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1%% Image selected per Image Pickin' thread: https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/posts.php?discussion=1503037810056781700²%% Please do not replace or remove without starting a new thread.²%%²%% Clipart by Tropers/Synchronicity²[[quoteright:350:https://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/blackbox.png]]²²->''"You don't really know how powerstones work. You've created a whole city that relies on an energy source you do not understand. 'Magic!' you say. 'It's magic!' Oh, how clever. And then when the magic fails, you simply say, 'It must have been more magic!'"''²-->-- '''Yawgmoth''', ''Literature/TheThran''²²In engineering terminology, a "black box" is a device with one or more inputs (cake ingredients, an excerpt of text in Mandarin, iron ore), one or more outputs (cake, the same text translated into Frisian, a battle golem), and internal processes that are either:²²# irrelevant.²# unknown and/or unknowable.²²Such technology falls into the hands of some organization, usually the military or a commercial business. The original creator is dead ([[ImportedAlienPhlebotinum or is an alien]] or from [[LostTechnology a long-dead civilization]] or otherwise can't be reached), but said technology is really convenient. The organization's analysts went over the thing, and while most of it makes sense, there are these elements, either program or device, [[LowCultureHighTech that they cannot comprehend at all.]] Removing them causes the entire thing to simply not function (or triggers a [[MurderousMalfunctioningMachine more active response]]). The organization may be able to reverse-engineer copies, or lesser versions, but they don't understand how it actually works.²²So, since the financial bottom line or military advantage is so important, they go along with it anyways.²²...yes, of course, the technology has a bizarre effect that nobody could have predicted — you really need to keep track of those inputs and outputs! Usually it's in the form of acquiring [[InstantAIJustAddWater sentience]] or a bizarre weapon, or only being able to be used by people of the show's [[CompetenceZone target demographic]]. (It's common in HumongousMecha series.)²²This is surprisingly common in RealLife, particularly in programming, where the programmer is the only one who really understands how what they've built works (and sometimes, not even ''them''[[note]]Even a "simple" (no graphics, purely command-line and input file driven and with the only output being more text files) scientific application that does anything actually useful can easily exceed ten thousand lines of code in a high-level language and is probably the result of the work of multiple people, none of whom knows ''every'' detail of the parts they didn't write. And even if a single dedicated programmer wrote the whole thing personally, it's virtually certain that at least some of it uses infrastructure in the form of library routines or system calls that were not written by the same programmer.[[/note]]). Especially in high-level languages, where the programmer can for example tell the computer to replace all occurrences of "cake" with "apple" in a text, and doesn't have to worry about how the system does it - they get a changed text back and that's that. This also happens in pharmacology, where it might be discovered that a drug has a positive effect on people with a certain illness but when it's first used doctors and scientists don't understand why.²²In a ScavengerWorld, most complex technology is like a Black Box, because generations that grow up AfterTheEnd don't know how {{Precursor|s}} technology works. And with so few to reverse engineer junk, when just surviving is a daily challenge, much of it becomes LostTechnology.²²SisterTrope to DisposableSuperheroMaker. Compare MissingStepsPlan. See also InWorkingOrder.²²Not to be confused with [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_box_%28transportation%29 "Black box"]] [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flight_recorder flight recorders]], [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_box_theater the kind of theatre]], [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Box_(band) the Italian house music group]] or [[Creator/BlackBox the former video game developer]] who used to make the ''VideoGame/{{Skate}}'' series and various ''VideoGame/NeedForSpeed'' games, or a black-colored CensorBox. ²²----²!!Examples:²[[foldercontrol]]²²[[folder:Advertising]]²* A particularly amusing example from pharmaceutical advertising (emphasis added): "Fibromyalgia ''is thought to be'' the result of overactive nerves. Lyrica ''is believed to'' calm these nerves." In other words, we don't really know how our drug works or even what your disease is, but please buy it anyway!²[[/folder]]²²[[folder:Anime and Manga]]²* In the ''Franchise/DotHack'' franchise, [=CyberConnect=] Corporation treats ''The World'' as the game it appears to be, but those who can find the so-called "Creator's Rooms" can discern some of the original designer's true intent.²** And the game keeps sucking up player's, programmer's, and administrator's minds; even after they've rewritten it twice. Even so, that's much safer than the alpha version. Many were terrified of even playtesting it, particularly after its creator ''died'' playtesting it. [[spoiler:Actually, Harald didn't die, but his mind was absorbed into the program completely.]]²** The core code of ''The World'' is explicitly referred to as a "Black Box" in several of [[AllThereInTheManual the novels]].²** There are also occasions where the game circumvents or thwarts the administrators' attempts to fix issues, such as banning certain players, as well as spawn vagrant [=AIs=].²*** Not helping things is that [[spoiler: the thing was designed as an AI incubator by using the player's mind as a large sampling of intelligent thought.]]²* The development of the Evangelions in ''Anime/NeonGenesisEvangelion'' is very much along the lines of this trope, although the source of the Black Box is not earthly.²** The S2 engine is a particularly fitting example. American attempts to reverse engineer the device result in a massive disaster - the test engine ''vanishes'', along with the entire research facility and all other objects in a 50-mile radius.²** Also, the Lance of Longinus. We have no idea what it is, but dang does it tear Angels up. [[spoiler: The replicas are decidedly less effective.]]²** Not helped by the fact that nearly all of the information concerning the Angels is AllThereInTheManual. Long story short, [[spoiler:Adam and Lilith are two types of "Seeds" meant to be progenitors of life on new worlds created by a long dead Precursor race. The Lances are simply control rods that seal Seeds if they land on planets that already have Seeds, since conflict between the two different types of Seeds would cause a cataclysmic event (Impact) that reduces all life back to its primordial state. The Dead Sea Scrolls explain ''everything'' in detail to make sure that no one removes a Lance by mistake. The Precursors didn't expect that anyone would be crazy/stupid enough to ''want'' Impact to occur.]]²* The [[LostTechnology plants]] in ''Manga/{{Trigun}}'' can do pretty much anything depending on how you power them, but nobody's really sure how they run anymore. (The manga actually calls them "humanity's ultimate black box".)²* The flying machines in ''Anime/{{Simoun}}'' have two black boxes: the "Helical motor" (according to the sub) and the "Simoun Gem". Trying to find out how these things work apparently drives you mad for a little while.²* ''Anime/{{Macross}}'': The SDF-1 in ''Anime/SuperDimensionFortressMacross'' is riddled with black boxes, often causing bits of advanced alien tech to do things that the humans never expected them to do. By the time of the later series in the franchise, humanity has reverse-engineered most of the ''Macross'''s technology and can fully control it.²* Black Boxes are a dime a dozen in ''Anime/TheBigO'', ranging from nigh-indestructible giant robots to androids to underground tunnel networks. The last episode reveals that [[spoiler: the ''plane of existence'' is one big Black Box. The only comprehensible objects in the series are tomatoes, and ''those'' are a type of mysterious lost technology]].²* The {{Nanomachines}} powering the Otomes in ''Anime/MaiOtome''. Frankly, what kind of perverted scientist thought it would be a good idea to have them [[PhlebotinumBreakdown break down]] upon any contact with male DNA, thus requiring [[ImprobablyFemaleCast exclusively female virgins]] to operate it under the shaky hope they aren't depowered? One that would be too threatened by the notion of [[StayInTheKitchen wives who are stronger than them]], most likely. It's all but stated outright that the Otome were based on the [=HiME=], the "natural" {{magical girl}}s from ''Anime/MaiHime''. So it's a Black Box replicating magic. It's a damn miracle it works at all.²* The Clow Cards in the first arc of ''Manga/CardcaptorSakura''. The cards are sentient, though most are astonishingly specialized, and their creator is dead [[spoiler: but returns anyway in the form of his reincarnation in the second arc.]].²* ''Franchise/{{Zoids}}''. The Ultimate X zoids are shown to have a "black box" that other zoids do not.²* ''Anime/GaoGaiGar'' mentions this. In one flashback, they actually discuss a strange interface on Galeon, an alien mecha lion, and refer to it as a Black Box. Once they figure out how to activate it, it contains designs for half the AppliedPhlebotinum in the show.²* In the Nausicaa manga, the Crypts of Shuwa are ''full'' of Black Boxes--most notably the God Warrior. More mundanely, nobody has the technology to build new airship engines any more, so when an airship is downed, there's a scramble to salvage the irreplaceable engines.²* ''LightNovel/FullMetalPanic!'' has a bunch of them, collectively called 'Black Technology', created by the mysterious 'Whispered'. Many are simply extrapolations of existing technologies, which are mass-produced and change the world drastically - [[ReedRichardsIsUseless Whispered are explicitly NOT useless.]] Others, however, are perfect examples of the trope - Foremost among them is the 'Lambda Driver', a true Black Box which enables users to [[ClapYourHandsIfYouBelieve warp the laws of physics through sheer determination]].²** In ''The Second Raid'' it's mentioned that the Arbelest is optimised for the first person who used it (Sousuke) and as the designer died since then that means it can't be reset for another user. As Sousuke hates the unreliability of the weapon and is also undergoing a HeroicBSOD this causes major problems.²*** The FMP manga Arbalest won't work for anyone other than Sousuke because if anyone else tries to pilot it the AI just constantly asks for Sousuke, and no matter how many times they reset or reprogram the thing it still will only work for Sousuke.²** ''Anime/FullMetalPanicFumoffu'' used this to humorous effect with the [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vj1SzURv0uM Bonta-kun]] class PoweredArmor -- it has a voice filter that renders all spoken speech as "Fumoffu!" to anyone listening. It causes the armor to shut down if disabled, and no one -- not even Sousuke, who ''designed'' the thing -- knows why.²* Humans don't seem to figure out how to replicate Ganmen during the timeskip of ''Anime/TengenToppaGurrenLagann''. The Guraparls that form the backbone of the Earth military were reverse-engineered from Gurren Lagann, but they don't seem to have figured out much about Spiral energy or how to reverse-engineer the "generator" that lets a Ganmen use it. This means that forces [[CrutchCharacter initially superior]] to the Ganmen they replaced wind up looking like anemic kittens once the hot blood Goes To 11... Million...Though it also has to do with the ganmen's purpose [[spoiler: of fighting anti-spirals.]]²** This is explicitly because Rossiu believes the Ganmen to be inferior and a reminder of Lord Genome's reign and so he had them destroyed rather than any lack of ability on the part of the humans.²* TheReveal of ''Manga/OutlawStar''. The eponymous CoolShip and [[spoiler:Melfina]] were created based on the unknown data (the black box) that Gwen Khan could not translate from an advanced ancient civilization which is implied to have created all of the ancient ruins of the galaxy. [[spoiler:Only Melfina can open the door to the Galatic Leyline itself, and grant the people that go there their ultimate desire.]]²** For a while the Caster Gun employed by main character Gene Starwind was a black box of lost knowledge. Caster guns are essentially antique pistols that fire unique shells with a wide variety of effects that can even counteract the magical attacks of Tao Masters. Nobody knows whether they are lost technology or, as later confirmed, magic that has been encapsulated within the shells.²* The GN drives in ''Anime/MobileSuitGundam00''. GN Drive technology can be mass produced in months (reversed engineered by TheFederation from the GN-X drive model), but ''true'' GN Drives, the ones which emit green "pure" particles used by Celestial Being's Gundams, are equipped with a "Topological Defect" Blanket, which can only be manufactured around Jupiter with a total production time of six years. Somehow harnessing the power of topological defects (a mathematical solution involving differential equations) allows the drive to funnel energy back into itself, allowing for unlimited operation time.²** Additionally, Celestial Being's true GN Drives have a literal black box which no-one could figure out, which turns out to contain [[spoiler:the data for the Gundams' [[SuperMode Trans-Am Function]] and the Twin-Drive System]].²* ''Anime/DarkerThanBlack'' has alien technology and powers coming from the "Gate" -- among other things, tech that allows for LaserGuidedAmnesia, glowing flowers whose seeds halt the development of Contractor powers, and crystalline plants whose pollen make bees produce an intoxicating drug. Possibly inspired by ''Literature/RoadsidePicnic'' (see below) -- at least, it can be interpreted as a {{homage}} to and [[TwiceToldTale discussion of]] its setup.²* This is a main plot point in ''WesternAnimation/RobotechTheShadowChronicles''. The Haydonites provide humans with shadow technology which greatly aids them in fighting Invid. But [[spoiler: the technological information supplied by Haydonites is incomplete]], so even though the shadow devices were built by humans themselves, they still have flaws which [[spoiler: Haydonites]] exploit when they attack humans.²* In the American release of ''Anime/{{Voltron}}'' (which combined the separate series ''Anime/GoLion'' and ''Anime/DairuggerXV''), it's established that the Vehicle Voltron was built as an ''imitation'' of the original Lion Voltron built by the late King Alfor of Arus. Since the original Voltron is semi-mystical in nature and the magic was not copyable, the duplicate can only stay [[CombiningMecha unified]] in giant robot form for five minutes at a time.²* Used in ''Manga/{{Mahoromatic}}''. Mahoro was built using incompletely-understood ImportedAlienPhlebotinum, including the power source. Which leads to the Death Clock - as the power source cannot be refueled or recharged by Earthly technology. [[spoiler: It CAN be recharged by SAINT - they just don't get around to doing it in time, focusing on fixing the horribly-botched job on Minawa first.]]²* ''Anime/PuellaMagiMadokaMagica'': Despite going around creating {{Magical Girl}}s, Kyuubey doesn't entirely understand how magic works.²* A scientist in ''Manga/YozakuraQuartet'' equates the workings of youkai and supernatural powers to Black Box technology. He makes the comparison that just as we don't understand how magic works, most people don't understand how a computer turns on apart from pushing the "on" button.²* In ''Manga/KnightsOfSidonia'' the Kabizashi blades, which are the only weapons that can kill Gauna. No one knows for sure how they work, and no one knows how to make more of them.[[spoiler: Production is later established. Understanding? Not so much.]]²* The sentinel stations in ''Anime/SoundOfTheSky.'' Felicia points out that they're just checking to see if they still work and there's nothing that can be done if they're broken. Noël even calls them a black box.²* ''Manga/AttackOnTitan'' has the technology behind the Vertical Maneuvering Equipment's grapples. The technical department alone knows how it works and how to improve it. The military has even lighter gear.²* In ''Anime/EurekaSevenAO'', all [=IFOs=] are equipped with a "Third Engine" based on technology found in the Nirvash. They know it can use trapar as fuel, giving the IFO theoretically limitless flight time, and the Nirvash has increased speed and maneuverability while using it, but they have no idea how to turn it on or how it does these things. Elena and Fleur do eventually manage to get theirs working, but it only lasts as long as it needs to for them to rescue Ao, then shuts off almost immediately once he's free. Elena credits The Power of Love, which, given the previous series, is most likely the exact reason it worked. It activates a second time for Fleur in the finale, but nothing comes of that.²[[/folder]]²²[[folder:Comic Books]]²* The first three Comicbook/THUNDERAgents were all recipients of black boxes. As their origin shows, their devices were found amid the rubble of the lab of a famous inventor, who had been killed by minions of [[DiscOneFinalBoss the Warlord]]. The Warlord's mooks had looted the place, but missed a few items. Several early stories were about the agents discovering drawbacks to their new powers.²* ComicBook/CaptainAmerica's shield is essentially a Black Box in design; made of an unknown alloy of [[{{Unobtainium}} Vibranium]], other metals and a mysterious bonding agent--which the creator doesn't know about, having fallen asleep during its production--which results in a shield that has properties unlike anything else in existence. Some say that agent was [[RightMakesMight American Rightousness]] (as opposed to [[PatrioticFervor American self-righteousness]]), explaining why it seems to act as almost an EmpathicWeapon to Cap.²** ''Captain America'' is a Black Box. The only scientist who knew how to produce the SuperSoldier Serum was assassinated, leaving NoPlansNoPrototypeNoBackup after exactly one test subject was treated with it: Steve Rogers. [[ArcWelding Trying to replicate the success of the project spawned Nuke, Deadpool, Wolverine, Fantomex and at least ten others.]]²*** In ComicBook/UltimateMarvel and the Franchise/MarvelCinematicUniverse, the serum itself was quickly replicated, but an army of Captain Americas is still impossible because the ''recipient'' is the key factor; In Ultimate, it only works on subjects with [[TheDeterminator superhuman willpower]], keeping the successes at a minimum. In the MCU, it grants PersonalityPowers, meaning unless the government is willing to stick needles in a card-carrying ''saint'' (who would thus never perform deniable operations), all they would get is more ComicBook/{{Red Skull}}s.²*** One attempt to recreate the success of Captain America failed because the serum is only part of the process. Without the "Vita-Ray" treatment, the recipient's body couldn't safely take in the serum.²*** The night before Steve Rogers received the treatment, a General who disapproved of Steve Rogers' perceived weakness as a candidate had a more aggressive soldier treated with only the serum, not the Vita-rays. The treatment drove the subject insane, and after being taken down he was put into cold storage. He was woken up in the "present" day and had his insanity cured by A.I.M. Stronger, Faster, and far more aggressive than Captain America, he was brainwashed into believing Steve Rogers had stolen his mantle, and tried to get revenge on Cap as [[NamesToRunAwayFromReallyFast Protocide]].²* ComicBook/SonicTheHedgehog's NICOLE. It came down from the SKY, and not even their technical expert Rotor knows how it works. He did use the system to beef up his firewalls, to Eggman's extreme annoyance:²-->'''Eggman''': I HATE that Rotor! I hack and I hack, and I hack, and do I find anything? Do I get past his firewalls? NO! Not only is his defense system too good...\²'''The Firewall''': [[{{Emoticon}} XP]]\²'''Eggman''': It's downright RUDE!²** A later conversation with Lien-Da reveals that this is the source of his disdain for magic, citing it as simply being energy-matter conversions that have yet to be duly analyzed.²[[/folder]]²²[[folder:Comic Strips]]²* The [[http://dilbert.com/strips/comic/2006-12-08/ legacy server]] in ''{{ComicStrip/Dilbert}}'', which Dilbert was put in charge of. It's worth noting that Dilbert's immediate response upon seeing it was...²-->'''Dilbert''': Frack.²[[/folder]]²²[[folder:Film — Live-Action]]²* The guidance system abroad the Russian communication satellite in ''Film/SpaceCowboys'' is a downplayed example - it's not an artifact of a lost civilization, it's just so archaic that no one except the original creator understands it.²-->"It's pre-microprocessor! It's pre-EVERYTHING!"²* The Machine in ''Film/{{Contact}}'' is both this and ImportedAlienPhlebotinum. Humans are given plans for a Machine, but not an explanation of what it's supposed to do or how it does it. When it's activated, [[spoiler: the chair for the occupant drops straight through in a matter of seconds, while 18 hours passes for the occupant, causing onlookers to think that it didn't work. One of the scientists remark that the video recording from the chair consists of 18 hours of static,]] which he is unable to explain.²* In ''{{Film/Sneakers}}'' the whole plot revolves around a black box device which is able to decrypt any western encryption (not the Russian encryption-methods, however).²* [[DeconstructedTrope Deconstructed]] in ''Film/GalaxyQuest''. The starship in a ''Star Trek'' type TV show has a superweapon called Omega-13; the [[AliensStealCable aliens who became obsessed with the show]] built an exact duplicate of it in their reproduction of the CoolShip. There's only one problem -- nobody knows what it does, because the series was [[LeftHanging cancelled in the middle of a two-parter]] that would have shown it in action. Tim Allen's character (the Creator/WilliamShatner {{Expy}}) asks a fan if he knows what it does, and he says that the [[EpilepticTrees popular theory]] is that it [[TheEndOfTheWorldAsWeKnowIt destroys all matter in the universe in 13 seconds]], but he thinks it [[TimeTravel lets you go 13 seconds back in time]]. [[spoiler:Turns out his theory is the right one.]] It was apparently this on the show as well; Allen's character tells the aliens that they found it abandoned.²* In ''Film/CaptainAmericaTheFirstAvenger'', when the Red Skull finds the glowing blue Tesseract (implied to be the all-powerful cosmic cube of marvel comics) he uses it as an energy source for his tanks and weapons. Until his supposed death when the cube sustained damage from Captain America's shield and began to warp reality itself, he only saw it as an unlimited power source. Ditto for the scientists on the American side, who attempted to harvest the minuscule yet overwhelming bits of energy powering the guns (blasting a hole in one of the research facilities when they tried to discover its properties).²** It only gets more Black Box-y in ''Film/{{The Avengers|2012}}'', when the Tesseract starts opening wormholes to other areas in the galaxy on its own, because Loki has figured out how to operate it remotely. Nobody on Earth knows how to stop him from doing this, despite years of study.²** With the revelation that the Tesseract contains one of the Infinity Stones, which appear to predate the universe itself, it becomes clear that ''no one'' understands or can understand how it all works.²* [[Film/IronMan Tony Stark's]] ability to miniaturize the arc reactor is what drives Stane mad in the latter half of ''Iron Man'', since Tony didn't exactly leave any blueprints of it in the terrorist's base and none of Stane's Scientists can duplicate it (leading to Stane's memetic line about Tony building stuff in a cave with scraps). This has less to do with the technology being incomprehensible than Tony Stark being just that brilliant. Given a proper set of blueprints and enough time, Vanko in ''Film/IronMan2'' manages to build a passable if somewhat inferior replica and even improve the design with some tips from Tony.²* ''Film/AvengersAgeOfUltron'' has the Staff, which HYDRA uses to conduct experiments in giving folk superpowers and developing artificial intelligence... somehow. The implication is they were just throwing stuff at the wall to see what stuck, since they only come out the other end with a lot of non-functioning robots and only two traumatised teens with superpowers. Later on, it's implied the Staff, which is alive in some form, is what brings Ultron to full sentience. [[spoiler: Like the Tesseract example, the Staff is an Infinity Stone and represents/is/controls an aspect of the Universe itself.]]²* The "Siamese Burn" unit in ''Film/TheScribbler'' - basically a home electroshock therapy device to rid mental patients of unwanted multiple personalities. It evolves into LowCultureHighTech as, during the lead character's treatment-induced fugue states, she uses it to build an ImportedAlienPhlebotinum device using purloined scrap electronics.²[[/folder]]²²[[folder:Literature]]²* In ''Literature/TheThran'', the whole Thran Empire relies on powerstones as their source of energy, but even the engineers who work on them don't exactly know how they work.²* The Strugatsky brothers' ''Literature/RoadsidePicnic'', as well as The Game of the Movie S.T.A.L.K.E.R (but oddly enough, not the movie) have a Danger Zone full of Black Box alien artifacts as the catalyst for the plot.²* In ''Literature/{{Discworld}}'' the Devices discovered by dwarfs are ancient Black Boxes with assorted functions, including power sources and recording devices. The magical supercomputer Hex is also a Black Box; it's added so many peripheral devices to itself that even its original designer, Ponder Stibbons, is no longer sure exactly how it works. (Did we mention that he is also OrganicTechnology. He uses ants instead of electrons.)²** A particularly good example is Hex's teddy bear--a simple cuddly toy, yet when taken away from Hex, Hex refuses to operate.²*** With the error message +++Mine! Wahhhhhhh!+++²* In ''Literature/HisDarkMaterials'', the subtle knife certainly fits the bill. It is an ancient weapon that can cut through anything, including the fabric between dimensions. However, it has the unfortunate effect of [[spoiler:creating a soul-eating monster every time it is used, and eventually weakening the equilibrium of the universe]]. The alethiometer also qualifies, though it has no negative effects.²* From Creator/JohnRingo:²** The ''Literature/LegacyOfTheAldenata'' series features a number of examples of the Black Box. The alien Posleen (or "people of the ships" in their language) are similar to the Covenant in Halo in that they use technology they understand poorly if at all. A perfect example of this is one of their commanders staring in confusion at a computer helpfully informing him "Incoming ballistic projectiles. Impact in 10 seconds. Five.... etc" The views of their society in the initial books of the series are vague for the most part but imply that they only really use the systems that kill things or are almost entirely automated. A literal black box used by the humans in the same series appears in the form of the AID which is a black memory plastic box about the size of a pack of cigarettes with an extremely potent AI embedded in it. They act as a UniversalTranslator as well, but are provided by another species and the humans haven't a clue how they really work or how to make them. [[spoiler: This turns out to be a serious problem for a number of reasons]]²** There is also the small black box from his and Creator/TravisSTaylor's ''Literature/IntoTheLookingGlass'' books, a device about the size of a pack of cards that does "interesting" things with spacetime. It was given to them by the friendly aliens at the end of the first book, who had found it on some other planet and had no idea what it was for. Although they did warn that one should NOT apply a "significant voltage" to it. Hooking up a double-A battery leaves a 10-mile crater. A car battery destroys the (deliberately uninhabited and unimportant) planet. Three-phase current erases the solar system. [[spoiler: They eventually figure out how to turn it into a [[FasterThanLightTravel warp drive]] and use it to power the ASS ''Vorpal Blade''. Turns out hooking it up to a car battery was using it wrong.]]²* In Robert Jordan's ''Literature/TheWheelOfTime'' there are the ''ter'angreal'' (magical items), the secret of whose making has been [[LostTechnology lost]] for three thousand years. The Aes Sedai keep plenty of ''ter'angreal'' around for use as black boxes without understanding how they work, and many more items where they don't even know what they ''do''.²** Being subverted in the more recent books [[spoiler: as Elayne and Egwene begin discovering how to make them again.]]²* In Frederik Pohl's ''Literature/HeecheeSaga'', the entire plot of the first few books revolves around highly advanced alien space ships, though they do eventually manage to decipher the instruction manuals.²** One big one is that after you set the targeting crystal, that no human understands, which glows various colours and auto-locks by AI, anyone who has changed those settings after launch has disappeared.²*** The hero eventually finds out why.²* Parodied in ''The Galaxy Game'' (by Phil Janes) where a scientist trying to master {{FTL}} for a trip to the stars finds three small boxes each printed with the words "Inertialess Device" in his kitchen cupboard one day. We later find out they were put there by bored EnergyBeings who pit civilisations against each other for sport.²* In David Brin's ''Literature/{{Uplift}}'' series, all of the alien species in Galactic civilization are happy to use technology they don't understand and can't repair, so long as it comes with the blessing of the Great Library passed down by their revered ancestors and ''somebody'', somewhere, knows how to repair or replace it. The exception is Humanity, who know darn well that relying on such tech will make them economically dependent on other species. They try to use their own (comparatively very primitive) tech while struggling to learn how alien devices work. Occasionally, Humans even benefit from RockBeatsLaser. But even Earthclan has to rely on Black Box technology for certain things -- i.e. reality shields, psi shields, hyperspace, and the Library itself.²* This is a major feature in Creator/AlastairReynolds' ''[[Literature/RevelationSpaceSeries Revelation Space]]'' novels. Everyone uses a certain kind of stardrive, but only the makers know how they work, and fiddling leads to an enormous explosion. The most powerful weapons are barely-understood gifts from SufficientlyAdvancedAliens [[spoiler:or future humans who will sent the blueprints back in time]].\²\²Judging by one character's vague discription of the internal conditions in a stardrive in "Weather", the Conjoiners kept the stardrive technology Black Box so that the 'retarded' (everyone else) wouldn't try and weaponise it. [[spoiler: And also because of the whole disembodied-brain thing...]]²* The [=O/BEC=] processors in ''Literature/BlindLake''. Created by accident due to the use of self-rewriting code, not even the scientists who operate them are quite certain how they do what they do. There are only two in existence; all attempts to make a third by replicating the conditions that led to the first two have failed.²* This exact phrase is used to describe the Highway in Creator/WilliamGibson's short story "Hinterlands". Astronauts go in and come out, sometimes bringing back pieces of alien civilisation with them. The "jump" only happens when the astronaut is alone and they all, invariably, come back either dead or catatonic. Sometimes the jump doesn't happen at all...²* In ''Literature/TheLeagueOfPeoplesVerse'', the Technocracy has pretty much no idea about how most of its own technology works, as the majority of it was just handed to humanity by SufficientlyAdvancedAliens.²* In ''Literature/AtlasShrugged'' [[GrailInTheGarbage the remains of John Galt's motor were found in an abandoned motor factory]]. Dagny Taggart's new purpose in life (for the next few chapters at least) is to find a scientist to reverse engineer the motor and put it to use on her railroad.²** It's a particularly interesting case, as Galt realized that the unbelievable stupidity of Starnes heirs were the symptoms of a cultural decline. He could thus safely walk off and leave [[NoPlansNoPrototypeNoBackup the prototype and the plans]] ''right there in the lab'' without fear that they would be stolen, as no mind capable of understanding how valuable they were, let alone making use of them, would ever work there again. A notable ''subversion'' of LowCultureHighTech.²* Colson Whitehead's ''The Intuitionist''. The main MacGuffin in the story is known as the Black Box.²* In Creator/RobertAHeinlein's universe there is the ''Shipstone''; a battery that comes in sizes from a lifetime miniature system for a flashlight, to a large battery that can power a house, to a possibly colossal one that powers space ships. The ''black box''-ness of it comes because the inventor never patented it, since that would require that he publish the schematics. He just started a company and started manufacturing them under lots of secrecy. Attempts at dismantling and reverse engineering a shipstone usually resulted in a big kaboom.²* The Creator/RobertAHeinlein[=/=]Creator/SpiderRobinson novel ''Literature/VariableStar'' has a living black box in the form of Relativists. These are men and women who can coax a ship's engines to accelerate to relativistic speed apparently by [[ContemplateOurNavels Contemplating Their Navels]]. The Relativists think up a number of poetic descriptions of what they do all day to keep the engines going, but in the end they admit that even they aren't really sure how they're doing it.²* In ''Literature/TheHitchhikersGuideToTheGalaxy'':²** The starship Heart of Gold features the infinite improbability drive that enables improbability manipulation up to a point where the ship exists everywhere at once and can drop out anywhere instantly--universe wide teleportation. The hitch is that nobody knows ''how'' the improbability drive really works, some smartass junior scientist just figured out one day that all he needed to know was how improbable it was for that drive to come into existance and ''voila'', [[JustAddWater instant]] Black Box. Then he got lynched by his fellow scientists for being a smartarse.²** The starship ''Bistromath'' works on a similar principle. In restaurants math works differently than anywhere else in the universe. This is why you can never correctly guess what the bill will be, what a proper tip is, how much each person at the table should owe, etc. Nobody knows why this is, or how it works (the attempt to understand it led to a generation of brilliant mathematicians all dying of food poisoning at once), but that doesn't stop them from building a spaceship modeled on a small Italian Bistro to take advantage of this fact and break several laws of physics.²* The Belt of Deltora from Emily Rodda's Literature/DeltoraQuest is technically a Black Box, with the belt part itself the box and the gems the internal mechanisms. It can be assumed that no one knows exactly how it works; indeed, how it works is irrelevant. All anyone knows is that the Belt is "greater than the sum of its parts" and removing one of the pieces (i.e., one of the gems) would stop it functioning.²* In ''Literature/{{Animorphs}}'', the kids are given the power to morph by touching the Blue Box by the alien Elfangor [[spoiler:right before he is eaten alive by Visser Three.]] Later, [[SixthRanger David]] shows up with the same blue box and it is used to give him morphing power even though no one present has any idea how the technology works. [[spoiler: This happens later again when the Auxiliary Animorphs are created, and yet AGAIN when the Yeerks steal the blue box and use the morphing power to create their own soldiers with the morphing ability.]]²* In Ian Irvine's ''[[Literature/TheThreeWorldsCycle Well of Echoes]]'' series, the clankers draw energy from nodes. No one knows why it works, but their are some illegal books that speculate on these topics.²** This becomes a major problem when [[spoiler: nodes start to fail, because the humans depend upon clankers to fend off the lyrinx that have been killing the human race. ]]²* The ''Literature/MachineOfDeath'' is a device that takes a person's blood sample and predicts how that person will die. It's cheap to use and possible to duplicate, but no one knows how it works.²* ''Literature/{{Redshirts}}'' has the Box, a microwave-shaped device that if given a sample of any xenobiological problem, will go 'ding' and provide the solution when dramatically appropriate. Truly unusual due to the fact that [[spoiler: even the writer for the show doesn't know where it came from, since it never appears in any scene that is filmed. It just appears out of nowhere so that all the miraculous cures needed in the show are possible.]]²* In Creator/VernorVinge's ''Literature/RainbowsEnd'', pretty much all engineering is done by putting together modular black boxes whose contents are unknown, except to the companies that manufacture them. This is done to protect copyrights and trade secrets. Plus, it's ''supposed'' to make things simpler. At one point, Robert Gu gets frustrated, and tries to open a black box under the hood of a car, using a cutting laser. The result is an explosion.²* This turns out to be the MacGuffin in the Desmond Bagley spy novel ''Running Blind''. At one point the protagonist takes the mysterious piece of electronic equipment that he's supposed to be escorting (and that the KGB is trying to kill him over) to a scientist and asks what it is. After putting it on a testbed, he's completely stumped. [[spoiler:Turns out that's the idea -- the device was designed to tie up Soviet resources trying to work out what it is.]]²* In ''Literature/{{You}}'', all of Black Arts's games are based on the WAFFLE engine, but no one at the company really understands how it works. The narration directly refers to it as a "black box" at one point.²* In ''Literature/{{Steelheart}}'', it's somehow possible to create new weaponry or technology through researching the principles on which Epic powers work, then applying them to gadgets such as cell phone networks, motorcycles, or {{BFG}}s. However, this does not necessarily mean that the people researching the principles and reapplying them actually understand in any way how they work, or even if that's physically possible.²* In the ''Literature/SpiralArm'' series, much of the technology humanity uses is no longer understood, and in fact believed to be so far beyond human understanding that it could only have been crafted by Gods. A distinction is explicitly drawn between "science" and "engineering". "Science", the understanding of how technologies work, is considered religiously mystical and beyond human understanding; the most that men can aspire to is "engineering", creating working reproductions of existing technology.²* In Creator/SergeyLukyanenko's ''Literature/{{Competitors}}'', the alien technology aboard the [[SpaceStation Platform]] is so far beyond human understanding that it took the people sent there years to figure out certain basic things. Unfortunately, most people who end up there lack any technical background, so any engineer who finds his or her way to the Platform is is paid handsomely to try to figure out how to even work the systems, much less reverse-engineer them. The engineers also have a fairly high fatality rate due to the fact that they have really no idea what they're doing. Sure, the ships left by the mysterious aliens have fairly basic analog controls (dumbed down for an average human), but it took at least a year to figure out that there are toilets aboard. It took about as long to figure out how to flush one without depressurizing the whole ship. [[spoiler:The aliens are giving bits and pieces of their tech to their human contacts on Earth, allowing their contacts to get filthy rich off the patents]].²** In Lukyanenko's ''Literature/ALordFromPlanetEarth'', [[{{Precursor}} Seeder]] tech generally fits this trope. Many Seeder artifacts are found, replicated, and used, but the principle of their function remains unknown. [[spoiler:This is intentional, as the Seeders are, in fact, [=22nd=]-century humans, using TimeTravel to [[{{Panspermia}} seed the galaxy with humanoid life]] in order to create an instant (from their viewpoint) army in a war. The artifacts were left behind intentionally to help guide their development]].²** In Lukyanenko's ''Literature/TheStarsAreColdToys'', the rat-like Alari outfit a human Buran shuttle with plasma engines for the mission. When the protagonist asks the shuttle's commander if it's possible to study and replicate this tech on Earth, the commander grimly replies that it is... in about a hundred years. At current human tech levels, all alien tech fits this trope. Despite this, even this addition is a strict violation of the Conclave's rule prohibiting Weaker races from sharing technology.²* In the Russian ''Death Zone'' SharedUniverse, the mechanical artifacts found in the Five Zones usually fit this trope. While people understand that they're a product of MechanicalEvolution from runaway terraforming nanites called skorgs (it turns out that releasing them on Earth instead of Mars was a bad idea), affected by the mysterious Zones, it's almost impossible to reproduce the devices without, basically, copying what the skorgs are doing. This doesn't stop many people, groups, and outside corporations from studying them. Stalkers have also figured out how to use some of the equipment in their daily lives, but they still have no idea how it works.²* In Dave Barnett's ''Gideon Smith'' novels, the British eventually control the mechanical brass dragon, Apep. Apep, despite being made in ancient Egypt during Akneheten's reign, is beyond the ability of a late 19th century {{Steampunk}} Britain. The British would dearly love to copy Apep but can't because of all the {{Magitek}} used in its construction. British scientists have tested Apep and the mechanical doll bound to it, so they know that Apep can fly at 100 miles per hour (and possibly faster than that) and it has an unlimited supply of fireballs that are 1949 Celsius in temperature and these never lose any intensity of heat until they hit a target. However their studies show that the clockwork mechanisms making up Apep, should not have been able to work and they have no idea where Apep's fireballs come from. The only thing they know is that it takes a number of magical artifacts to use Apep.²* The reason why Harry Potter was easily distracted in class was so magic would become this for the reader. The exact specifics of how Magic works is not always that well explained in the course of seven books. It just does. There clearly is some MagicAIsMagicA invoked, as what few rules we do learn are consistent, but we do not know why these rules exist.²** In-universe, we have the titular Deathly Hallows of ''Literature/HarryPotterAndTheDeathlyHallows'': a wand more powerful (and less "loyal") than any other, an invisibility cloak that never stops working (as invisibility cloaks in that universe are wont to do), and a stone that can summon the shades of the dead from the afterlife. Legend has it that they were created by the Grim Reaper himself and gifted to three brothers. Dumbledore speculates that it's more likely that said brothers were just prodigiously talented magical craftsmen. Whatever the case, no one has been able to replicate their three masterworks.²* This is pretty explicitly how gadget-type powers like battlesuits, ray guns, and even the sentient android hero Modular Man work in the ''Literature/WildCards'' universe, with the idea that most of them are secretly powered by the users' own "Ace" abilities. One case was even described where a suit of powered armor simply had ''drawings of circuitry'' instead of actual wiring inside it.²* Willis Linsay's stepper boxes in Terry Pratchett and Stephen Baxter's ''Literature/TheLongEarth'', which enable people to step from one world to another in an endless chain of parallel universes. They are cheap, easy to build using basic electronic components and powered by a potato. And nobody can figure out how they work. Just to make it more nonsensical they don't work for everyone, and a lot of people didn't used to need them but they all wandered off millions of years ago.²[[/folder]]²²[[folder:Live-Action TV]]²* ''Series/BabylonFive'' has a variety of Black Boxes, mostly leftover [[{{Precursors}} First One]] technology:²** Nobody knows who built the first jumpgates or what principle they operate on, and every spacefaring race in the universe simply produces replicas thereof without understanding how they work.²** Shadow devices that allow for remote control of ships. Like Sheridan says, the younger races don't understand them and can't build them, but are sure willing to use them.²** The machine that transfers life force from one person to another, first featured in the first season episode ''Quality of Mercy'' and turning up again in a few later episodes.²** In the TV film ''Thirdspace'', they find a large [[BigDumbObject object]] adrift in Hyperspace, covered in Vorlon writing. Naturally, they stick a power cell onto it, [[SealedEvilInACan which turns out not to have been their brightest idea ever.]]²** Usually, however, it's {{Averted}}: the races known for being professional technological scavengers (Humans, Centauri, Narn and Vree) normally open the black box and try and find out how it works, before putting it into production, the jumpgate technology being the only exception.²* In the re-imagined ''Series/{{Battlestar Galactica|2003}}'', it's eventually revealed [[spoiler:after the destruction of the Resurrection Hub]] that the "Significant Seven" Cylons don't understand how the resurrection process they use actually works, and so [[spoiler:they can't reconstruct it after it's gone. Only the Final Five have the knowledge necessary to recreate the technology, since they designed it in the first place.]]²** ''Series/{{Caprica}}'' has one in foe form of New Cap City. In effect, it is a virtual reality MMORPG located on their version of the Dark Net. It is an enormous city that doesn't seem to end, and nearly everything is trying to kill you. Most people use it like GTA, while teenagers use it to engage in orgies and drug use without harm, although a few are devoted to unlocking its mysteries. The one rule to play is that you only get one life, and are immediately and permanently locked out if you die. Its origins, and the reasons for its existence, are a complete mystery to everyone. Even the creator of the V-World technology has no idea who built it or why. The hardcore gamers all insist that there must be some reason or point to it, and are obsessed with the idea of "beating" the game, even though it doesn't seem to work that way. Eventually the point is rendered moot when the protagonist reshapes the whole world into a forest fantasy kingdom full of dragons. Really.²* ''Series/DoctorWho'': In [[Recap/DoctorWhoS30E11TurnLeft "Turn Left"]], the TARDIS serves this role. [[spoiler:The episode is set in a {{crapsack|World}} ForWantOfANail timeline where the Doctor died for real because he never met Donna Noble. Later on, after the world has gone to hell and TheStarsAreGoingOut, a universe-hopping Rose Tyler and UNIT use the recovered TARDIS to power a makeshift time machine to send Donna back to change the past and SetRightWhatOnceWentWrong. Rose admits to Donna that they don't have any idea how the TARDIS actually works, but she gets Donna to where in the past she needs to be.]]²* Finch and his partner invoke this trope in ''Series/PersonOfInterest'' when questioned by the [=CIA=] on how the Machine provides intel (it takes in raw electronic surveillance data and spits out a person's social security number to lead the user to a threat). Finch feels the Machine is [[NoManShouldHaveThisPower too powerful for any person to have access]], and so encrypts it so heavily even he will never be able to access it again.²* ''Series/StargateSG1'' often adapts lesser versions of the technology the crew encounters from other planets. "It doesn't quite work like the original" is commonly stated. However, they're far more aware than most Black Box users of the potential for unexpected side effects.²** In fact, nearly every piece of technology they pick up is mentioned to be sent off to Area 51, either in the episode where it's introduced, or when they decide to use it again. This leads to situations that look like ForgottenPhlebotinum, until two or three years down the line where the device pops up again. Except for anything that comes with a trigger (Zat guns, anyone?) which is usually put into active service immediately. Which should come as a surprise to nobody, since military usage (including stuff that makes an EarthShatteringKaboom) is usually the first application mankind can think off for any given tech. Naquadria bombs, anyone?²*** Which makes sense in a way, as acquiring weapons to defend Earth is the SGC's first mission.²** There are few ideas that are [[FridgeLogic missing]] however. So they can take apart [[EnergyWeapons staff weapons]] but can't build them or speed up rate of fire but could find them by the buttload after a firefight right? Well, seeing as how that whole [[BottomlessMagazines unlimited ammo for machine guns]] thing would be ''very'' useful in their fighters, why didn't they strap six or seven of the firing portion onto a rotating contraption and make an impromptu [[GatlingGood gatling weapon]] and mount one of those?²*** It was mentioned in show, that [[KineticWeaponsAreJustBetter kinetic weapons]] make better infantry weapons because staff weapons are self-cauterizing and less accurate. As for space weapons, they probably never actually captured a ship class staff weapon. The infantry ones they have are much less powerful the the F-302 railguns.²*** While never utilized in the show, that idea is one of the first uses Humanity finds for all the extra Staff Weapons in the fanfic series 'Fanfic/{{XSGCOM}}', among other things...²** This also extends to the [=spinoff/sequels=] ''Series/StargateAtlantis'' and ''Series/StargateUniverse'', where the protagonists uncover treasure troves of Ancient and alien technology. Though they know how to operate the Ancient technology they find (most of the time), they don't know their exact inner workings.²** The Goa'uld, on the other hand, make very little effort to study the Ancient technology they use. They've based their empire on things like the Stargates and ring transporters, but they really have no idea how any of it works.²*** Most Goa'uld are like this, but a few tech-savvy ones do try to make new tech. Clear examples are Anubis (although he's just reverse-engineering Ancient tech) and Ba'al (who understands the programming used by the gate system on a deep level and has messed around with gravity manipulation). In fact, it's the bigshot System Lords who usually don't bother with the tech stuff, but there are many underling Goa'uld who serve as their technical specialists. It's not that they don't know how Ancient-derived tech works, they just don't see the point in trying to improve it if it will upset the status quo.²** When first encountering the [[TransplantedHumans Tollan]], Carter states that their tech lacks any moving parts, wires, or anything else recognizable to modern science. This, effectively, makes their tech unreproducable on Earth. It's possible they deliberately engineered their tech in this manner to keep the Goa'uld from making use of it. Then again, the Tau'ri haven't really had a chance to study a lot of Tollan tech, since they refuse to hand it over, and them being allies kinda prevents the Tau'ri from taking it by force or stealing. The one time they offer one of their ion cannons, Carter studies the plans and determines that it's impossible to reproduce for another century or so.²** The titular Stargate ITSELF is a black box. It was built by the Ancients. They have figured out how to hook computers and power up to it and send signals to it. But the Stargate itself is way beyond human tech.²* The positronic brain that makes Data a RidiculouslyHumanRobot serves as his black box in ''Series/StarTrekTheNextGeneration''. While Starfleet has a pretty good idea of how the rest of his body works, the technology that actually makes him sentient is a complete mystery to them, especially since the genius inventor who built him is dead. They're understandably reluctant to take Data apart to figure it out, since they don't know if they'd be able to put him back together afterwards, and after a particularly overzealous researcher [[WhatMeasureIsANonHuman took the issue to court]], Data gained the legal right to refuse such a dismantling anyway. His own attempt to replicate the technology seemed to succeed when he built a "daughter", Lal, but her positronic brain became unstable and she [[TearJerker only lived for a few weeks]]. Nobody's tried to build another one since.²** Also, the risk of creating another Lore (Data's [[FlawedPrototype dangerously flawed older brother]]) highlights the risks of building anything less than a flawless brain on the first attempt.²[[/folder]]²²[[folder:Tabletop Games]]²* A fair bit of LostTechnology in ''TabletopGame/BattleTech'' is considered black-box level of complexity, usable by the Inner Sphere but completely beyond their understanding in regards to ''how'' it worked due to [[ForeverWar 300 years of total war]] destroying means of production and conspiracies to assassinate scientists. This includes things like DropShip and [[FasterThanLightTravel Jumpship]] construction technology (described as fully automated and unable to be built), human myomer implantation (with horrific results if it fails for reasons unknown), and faster-than-light 'secret transmission' technology, which sends faxes across the stars. One of the most famed in-universe black boxes was the New Avalon Valkyrie factory, a fully-automated facility that kept producing brand new, function Battlemechs for centuries after it was turned on: raw materials went in one end, Valkyries came out the other. The New Avalon Institute of Science wanted to try taking the factory apart to see if they could replicate it or switch it over to produce a more powerful Battlemech, but fears that they wouldn't be able to put it back together afterword kept them from doing so. As the [[ApocalypseNot timeline has progressed, however]], there have been some gains in the understanding of such technology.²* Quoth the ''TabletopGame/BlissStage: Ignition Stage'' rulebook: "In the center of every [=ANIMa=] creche lies a scavenged piece of an alien's brain. It's possible that this is the only thing that an [=ANIMa=] requires to function, and that the rest of the machine is there to inspire more confidence on the part of the pilots." ²* Justified in ''TabletopGame/CthulhuTech''. Since the [[{{Magitek}} Dimensional Engine]] runs on non-Euclidean mathematics, attempting to find out what goes on inside one will [[GoMadFromTheRevelation cause weak minds to break]].²** The term non-Euclidean here is meant to be a hint of how complex and hard or impossible to understand this geometry is, rather than a strict description. According to one article, 4D geometry isn't Euclidean because there's an easy way for corners to mathematically become curves. We're familiar with geometry that works with respect to spheres, because trying to travel in a large enough square path will not result in getting to the original place. That's a standard example of non-Euclidean geometry. Imagine going to a realm where backtracking would ''also'' take you to a different place. Or traveling in distances that cannot be expressed only in real numbers, so imaginary numbers must also be used. See AlienGeometries.²* Mad Science in ''TabletopGame/{{Deadlands}}'' is a prominent example. A MadScientist may create fantastic devices that surpass anything "regular" science is able to produce, but it's impossible to mass-produce Mad Science gizmoes - they just don't work. Throughout the centuries, Mad Science gains or loses popularity, depending on the shifting popular opinion. [[spoiler: Mad Science is partly magical, the ideas for it coming from Manitous, malevolent spirits serving the setting's Big Bads. It is part of a master plot to (eventually) bring about Ghost Rock bombs, nuclear weapons capable of warping or killing spirits of living things, and to transform the entire Earth into a terror-filled wasteland.]]²** The devices become more reliable with the shift from mad science to "patent science" in ''Deadlands Noir''.²* The ''TabletopGame/DungeonsAndDragons'' campaign setting ''TabletopGame/{{Eberron}}'' has two:²** Black box magic was used to develop the [[RidiculouslyHumanRobots warforged]] through schemas, which are essentially magical blueprints conveniently left behind by an ancient giant civilization. It turns out (in the ''Secrets of Xen'drik'' supplement) that it was [[spoiler:an attempt by an ancient extradimensional race to escape to our world from the realm of dreams by creating artificial bodies]], though this doesn't explain why modern warforged are fully sentient and appear to have souls (it does explain why the bodies can easily contain souls, but considering [[spoiler:the aforementioned extradimensional race is active on another continent and using specially bred mostly-humans for on-demand possession]] exactly where their souls are coming from is another question...).²** In a sort of meta-example, divine magic (the sort of magic used by Cleric spells) in Eberron works on a "clap your hands if you believe" basis. Unlike in other settings, even high level Clerics cannot communicate directly with their gods; when they try to do so, at best they get an entity that claims to be a high-level servant of the god rather than the god itself. The setting is ''extremely'' coy with respect to whether or not any gods actually exist, and if so, ''which ones''. Even the beings reached with, say, a ''Commune'' spell will, if pressed, hang a lampshade on this, saying of ''course'' they haven't ''personally'' seen or talked to the gods, but they ''must'' exist, because praying to them works, doesn't it? Divine magic works even for the Clerics of one particular cult who ''know for a fact'' that their god does not exist (yet), because they're working on ''building'' it.²* Subverted in ''TabletopGame/{{Exalted}}''. Many of the great and wondrous artifacts ''can'' be understood... it's just that most of the great designers would have been among the Solar Exalted, who were murdered and had their Exaltations sealed away so they couldn't reincarnate. It doesn't help that the Solars specifically designed many artifacts to only function for Solars... because they never imagined there would be a time when they weren't around.²** In theory, any Celestial Exalt (or Terrestrial of sufficient age and experience) could bring themselves to understand the complex workings of Solar artifice. The problem is that reaching that level of excellence is much harder for non-Solars, they can't achieve nearly the same level of speed, and besides they've been [[{{Gotterdammerung}} a bit]] [[ApocalypseHow distracted]] [[EndOfTheWorldAsWeKnowIt since]] [[TheWorldIsAlwaysDoomed then.]]²** Well, now that the Solar Exalted are back, they can begin reverse engineering all of the old First Age tech... as can their corrupted cousins, the [[OmnicidalManiac Abyssal]] [[WoobieDestroyerOfWorlds Exalted]] and [[NobleDemon Infernal]] [[TheCorrupter Exalted,]] whose bosses have other ideas about what to do with all of that technology.²** To a degree, Exaltations themselves are black boxes, to the point where the guy who ''made'' the Celestial-tier shards probably can't make any more[[note]]partly because he's comatose and dying of robot-cancer[[/note]]. The main alterations made have been the result of insane supergods launching curses fuelled by the power of their own deaths (the Great Curse), the random action of a zone of infinite probability (the breaking of the Lunar castes), flipping a switch that may have been there all along (Abyssals), and using an intact Solar shard as the battery pack for a web of Yozi Essence (Infernals). Alchemicals can only be made by demiurges channelling the Design of Autochthon and have no idea how to make more when not channelling. About the only Exalts it's easy to make are Dragon-Bloods, and that's because all you need is two other Dragon-Bloods, one male and one female. Or not even that, since anyone with a Dragon-Blood ancestor can Exalt as a Dragon-Blood as long as they haven't Exalted as anything else, though it's less likely.²* The titular ''TabletopGame/{{Numenera}}'' are mostly this, devices that for a number of reasons got enough RagnarokProofing to function thousands or even millions of years after having been created and the civilizations that made them fell... but not only are they so advanced that the setting treats them like magic, but they also didn't have ''enough'' RagnarokProofing to survive being used more than once after being unearthed--and because of said civilizations falling so long ago, the full knowledge of what they can do (let alone how to repair them) just doesn't exist anymore.²* Syrneth artifacts in the ''TabletopGame/SeventhSea'' RPG setting are an intentional use of this trope. Syrneth technology doesn't just do whatever is convenient; the results of humans tinkering with it can have effects ranging from miraculous to horrendous, and sometimes no effect at all.²** Syrneth artifacts also run the gamut in regards to the complexity of their function. The ''Pirate Nations'' sourcebook includes several that players can purchase. They include a completely functional cybernetic hand and a marble that, once tapped, will always roll back to the position it was last tapped, showcasing how bizarre some of the effects can be.²* ''TabletopGame/{{Space 1889}}'' there are plenty of such phenomena where you know the input and the output but how no idea how it is achieved in Space 1889. It is not only the fictional Martian left-over technology from long ago but plenty of things we now know how it works that were a mystery to historical Victorians. For instance the sun seems to send out a lot of energy from nowhere, much more than any known type of fuel could possibly sustain for more very long –leading some people to believe the solar system cannot be more than a few thousands year old. You seem to inherit traits from your parents, but having no idea of DNA, the mechanism for this is a mystery to Victorians who sometimes think it is somehow literally "in the blood" or "with the mother's milk," but that makes it hard to explain how plants can inherit traits.²* ''TabletopGame/Warhammer40000'':²** The modern Imperium of Man is a borderline ScavengerWorld that has lost a great deal of technological knowledge over the millennia, and as a result many of the devices lovingly-maintained by the rituals of the [[MachineCult Adeptus Mechanicus]] are irreplaceable ancient relics. One example would be the Gauntlets of Ultramar, a paired set of {{power fist}}s with integrated boltguns that is a treasured relic of the Ultramarines chapter of Space Marines. The Adeptus Mechanicus would love to study the Gauntlets, but since that would mean disassembling and possibly forgetting how to reassemble the weapons, the Ultramarines have "declined" the Mechanicus' requests to examine them, emphatically and repeatedly. ²** The Space Marines' implants cannot be duplicated since the source material needed to create more of them, the Primarchs, are dead, lost, fallen to Chaos, or are otherwise in no condition for harvesting. Even worse, If a Marine falls in battle, retrieving his implant is his comrades' top priority, since each lost implant means one less Space Marine ready to fight against the enemies of humanity. (Once again this depends on the writer. Currently they can make the implants using something called a Gene Seed which develops in each Marine. If a Marine dies without producing at least one (or the geneseed is damaged/tainted/unrecoverable) then that is a great loss to the Chapter as it will be decades before they can make it up.)²** A nonhuman example would be the Blackstone Fortresses of the [[TabletopGame/BattlefleetGothic Gothic Sector]], a sextet of ancient space structures that were appropriated by the Imperium. The [=AdMech=] were able to patch into the stations' power systems and hook up their own weapons and life-support, but nobody was sure of the things' function... until [[GalacticConqueror Abaddon the Despoiler]] showed up with some artifacts of his own and fully activated the Blackstone Fortresses, deploying guns that tore holes in space-time and could make suns go nova. Turns out they were created by the Eldar's forge gods as a means to harness Warp energy to destroy the C'tan.²** To humans, Tau technology is this: they simply cannot fathom how their technology works without first placating the "machine spirits" (which may actually exist, DependingOnTheWriter) with incense and rituals. They don't get how ork stuff works either (for that matter, neither do the orks), though they just figure the orks shout [[PercussiveMaintenance and whack their machine spirits into submission.]]²* Orks painting cars red automatically makes the cars able to go faster. And no, there's absolutely no explanation for why this is the case.²* [[WeirdScience Wonders]] in ''TabletopGame/GeniusTheTransgression'' work in a similar way to Deadlands: [[MadScientist Geniuses]] can build devices that [[InsistentTerminology delicately bend]] the laws of physics, usually with a [[ClapYourHandsIfYouBelieve crackpot theory]] given legitimacy by [[MagicPoweredPseudoscience the light of Inspiration]]. For many years, various Geniuses have tried to find out the secrets behind Inspiration, with little success.²** And don't even ''think'' about having [[{{Muggles}} a regular scientist]] examine it. [[GoneHorriblyWrong That]] [[StuffBlowingUp does]] [[InstantAIJustAddWater not]] [[AxCrazy end]] [[BodyHorror well]].²** It also adds some serious FridgeHorror for anyone who is scientifically inclined. Imagine being a scientist or engineer (the most common people who become Geniuses), someone who dedicated their career to discovering the truth and pushing technology forward and creating something that can bend the laws of reality... but you can never show anyone, can never prove anything and ''you'' will never know how it works.²[[/folder]]²²[[folder:Video Games]]²* In ''[[VideoGame/ArmoredCore Armored Core: Nexus]]'', this comes back to bite the [[CorruptCorporateExecutive Corporations]] in the ass. One Corporation activates [[LostTechnology the robotic equivalent of a weapon of mass destruction]] to protect their territory. So, it promptly goes berserk and ends up killing the executives of that Corporation and most of the people who work for them. This happens again when Kisaragi, ''[[WhatAnIdiot in the same game]]'', [[spoiler: activates a copy of [[ThatOneBoss Nine]] [[BonusBoss Ball]] and a myriad of suicide bots]] which, again, promptly go apeshit and [[spoiler: kamikaze their way through the Corporations and [[OmnicidalManiac nearly kill everyone.]]]] It also [[spoiler: probably gets the protagonist killed.]]²* Much of ''VideoGame/CommandAndConquerTiberianSun'' revolves around recovery, possession and use of the Tacitus, a black-box type artifact misplaced by the SufficientlyAdvancedAliens.²* In ''VideoGame/{{Dishonored}}'', whale oil is an incredibly efficient source of fuel, but no one really knows why this is the case. When Emily was asked how whale oil works during her lessons, she responded that it's a trick question, since nobody knows the answer. The Heart claims that the whales are [[AWizardDidIt actually supernatural beings]].²* ''Franchise/DotHack'': CC Corp's ''The World'', the MMORPG that serves as the setting of the series, is basically Black Box: the game. ''The World'' is actually a updated version of ''Fragment'', a game that CC Corp did not developed but simply acquired from a German programmer called Harald Hoerwick who sold it to the company for absolute nothing. Hoerwick based the game on the epic poem Epitaph of Twilight by Emma Wielant. After Emma's tragic death in a car accident, Hoerwick became obsessed with immortalizing her work as well as his love for her through ''Fragment''. The General public knows nothing about this and even among CC Corp very little is know about how the game actually functions. To top it all, only a handful of programers of the company are aware of the existence of a black box inside ''Fragment'' and how any attempt to decipher it ended in failure. When ''Fragment'' was updated to the retail version of ''The World'', the Black Box remained in the game's code.[[spoiler:It was later discovered the Black Box was a was actually a womb for a new breed of Artificial Intelligence, and was designed to create an "Ultimate A.I." based on the personality data of the players of ''The World''. Along with this, Hoerwick created a program called Morganna that would act like a caretaker and oversee the birth of the Ultimate A.I. Problems arise when Morganna realized that once the A.I was born, she would have no purpose left. [[AIIsACrapshot Unable to process this]], she attempted to stall the growth of the A.I indefinitely, resulting in many of the events in the series.]] ²* ''VideoGame/DukeNukem3D'': When 3D Realms sought to make a sequel to their Duke Nukem sidescrolling games, they shopped around for someone who could make a convincing pseudo-3D engine. Teenaged Ken Silverman sent in his hobby demo, which would later become the infamous BUILD engine, and got the job. He sent 3D Realms the executable file and a bevy of documentation to explain how to make levels with it, and let them build the actual game and its assets without knowing how it works internally. Turns out 3D Realms didn't know how good they had it: the code was eventually open sourced, and internet code analyst/Google software wizard Fabien Sanglard dove into it, only to find it one of the most dense, most obtuse, most esoteric pieces of code ever committed to computer memory. It was very obviously not meant to be intelligible to anyone whose name isn't Ken Silverman. Read all the gory details [[http://fabiensanglard.net/duke3d/ here]] (tellingly, Sanglard had to have Ken Silverman proofread/explain parts of the article).²* ''VideoGame/DwarfFortress'', reportedly, is one. Not only is Toady One ''very'' protective of the source code behind his masterwork, but his software development skills are almost entirely self-taught. The handful of people who have been entrusted with backup copies of it have attested that the code is almost impenetrable to mere mortals.²** Really, this can apply to just about anything a player creates in the game. Fortresses can get so elaborate that critical functions are simply forgotten or change completely as they are built upon; this ''especially'' applies to {{Succession Game}}s, since players tend to not use the in-game labelling function. Many a fortress has run into [[NonIndicativeName fun]] because the guy running it forgets which lever opens the door to the mess hall and which one [[KillItWithFire activates the fortress' lava-based self-destruct]]. A truly stand-out example has to be where one LetsPlay ended up creating a fortress so convoluted that one room ended up becoming its own PocketDimension.²* Downplayed in ''VideoGame/TheElderScrollsVSkyrim'' with Dwarven technology, which is almost always a BlackBox of some kind whenever anyone in the game has to use it to accomplish a task. The most common example is "Dwarven metal" which is an unique alloy that resembles bronze but never dulls or corrodes. Nobody by the time the game takes place knows how to create it since the Dwemer have vanished, so smelting it essentially involves recycling pieces of their scrap metal.²* In ''VideoGame/FinalFantasyVII: VideoGame/DirgeOfCerberus'', no one knows how the power source of the airships works.²* For a society almost solely based off of using technology, it turns out the Al Bhed of ''VideoGame/FinalFantasyX'' don't actually know how machina work. Averted by the end of [[VideoGame/FinalFantasyX2 X-2]], as the Machine Faction's quest is to innovate rather than rebuild.²* In ''VideoGame/GalacticCivilizations'', random events might result in your gaining a {{Precursor}} ship or two, which tend to be ''far'' stronger than anything you have for much of the game. You can't reverse-engineer the tech, but, by the end-game, you can build ships that are ''better''.²** According to the [[AllThereInTheManual manual]], the Arceans intended humans to fall into this trap when making FirstContact via a sublight probe. They transmitted the plans for building a [[PortalNetwork hyperspace gate]], deliberately modified by them to prevent humans from shutting the gate off, allowing the Arceans to invade Earth. Subverted, in that the humans said "hell no" and started trying to reverse-engineer the thing and figure out a way to make it better. They succeed by virtue of having developed fusion power and being able to minimize a "gate" into a portable hyperdrive. Then some idiot decides to send the plans to everyone else.²* In ''Franchise/{{Halo}}'', much of [[{{Precursors}} Forerunner]] technology is still considered this by the galaxy's current races, despite their best efforts to reverse-engineer it: ²** The series even has a rare example where the black box is in the aliens' hands; not only is almost all of Covenant's technology reverse-engineered from Forerunner relics, but a good percentage of their equipment is directly constructed by prehistoric Forerunner machinery, and some high-end Covenant ships even have Forerunner components directly installed. However, due to the Covenant worshiping the Forerunners as gods, even just trying to better understand Forerunner technology runs the risk of being seen as heresy. For this reason, the Covenant do not use even their own knock-off technology very efficiently, much less the Forerunner originals.²** Zig-zagged by humanity's understanding of Forerunner tech: ²*** On one hand, they have a surprisingly good understanding of how the Covenant's knock-off versions work, and are often able to drastically improve captured Covenant technology, as demonstrated in the ExpandedUniverse; for example, Cortana is able to convert a plasma torpedo launcher on a hijacked Covenant ship into a WaveMotionGun by simply recalibrating its programming. That said, while they might know how Covie technology ''works'', they still have trouble figuring out how it's ''built'', meaning that even post-war humanity is still mostly reliant on ballistic weapons.²*** On the other hand, proper Forerunner technology is still largely a mystery to them, despite the occasional reverse-engineering success. For example, humanity's post-war flagship ''Infinity'' has several Forerunner components installed, including its slipspace drive. However, not even the ship's chief scientist quite understands how said components actually work.²** The Forerunners even created an entire species embodying this trope; the Huragok/Engineers are biological supercomputers who are incredibly adept with technology. However, despite being one of the nicest species in the entire galaxy, the Huragok are absolutely ''terrible'' at explaining their technological know-how to other species; the lore tidbit for ''VideoGame/Halo5Guardians''[='s=] Huragok-designed "King" visor states that humanity has almost no idea how to reproduce it, despite the fact that its inventor is under their employ.²** In ''[[VideoGame/{{Halo 4}} Spartan Ops]]'', one frustrated human scientist describes the current state of his species' research on Forerunner technology as such:²--->"We're turning on dormant technology we don't know the first thing about! We're like ''monkeys'', hammering on a nuclear bomb because we like the sound it makes!"²** Then there's Precursor tech, which appears to lack any physical components at all and is rooted in ''sentience itself''. Unfortunately, most of it was destroyed when the Halo rings were fired.²* Deadliar from ''VideoGame/{{Hellsinker}}'' previous nickname was [=Blackbox=] in true spirit of this this trope since noone had any idea how he operated and produced the results he did.²* Played with in ''VideoGame/{{Homeworld}}'', whose [[AllThereInTheManual Historical and Technical Briefing]] describes the discovery of a large amount of LostTechnology in the wreck of an ancient spacecraft, including something eventually identified as "a solid-state hyperspace induction module". It's implied that much of their limited understanding of how it actually works was gained from building a couple of scaled-down copies and fitting them to small spacecraft, pressing the 'on' button and watching to see what happened.²** Then it turned out that said module is actually a 10,000-year old Progenitor [[FanNickname Far Jumper]]; only three of them exist in the whole galaxy. One of these are in the posession of the Bentusi and it's the basis of all hyperdrives in the galaxy, save the Kushan ones. It is also said that no matter how much they study them, they can't figure out why the reverse-engineered versions are much slower than the originals even though they know how to make other ships tag along by "riding the quantum wavefront". In fact, combining the three Far Jumpers will ''break the laws of physics'' (black holes disable hyperdrives yet the Trinity still works flawlessly).²** The semi-canonical ExpansionPack ''Cataclysm'' has a fourth hyperspace core, whose capabilities are on par with the Progenitor Far Jumpers (except it was built a ''million years ago''), except that it came from another galaxy on an experimental exploration ship called the ''Naggarok''. Besides the extremely-advanced hyperdrive, the ship also has inertialess sublight drives (allowing the massive craft to zip around the battlefield faster than any fighter), extremely-precise long-range ion cannons (able to swat fighters like gnats), and a powerful Phase Disassembler Array that can convert even a dreadnought into energy in a matter of seconds (said energy can then be used to build cruise missiles). While the ship is destroyed in the FinalBattle of the game, the tech inside it likely fits this trope.²* Epitaphs in ''VideoGame/InfiniteSpace''. They're more-or-less useless one-foot-square rust-red and slime-green cubes, but if you can figure out what they do, you get rewarded with [[AGodAmI the power to alter the universe.]]²* ''Franchise/MassEffect'' ²** The Citadel and mass relays are thought to be built by the Protheans. Humans and other races use them, though their inner workings and construction are poorly understood, and any attempt ''to'' understand them is regarded as an exercise in futility. [[spoiler:It turns out that a race of AbusivePrecursors, the Reapers, were the real builders of these wonders, and the Protheans were just barely figuring out the technology themselves when they were wiped out.]]²** Worse than that, [[spoiler: the mass relays and Citadel are a huge [[SchmuckBait trap]] set by the Reapers meant to alert them when sentient life is ready for another round of reaping. Just before they begin their invasion, they disable the entire relay network so that all star systems are [[CurbstompBattle isolated from each other, and ripe for the picking.]]]]²** But wait, it gets even worse than that! [[spoiler: In the original plans for the series, as in before Mass Effect 3 was developed, the motive behind the Reapers was that the Mass Effect phenomenon, upon which all modern technology is predicated, has an entropic effect on the universe, causing stars to die more quickly and presumably hastening the inevitable, final heat death of existence. The Reapers were aware of it and were harvesting sentient species the moment they became intelligent enough that they could work on solutions, but before their societies become too detrimental.]]²** [[CoolOldLady Matriarch Aethyta]] very much dislikes the black box nature of the relays and once proposed trying to study relays more intimately, maybe even building one. As she puts it, the other Matriarchs "laughed the blue off my ass."²** The design of their conventional [=FTL=] system is much the same, being almost entirely reverse-engineered from the Protheans. This means that they have no idea how to disengage certain safety protocols that prevent ships from being flown into planets or other vessels at relativistic velocities. While this is generally a good thing, [[spoiler:it prevents the military from using this tactic against the Reapers]].²** [[VideoGame/MassEffect3 The third game]] kicks this UpToEleven with [[spoiler:the Crucible, a [[FlingALightIntoTheFuture light flung into the future]] so many times that barely anyone who tried to build it understood what it was or what it did. Not even the Protheans were sure how it even ''operated,'' and they nearly finished the damn thing before the Reapers completed their invasion. It's hammered home numerous times through the game that it could do damn near anything because while there are easily understandable blueprints for it, there's no data on how to use it or what it does. At one point Commander Shepard likens the situation to a child playing with his father's gun. It turns out to be little more than a giant power source used to brute-force hack the Citadel and Relay network to either destroy or control all Reapers. It can alternatively forcibly convert all organic and machine life into cyborgs if certain conditions are met, but this was apparently not an intentional part of the design]].²** ''VideoGame/MassEffectAndromeda'' has a similar situation with the Remnant Vaults. The Andromeda Initiative finds out pretty quickly that the Vaults are able to terraform entire planets, which is very good because the planets they had intended to settle had been environmentally ruined by [[NegativeSpaceWedgie the Scourge]]. But nobody has a clue ''how'' any of the Remnant technology actually works, and the dangers of relying on it are pointed out.²* The ''VideoGame/MegaManX'' series:²** The titular robot was the last and greatest creation of Dr. Light, who then had X put through 30 years of ethical testing to ensure that he wouldn't misuse his "limitless" power. When Dr. Cain discovered X and studied the robot, he admitted that some of X's systems were "black boxes" he couldn't understand, but did his best to reproduce X's design. The result was the Reploids, a generation of robots more advanced than anything previous, but the fact that they were all imperfect copies of Light's design led to the Maverick uprisings.²** Later games reveal that Zero has similar black boxes, most likely stolen by Dr. Wily.²** In the ''VideoGame/MegaManZero'' series, Ciel as a young kid manages to reproduce X almost perfectly... and then found out ''why'' the original X was put through 30 years of ethics training. Luckily for Zero, this villainous Copy X lacks the original X's century of combat experience.²* The ''VideoGame/MetalMax'' series has this in spades. Aside from the world having been wrecked so badly no one even remembers what several machines DO, let alone how to build them (tanks among them - although The Disassembler seems to know his way around them, but he's insane and only disassembles them, hence the name), there's [[spoiler:the androids Scarlet and Alpha]] in Metal Saga, whom nobody knows how to fix (hence why [[spoiler:if Alpha gets [=KOed=], she can't be revived, and why Scarlet dies after you defeat her - she's been going without repairs since the Great War that wiped the planet, and her regeneration is pretty much at its limit, she even comments on it being the case]]). The genetically engineered dogs in Metal Saga may also count, as they are very clearly far more intelligent than they appear, bordering on being smarter than quite a few humans.²* ''Franchise/{{Metroid}}:''²** Samus Aran's power suit has a ton of hidden properties the Chozo didn't have time to teach her about, but fortunately the suit is smart enough to make use of them anyway. Not only that, but the suit is actually capable of adapting non-Chozo technology to upgrade itself when Samus aquires some, which gets really strange when she picks up Luminoth, Space Pirate and ''human'' technology.²** The Space Pirates have a habit of developing their own tech using the framework of what they steal from other races, and naturally they were eager to try to reverse-engineer their archnemesis' equipment, even if their scientists admit they're baffled how Samus' power suit functions. They were able to reproduce the various beam weapons used by Samus' suit, though each Space Pirate using the derived weapons was limited to a single type of beam, while Samus can switch freely between them. The bigger hurdle came when the Space Pirates turned to Samus' Morph Ball ability - their Science Team was able to successfully compress a Space Pirate into a small sphere, but having them come out of it intact [[BodyHorror proved problematic.]]²** The ''VideoGame/MetroidPrime'' subseries involves the use of Phazon, a blue gooey substance that turns its users NighInvulnerable and greatly amplifies their weapon strength, at the risk of [[TheCorruption corruption.]] By ''VideoGame/MetroidPrime3Corruption'', the Federation is able to develop a PED Suit that contains a "black box" that allows its wearer to safely utilize Phazon to improve their combat capabilities, but unfortunately Samus' variant gets damaged early in the game.²* The superweapons of the ''VideoGame/NavalOps'' series, especially in ''Warship Gunner 2,'' are considered to be Black Boxes by the people fighting against them. In ''WG 2,'' they run off a Black Box "Engine" strapped into oversized conventional ships (for a given value of conventional). The equipment you can unlock for customizing your own ship is explicitly labeled in game as "Black Box Technology" in the equipment screen, with individual pieces labeled Enigmatech (Enigmatech Bridge, Enigmatech Sensors, etc.).²* The [[PostModernMagik Demon Summoning Program]] in the ''Franchise/ShinMegamiTensei'' series is a monstruously powerful piece of software capable of [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin bringing forth demons into the physical world]]. However, when analyzed in ''VideoGame/ShinMegamiTenseiStrangeJourney'', the technicians are baffled by the dozens of Black Boxes in its code, and its use is only authorized in the eve of extreme duress. Across the series, a handful of people have been seen to develop some variation upon [[Literature/DigitalDevilStory Akemi Nakajima]]'s original program, but it bears mentioning that aside from Nakajima himself and Stephen, most of these are inhuman entities using and distributing it for their own purposes. Even those two eventually AscendToAHigherPlaneOfExistence, Nakajima as Izanagi and Stephen as TheDragon for the Goddess of Tokyo.²* In ''VideoGame/SinsOfASolarEmpire'', the Advent field Phase Inhibitors stolen from the TEC, who use Phase Inhibitors captured from the Vasari. . . who ''also'' don't know how Phase Inhibitors work, and simply field copies of ones that ''they'' found.²* ''VideoGame/{{Stellaris}}'' generally averts this, and you can scan battle wreckage of even {{Precursor}} shipes to reverse-engineer their components, but until you have end-game science buildings it's going to take a looong time to complete those research projects. Or you can play this trope straight by taking the "Enigmatic Engineering" Ascension Perk, which makes your technological designs sufficiently esoteric that your rivals can't study them - a good way to keep the unique technology derived from defeating one of the [[BonusBoss Leviathan]] enemies limited to your forces.²* In the ''VideoGame/{{Touhou}}'' ExpandedUniverse, there's a character named Rinnosuke who has the power to immediately identify the function of any device he sees. This does not mean that he knows what it's called or how to use it. He was once horrified to recover a "World Controlling Device" capable of causing great destruction, [[JediTruth little realizing]] that he was dealing with a UsefulNotes/GameBoy.²* [[ZigZagged Played with]] through the [[PortalNetwork gates]] of the ''[[VideoGame/{{X}} X-Universe]]''. While operation is terribly easy -- push a spaceship in one gate, and it'll pop out the other gate in the pair a few seconds later, no matter how far away -- no one in the [[FiveRaces central interstellar trade system]] understands anything but the lies-to-children version of how they work. While there are a few scientists capable of repairing damaged gates, no one even thinks about trying replication or reconfiguration, and the irregular outages or changes in the system caused by [[AbusivePrecursors meddling precursors]] is treated like mystery or even legend where it's not just a natural risk of the gates. The species that actually made the system in the first place not only consider it [[TheWorldIsNotReady outside of the range of understanding of the normal races]], they think [[JustForFun/AbusingTheKardashevScaleForFunAndProfit it's impossible for a species to understand without getting a few points higher on the Kardashev scale]]. [[SubvertedTrope Then]] the Terran [[HumansAreSpecial humans get involved]], and not only get the theory down and create a new gate on their own, but also create a Jumpdrive that's a ''separate'' Black Box to everyone else in the setting; when the test ship (the ''Xperimental Shuttle'') gets dumped in the X-Universe by a BlindJump in ''Videogame/XBeyondTheFrontier'', nobody can repair it; not even the pilot after he establishes a MegaCorp solely to repair it to [[YouCantGoHomeAgain get back home]]. The ship can be re-acquired thirty years later in ''X3: Terran Conflict'', where it's still unknowable and impossible to reverse engineer; presumably, the now [[LostColony reconnected Earth State]] isn't helping the player to reproduce it.²* A core mechanic in the ''Videogame/{{XCOM}}'' titles is having your scientists and engineers do their best to adapt alien technology for your soldiers' use, even if they don't fully understand the principles behind plasma weapons or psionics. Slightly subverted in that your scientists do eventually learn how to apply the principles for other uses. For example, plasma weapons are the top-tier tech branch you can reverse-engineer from the aliens in ''UFO Defense'', but ''Terror from the Deep'' takes place underwater, where plasma won't do you much good, especially since [[GreenRocks Elerium-115]] is rendered inert by seawater. So X-COM's science team eventually learns to adapt the same magnetic coils used to contain plasma into MagneticWeapons that fire slugs at high speeds. Additionally, background material for ''Interceptor'' states that inert Elerium is actually quite useful as radiation shielding, which is why it's an integral component in humanity's first FTL drives.²* ''VideoGame/{{Xenogears}}'' has Gears, the HumongousMecha of the game. While the setting's current powers are capable of making their own, the best Gears are relics from previous wars between precursor civilizations, leading to an ArchaeologicalArmsRace between the nations of Aveh and Kislev to recover weapons they don't fully understand. Protagonist Fei's Gear, Weltall, is comprised almost entirely of black boxes, something the ''[[GlobalAirship Yggdrasil]]''[='s=] Gear mechanic will comment on. Naturally it's the strongest Gear in the game, and new abilities will come online at seemingly random intervals, [[spoiler:culminating in Weltall transforming into the titular Xenogears, a 100% OrganicTechnology Black Box]]. According to the ''[[WordOfGod Perfect Works]]'' book, [[spoiler:most of the black boxes are either [[MagicAIsMagicA Ether]] amplifiers, or components used in its transformation between Weltall and Weltal-Id-]].²* ''VideoGame/{{Xenosaga}}'': KOS-MOS is an android built by Kevin Winnicot, but when she goes berserk and [[ThanatosGambit murders hims]] she has to be rebuilt. Unfortunately, the only way Kevin's successors are capable of creating another KOS-MOS is to simply repair and (attempt to) reprogram the same prototype unit that killed him because [[NoPlansNoPrototypeNoBackup he took the plans for her to his grave]]. As a result, the current KOS-MOS is treated like a faulty hand grenade which her development team is loath to admit they have zero control over if push comes to shove. She's laden with black box parts and programs, each with unknown functions, which come online at [[BecauseDestinySaysSo seemingly random intervals]] (like her Gnosis-obliterating X-Buster ability), often to shocking effect. Series protagonist (and KOS-MOS co-creator) Shion is only able to figure most of them out enough to rebuild KOS-MOS a ''second'' time after gaining access to Kevin's original plans via a time paradox.²** Also, a great deal of the series's technology is the product of one man, Joachim Mizrahi. After he died on Militia during the Federation's invasion, a great amount of effort has been poured into piecing his prototypes back together, as well as reassembling his codex of knowledge: the Y-Data. Efforts to recreate his work from scratch by his rival Dr. Sellers amount to impressive, but fatally flawed knock-offs.²[[/folder]]²²[[folder:Webcomics]]²* AI in ''Webcomic/{{QuestionableContent}}''. AI don't know what makes them sentient. Even the inventor/"God" of AI, John Ellicott, doesn't understand how artificial sentience evolved, just that "a certain combination of software and hardware led to artificial intelligence, and once we figured that out, we could mass produce them".²* In a flashback arc of ''Webcomic/{{Gnoph}}'', a scientist criticizes the military for creating a breed of SuperSoldier pretty much by accident and then using them despite not really understanding how or why they work. Sure enough, things soon [[GoneHorriblyWrong Go Horribly Wrong]].²-->'''Dr. Westman:''' Gotta love that military mentality: "Ah don' know why ut works, but they sure do kill!" ''Idiots.''²* ''Webcomic/{{Drive}}'': The human Empire's Ring Drive, only members of "la Familia" who rule the Empire are even allowed to see the inner workings, and they don't know how it works, just how to maintain or duplicate it, because their ancestor reverse-engineered it from a crashed alien ship.²* According to WordOfGod, the [[LaserBlade Beam swords]] in ''Webcomic/ExterminatusNow'' are LostTechnology from a long-gone empire, and are not comparable to any other technology (modern or otherwise) in the setting (so the dark Machine God cannot possess them). This goes a way towards explaining why the Forgemaster who builds them is ignorant and suspicious of modern plumbing.²* Some government agents in ''Webcomic/RealLifeComics'' once confiscated an interplanetary ship Tony made. They opened up the reactor and found . . . ''jam.''²* ''Webcomic/NobodyScores'' had an arc where the main characters ended up getting their hands on a literal black box -- things went in, and other things came out. It was when it started producing multiple copies of the severed head of Shia [=LaBoeuf=] (who was still alive) that they started trying to get rid of it...²* In ''Webcomic/GunnerkriggCourt'', Anja and Donlan created a computer that runs on magic, which even they don't fully understand the workings of. They're the only ones who use it--the rest of the Court distrusts it precisely because it's a Black Box.²** Diego's SuperPrototype robots (which also appear to run on a combination of magic and technology) are also black boxes. They have no visible power source, nor means of moving their limbs. [[spoiler:They are {{golem}}s made by a master mechanician who wrote their "OS" in what under a magnifying glass turns out to be a small book worth of runes.]] Modern robots are black boxes even while self-documenting. When asked to print their operating code, one produced a 3D image of some complex structure made of runes, with density requiring a microscope to read, without any sort of map legend, and neither derived from nor designed to be compatible with, any human languages, natural or programming (they are [[RecursiveCreators robot-built]]).²* The [[http://mushroomgo.thecomicseries.com/comics/21 Star core]] in ''Webcomic/MushroomGo'', nobody on the ship has any idea how it works.²* An early ''Webcomic/{{Goats}}'' storyline involves such a machine - you put kittens in, and pop tarts come out; nobody knows what happens to the kittens. Later it's revealed that the machine is [[spoiler: a stolen alien spaceship engine, which is powered by the good feelings created when the kitten is placed in a loving home. But it's still a Black Box, because even the aliens don't know where the pop tarts come from.]]²* In ''Webcomic/{{Westward}}'', Escherspace -- a form of FasterThanLightTravel -- appears to be a Black Box. Publicly, the government claims that "only a few scientists" know how it works; in reality, it's strongly hinted that only the mysterious alien Phobos may be capable of understanding it, and he must personally work the controls when the webcomic's eponymous CoolStarship makes an interstellar jump.²* In ''Webcomic/{{Spacetrawler}}'', it's implied that the eponymous spacetrawlers (which the entire galaxy relies on to enable faster-than-light travel and matter synthesis from space debris) are so complicated that only the {{Technopath}} Eebs can understand and construct them. [[spoiler:It's eventually revealed that their construction is less complicated than implied, but the details are so horrific that it's no surprise that the builders insist on keeping them secret.]]²* During the "Star Trek" parody arc of ''Webcomic/QuentynQuinnSpaceRanger'' Omnibus described the devices running the essential functions on the "Glorious Undertaking" as "black box" devices. [[spoiler: Turns out they were cosmic entity tech secretly installed by "Cue" to limit the number of exploding Federation vessels.]]²* Weaponized in ''Webcomic/UserFriendly''. Cid, a CoolOldGuy, was looking at old military software and found an old device that he made, programmed, and maintained. He remembers that it's primary purpose was to give him job security. ²[[/folder]]²²[[folder:Web Original]]²* Most of the super-advanced technology in the ''WebOriginal/OrionsArm'' universe is at least partly powered by transapientech. This is by definition designed by beings orders of magnitude smarter than ordinary folks. This is something of a subversion in that the inner workings are completely known, and probably published somewhere on the net, but the people using them ''can't'' understand them, since their brains aren't complex enough. It's sort of like trying to teach a small child nuclear physics in depth.²* The ''Wiki/SCPFoundation'' classifies objects into three broad categories: Safe, Euclid, and Keter. Safe objects' properties are researched enough that the foundation knows what the object does, even if it's not completely understood ''why'' it works. Most "black boxes" would fall into this category, since the input and output are stable. Note that here, "Safe" means "understood" and "easy to contain", ''not'' "non-dangerous".²** [[http://www.scp-wiki.net/scp-914 SCP-914]] is a more literal Black Box than most; it's an incredibly complex mechanical machine into which you put an object, and it comes out "refined" from the other end.²* In ''Literature/{{Worm}}'' Tinker-tech suffers heavily from this as the Tinkers themselves don't fully understand ''why'' their technology actually works. The result is a number of built-in flaws that quickly render their creations inoperable without constant maintenance from the Tinker themselves. Eventually explained as [[spoiler:limits placed by the Entities to encourage creativity and discourage research into fields such as space travel and nanotechnology]].²[[/folder]]²²[[folder:Western Animation]]²* ''WesternAnimation/{{Ben 10}}'''s Omnitrix. Not from earth. Seemingly simple to use on the surface... But it has secrets, hidden abilities, glitches, and occasionally, [[EmpathicWeapon a mind of its own]].²** Eventually they meet its creator, who doesn't seem to understand what he's built either.²*** He fully understands it's inner workings, it's just that he's very reluctant about revealing them to other people.²* The train in ''WesternAnimation/InfinityTrain'' is an EldritchLocation running on incomprehensibly advanced technology, but Tulip and [[spoiler:Amelia as the fake Conductor]] are able to control it to some extent by analyzing its observable mechanisms (particularly the orbs every objects and creature seem to be tied to). Tulip even compares it to programming a game.²* In ''WesternAnimation/ThunderCats2011'', young {{Catfolk}} prince Lion-O is a CollectorOfTheStrange, namely "[[LostTechnology technology]]." He purchases a piece of what he suspects is technology from a FriendInTheBlackMarket, and spends quite a bit of time [[ChekhovsHobby puzzling over it]] and [[SchematizedProp diagramming]] it, but only realizes its function when he sees a Lizard use one to blow up a wall during TheSiege on his kingdom of Thundera. Finally understanding the device's interface as a StickyBomb, he grabs some others to join the fight against the Lizards, saving his father Claudus and brother Tygra by using the bombs to blow up some of the Lizards' {{Walking Tank}}s.²[[/folder]]²²[[folder:Real Life]]²* In WW II, at a time when electronics were evolving rapidly (e.g. microwave/RADAR technology), the British assembled electronic parts into random yet convincing circuits, then shot and otherwise mangled them, then let their bombers carry them. If one of them was downed, the Germans would go through the wreckage, find the remains and then spend valuable time and manpower to try to figure out what this secret device was supposed to do.²* On ''Series/DoctorWho'', one of the companions, Kamelion, was, behind the scenes, an actual, animatronic robot. Unfortunately, the person who had designed it and who knew the control codes died after the episode where it first appeared, so the character mostly had to stay in the background.²* [[http://www.catb.org/jargon/html/index.html The Jargon File]] and its dead-tree twin, ''The New Hacker's Dictionary'', is rife with terms describing programming Black Boxes, most notably [[http://catb.org/esr/jargon/html/magic-story.html Black Magic]], where a switch is found with its two positions labeled "Magic" and "More Magic". The only wire soldered to the switch goes directly to the case of a server--specifically, to a ground pin. There is electrically no way it can affect anything on the server (except for EXTREMELY bizarre capacitance effects), and yet switching to "Magic" causes the server to crash.²** It could also be due to a difference in electric potential between the ground and the case.²** Genetic algorithms (computer programs that emulate neo-Darwinian synthesis) can produce hardware that no human could design. [[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/genalg/genalg.html#examples:electrical For example, an array of logic gates that sets its output high when it hears "go" and low when it hears "stop"]]. Inside the circuit, 5 of the 37 gates are not even connected to the rest, yet the device stops working when their power is disconnected! An order of magnitude weirder than the magic switch. Other examples include a research team [[http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn2732-radio-emerges-from-the-electronic-soup.html accidentally reinventing the radio receiver]] while trying to evolve an oscillator, and very unusually shaped antennas that can be held in the palm of the hand and transmit signals from satellites to the surface of the earth. More about the [[http://www.netscrap.com/netscrap_detail.cfm?scrap_id=73 magical stop go circuit here]].²*** Genetic algorithms have a variant called [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolutionary_algorithm Evolutionary programming.]] Basically, it's when you solve a programming task by having the computer generate an initial population of randomly-generated programs, then apply natural selection mechanism to mix-and-match them until you get a program which solves the task satisfactorily... but its code may be completely incomprehensible to a human. ²*** To make this an even stronger example, genetic algorithms just make random changes and go with what's best. They don't understand it either. It's a black box even to the designer.²* Black Box programming is a very important concept in real life. For example, all UsefulNotes/{{API}}s (which allow developers to connect to things like Facebook or Google Maps) are black boxes; generally, the only details developers have are usage instructions and a description of what it does, since someone writing, say, a GPS application doesn't need to know anything about how Google Maps works.²** In this case, this is actually considered a good thing: abstraction means compatibility. If your software is designed without using any knowledge of how the black box part works, it will (at least in theory) be possible to swap that library out for an updated or improved version later on. So long as ''somebody'' knows how it works, it's just a matter of trusting one's fellow engineers. In contrast, the moment you ''have'' to know how each variant of something really works instead of just one set of common operations, a task that should be trivial turns into a nightmare. Remember those DOS games and their sound setup programs?²** In object-oriented programming, objects are supposed to be black boxes, often having public and private groups of variables and functions. The "client" only need to know what the functions do and what should be put in the variables, and not anything about the inner workings. Similarly, template libraries and built-in functions in many programming languages (like C++'s STL) are Black Boxes. The documentation on C++'s sort() function, for example, doesn't tell you what kind of sorting algorithm is used, because it doesn't really matter (although one can deduce that it's probably a quicksort implementation from what they say about its running time).²*** And if someone else wants the class to do something else, the chances are they'll write another class that extends and/or calls the old one, rather than trying to rewrite the existing source code.²* Large amounts of real world software source code is an absolute abomination of incomprehensible abbreviations, architectures which haven't evolved and grown so much as become cancerous, baffling hacks and plain old carelessness and stupidity or even just plain old lack of programming know-how. Such software will gain Black Box status pretty soon after the original developers move on.²** Fun fact: Masi Oka (yes, Hiro from Series/{{Heroes}}) still has to do occasional effects work for his former employer, ILM, because nobody else knows how to use his software.²** This isn't unusual. Truly understanding non-trivial code written by someone else without documentation is considered the mark of a master programmer. It's said engineers don't retire, they just become consultants and come back to fix their old things when they break.²** Particularly this is true of cryptographic algorithms. You put plain text and encryption key in, and you get back line noise. Put line noise and decryption key in, and you get back plain text. Unfortunately so few people actually understand the algorithms and code that, even in open source software, bugs can lurk for a long time.²** More humorous example, in an attempt to cut government costs, California decided to fire a large chunk of government workers, then redo the pay rates for everyone left. Well, phase one went off fine, but come phase two they realized that every single person that knew enough about the payroll software to implement the changes was fired in phase one.²* Older electronic (and most especially military) technologies may well have been designed by people who are dead, coded in languages which no-one ever hears of nowadays, use electronic standards long since obsoleted and built by companies that dissolved or got eaten by other companies some time ago. [=Black Box=]hood arrives quite naturally for such devices, which could conceivably include missile guidance systems or nuclear warhead triggers which are still quite useable today.²** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FOGBANK FOGBANK]]²* [=COBOL=] used to be a very common language for developing business software in. Though superseded by modern languages like Java or Visual Basic, old working software was not replaced. The pool of skilled [=COBOL=] engineers is rapidly dwindling simply because they are retiring and in due course upgrade and maintenance engineers will simply not exist anymore.²** Some colleges have tried to avert this by offering courses in [=COBOL=].²* It seems that the original programming of Microsoft Excel might be a black box, since after the principal programmer quit, the project virtually stopped. Luckily he came back.²* Many psychiatric drugs work via mechanisms that are either unknown or only loosely understood. The laborious (sometimes decades long) process of searching for side effects and other quirks irons out many of the Black Box problems that plague fiction.²** On that subject, some (if not most) chemical reactions in general have mechanisms which are only vaguely understood at best.²* Real Life is rife with stories of a programmer being fired for whatever reason, only for his ex-boss to realize nobody knows how to maintain the server.²* Due to the "digital rights" controversy, certain laws have been put into effect that ''require'' black boxes to remain black boxes, making it ''illegal'' even to try to crack into them. For example, it's now illegal to write programs to get past certain types of encoding on music, DVD's, and electronic books. If you have even a slight understanding of the way technology progresses, you'll probably see this move as either "stupid" or "scary", possibly both.²** If you've followed the results, "laughable" "doomed" and "legally unenforceable" are more likely.²*** Especially when the concept of an "illegal number" is thrown around. The people responsible for Blu-Ray's encryption were trying to get people to stop distributing a 128-bit number on the internet because it was the encryption key.²*** And because of the StreisandEffect, this number was posted ''everywhere'' on the internet within hours.²** On the other hand, anyone with a basic understanding of motivation and incentive will know very few people would even want to produce such technology in the first place without some protections because it it would just get stolen otherwise.²* OlderThanRadio: During the early 18th century, Antonio Stradivari hand-crafted several wooden violins that, compared to other violins before or since, produce the highest-quality sound. Many violin manufacturers have, for centuries, attempted to not only replicate the sound of the Stradivarius, but have even labeled violins as "Stradivarius" as a marketing ploy. Unfortunately, when Stradivari died, the technology and skill required to produce a violin of such caliber died with him. Scientists continually do research on the Stradivarius sound and technologies to replicate that sound, and original Stradivarius violins remain to be the most valuable musical instruments in the world.²** The "Stradivarius" label on violin is not there for marketing reasons. It's actually a model of violin - Antonio Stradivari's instruments had very specific proportions (also being slightly larger than ones made by competing crafters). If you see a violin labeled "Stradivari", it means that its proportions and size match those of an original Stradivari instrument.²** It has been speculated that the sound quality is due to the wood available at the time. He built them around the little ice age, and wood at that time was particularly thin and brittle due to the odd weather patterns, making them irreproduceable. On the other hand, other violin makers of the time were unable to reproduce it either.²** There's also [[http://www.economist.com/node/21542380 evidence]] that Stradivari violins aren't that great in the first place.²* Damascus steel. The precise technique through which blacksmiths of medieval Damascus produced their wares has been lost and no one since around 1750 has been able to duplicate the original exactly, although many have claimed to have done so.²* The philosophy of ''instrumentalism'' boils down to "the ''only'' important thing about any theory is whether it's usable, i.e. predicts a result of given experiment". Hunting for explanations is but a pointless infinite regression. This means that "light is truly made of particles" and "light is truly made of waves" are fancy statements that delusionally bind real events to imaginary constructs while "wave model correctly and in convenient form predicts diffraction/interference effects" or "particle model correctly and in convenient form predicts absorption/emission effects" states everything that really matters in this issue. From this point of view ''anything'' is a Black Box, the only difference is that we already know how to dismantle some [=blackboxes=] to several smaller [=blackboxes=] and what buttons to push.²* Arguably the universe itself is a black box since we don't (yet) have a complete physical theory of the universe. Also, while we do have two theories that work fine in their respective arenas (General Relativity: big and heavy stuff, Quantum Mechanics: small and light stuff), they are contradictory and become completely incomprehensible when used together.²** There's also an older theory called classical Newtonian mechanics, which works for medium-size and medium-mass stuff. It was specifically created to avert this trope and describe a Universe governed by simple, understandable laws; it failed at that. However, it works nicely for 90% of the stuff we encounter in our lives, and that's why it, and not GR or quantum is taught at schools.²* The plans for the Saturn V rocket from the Apollo Project are stored in a format that isn't readable by any computer currently in use. Since there are a few leftover rockets, that could potentially be fueled up and fired, they have become black boxes. When the new designs for the Orion spacecraft (not the nuclear-bomb one, the newer one) were in the works, the ability to look at the old Saturn design and learn from them was denied the engineers, who had to waste potentially years starting from scratch. Since then, to avoid this trope, a project was initiated to attempt to retrieve the data and transfer it onto a more modern storage medium, but it's so underfunded that it's not currently active.²** Although some of that is true, there are other significant factors involved - for instance, not being allowed to use asbestos anymore even though we know how. It's not ''purely'' a case of "no longer able to read the plans."²** This is an urban myth. The Saturn V plans are stored on microfilm. While readers are not nearly as commonplace as they were at the time of the rocket's conception, they're still readily available.²** Though microfilms do exist, several key parts were destroyed due to Cold War policies on classified materials. The Orion engineers also had access to the engines from one of the original (IXX, I think) F1 engines taken from the rocket currently displayed at the Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama.²* UsefulNotes/NikolaTesla, thanks to a heady mixture of personal eccentricities, outlandish claims, and industrial FUD both during and after his time, has a reputation for this sort of thing rivaled only by fiction. All his ''well-documented'' inventions work from explicable, if clever, principles of engineering -- but poorly documented claims abound of death rays, earthquake generators, and yet stranger things unreproducible by modern science.²** The fact his documented ideas tended to get stolen (usually by Edison) might have something to do with it.²* SR-71 Blackbird recon plane: Due to ongoing modifications to their respective airframes each Blackbird had its own set of blueprints. Thus, each Blackbird was unique, although they looked identical. The original molds or dies used in the manufacturing of the planes were ordered destroyed by then Secretary of Defense [=McNamara=] (Cold War policies again) so it would be nearly imposible to make new Blackbirds or even spare parts (In fact other airframes had to be cannibalized to keep the fleet airworthy), although a lot of planes survive to this day so reverse engineering could be feasible.²* The human body itself is quite the black box. With the exception of your occasional doctor or biologist, everyone uses theirs without the slightest hint of how the lot of it works. The brain in particular is quite the mystery, for if it was simple enough we could easily understand it, we would be unable to do exactly that.²* While there is still debate on the subject, nobody knows ''for sure'' why a bicycle stays upright when you ride it. It just does. Numerous theories have been put forth with some of them holding water. See this [[http://www.cracked.com/article_19442_8-simple-questions-you-wont-believe-science-cant-answer.html Cracked article]].²** The same article also lists several other questions that even modern science can't answer: why we sleep, how many planets are in the Solar System, why ice is slippery, how to beat Solitaire, how many animal species exist, what is the length of the US (or any) coastline, how does gravity work. A lot of these questions that we just either never ask or accept a universally-known explanation, which is actually false.²*** Some of these are somewhat trivial, while others are more interesting. How many planets are in the Solar System depends on one's definition of planet - it isn't the result of lack of knowledge but rather of definition, and if we mean a -real- planet, not a minor one, the answer is pretty clear at 9 - while it is possible we will find a far flung planet in the solar system, it would be pretty remote (there certainly isn't a planet anywhere nearby, and the vulcanoids are not hiding a planet), and this is simply mistaking science for something else (nothing is ever proven in science, after all). The length of any coastline depends on your level of precision. And while we don't know exactly -why- ice is slippery in the sense of not knowing what causes it, we are pretty sure we know the cause of the low friction - a thin layer of water on the surface. On the other hand, we really don't know why we sleep, how gravity works, how many species there are (though like the planets one, this is more of a lack of total knowledge than a lack of theory, which is a very different thing), why bicycles stay upright... it's a bit awkward that the article mixes two things (knowledge questions vs theory questions), as there are lots of knowledge questions unknown to science.²* There was a fad for "miracle cure" machines at the beginning of the twentieth century that were actually called Black Box machines. You just set a few controls, turned it on, and whatever quack therapy that model was based on would cure the illness. The reason they were intentionally kept as black boxes was the controls did nothing to its function, and most in fact had no working parts.²* Any self-taught coder will make these whenever they program... well anything. How bad it is depends on the degree of "self-taughtedness". ²* This situation tends to happen whenever a nation receives exported military equipment from another nation's military (planes, tanks, ships etc.) and something sours political relations between them. A sudden change in government, or an embargo due to some unsavory incident can effectively turn a chunk of a nation's military into a black box. No longer getting the support in terms of maintenance to keep them in service or upgrades to keep them relevant, the material in question rapidly becomes warehoused for fear of damaging it beyond repair or obsolete. Solutions are varied, ranging from reverse-engineering, putting in locally-made upgrades, producing their own replacements or getting a replacement from another friendly nation. Examples include the F-14's Iran received before the Shah was overthrown and various helicopter models China received just before the Tienanmen Square incident.²** The Japanese have bought a license for an advanced Russian jet. They assemble it exactly by the blueprints, and it turns out to be a steam locomotive. They check the blueprints, gather their best engineers and assemble it again. Still locomotive. They file a complaint to the Russians, so the Russian team arrives, goes into the workshop and shortly produces a perfectly good jet. The Japanese are astonished: "We've tried it again and again and only got a steam train!" "Why, of course", reply the Russians, "did you Read the Fine Print? First you get a steam train. And then you work on it with a rasp."²* For a very common (and far more mundane) example, many, if not most, things that people use day-to-day are effectively black boxes. There is an oft-quoted analogy about how the ability to ''drive'' a car does not equate an ability to design and ''build'' a car, or even to fix one. For a fun thinking exercise, see if you can actually explain the workings of a microwave oven, or a computer, or a cell phone, or any other number of things you use daily.²** Once you give up, go [[http://www.howstuffworks.com/ here.]]²* In biology, the occasional black box arises in the form of a living organism. For example, of the twenty or so species of beaked whale known to science, about three are well documented. The rest are very poorly understood, some of which we haven't even seen living specimens of yet. Where they live, how they breed, what they eat, how deep they dive, none of these are known. We know that they exist because we have dead bodies (for a while, one species was known only by ''a jawbone''), but ''how'' they exist is largely a mystery.²* For much of the UsefulNotes/ColdWar, nuclear weapons were black boxes, either entirely or to the people working with them. All nukes were designed by multiple people, but sometimes these teams worked loosely with each other in isolation, the effect being that no one person knew how a particular nuclear weapon worked. This method of security eventually fell out of favor as some of the bombs produced by these teams were abject failures; to the extent that at one point in US history, nearly all the warheads carried by US submarines were duds due to their faulty safety systems. In the other case of nuclear black boxes, teams designing [=ICBMs=] and bomb cases were given the bare minimum of information needed to design a delivery system.²** A remarkable example of this effect is describing how, exactly, thermonuclear bombs work: Only the engineers and scientists who have designed them actually ''know.'' Even though the technology is over a half-a-century old and possessed by at least half-a-dozen countries, details of the mechanism have remained strictly classified. The public "Teller-Ulam" design which may (or may ''not'') be the de facto standard for all fusion weapons has been pieced together mainly through inference and assumption, and is quite free of details.²* Several of the computer rankings that make up the Bowl Championship Series formula in college football are proprietary. Accordingly, no one exactly knows why they would rank the teams in the way they do, and major bowl bids (and millions of dollars) can hinge on the result. The BCS system was replaced in 2014 by a selection committee that decides how teams are ranked, with the top four teams playing for a national championship at the end of the season. ²* The Turk was a machine built in the eighteenth century that supposedly was able to play a strong game of chess against a human opponent. Though the cabinet could be opened to reveal a complex gear mechanism, nobody who saw it in action could figure out how it worked. Of course, the reason was because [[spoiler:The Turk wasn't an automaton at all, but was concealing a human player]], and the reason no one could determine exactly what was going on for almost a century was [[spoiler:the human player]] was very well-hidden. That said, several people over that span came close to figuring it out, but their hypotheses were always flawed in some way.²* Hex in ''Literature/{{Discworld}}'' (above) was based on one of Sir Creator/TerryPratchett's own computers, a ZX Spectrum he tinkered with and added hardware to until it did what he wanted. Eventually he lost track of it all, and there were components which he couldn't remember or deduce the purpose of, but it you took them out everything stopped working.²* Black boxes, often by that name, are used as an important learning tool in signal processing. The idea is that you give a student a way to produce a variety of inputs (oscillators, noise generators), a suite of measuring tools (oscilloscopes, spectrum analyzers), and a black box. By applying different inputs, taking measurements, and applying the signal processing principles they've been taught, they try to infer exactly what's inside the black box. With enough constraints on the parameters (e.g., "This will only contain amplifiers and attenuators, because we haven't learned about filters yet.") the black box can become simply a logic puzzle.²* In topology diagrams used by computer network admins, a part of the network whose internal structure is unknown or irrelevant is represented by a cloud. A site to site WAN linking two corporate sites, such as an internet VPN tunnel or private WAN are good examples. The admin doesn't have to worry about what technologies are used internally within the cloud; they just care that it gets packets from one side to the other. This is where the term "cloud computing" comes from.²* At the University of Oxford there is a battery powering a bell that was made in 1840 and is still running today and nobody knows how this is possible because the records of how the battery was made were lost. They are waiting for it to run out of power before they take it apart to see how it works.²* A significant part of TheDarkAges after the fall of the Roman Empire turned a lot of the Empire's technological developments into this. Highly effective concrete, the ability to build aqueducts, their methods of producing weapons and armor, and more were all lost when the Empire collapsed, and it took hundreds of years for society to recover to the point where they could reach and surpass it. In the East this is ''still'' happening with the Byzantine recipe for Greek Fire. When the Empire fell the recipe was lost, and to this day no one knows what was in it in order to make it be able to burn so intensely, even on water.²* A variant of this trope: in ancient times doctors would recommend people suffering from depression and the like drink mineral water from springs. While it worked, they had no idea why. It turns out to be because water from springs tends to contain a lot of lithium, which has an anti-depressant effect and is still used for that purpose.²[[/folder]]²----

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