope (Lily and Kelly in "real life") also have some great fight scenes as characters in the D&D world. This is one of the relatively few plays to feature actresses in heavy doses of stage combat.
Much of the work produced at Vampire Cowboy Theatre in NYC features Nerd-cum-Badass-cum-Troperiffice Comedies that heavily feature Badass Women. The above mentioned "She Kills Monsters", "Alice in Slasherland", "Fight Girl Battle World" and more all feature this particular Trope.
A play called The Warrior's Husband has Antiope, Hippolyta, and the entire Amazon army. It takes place in Pontus, the land of Amazons, where the traditional gender roles are reversed. So this trope is naturally going to be present.