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1[[caption-width-right:350:Page picture? What are you, crazy? Do you know how much bandwidth costs?]]˛˛->''I'm very proud of my gold pocket watch. My grandfather, on his deathbed, sold me this watch.''˛-->-- '''Creator/WoodyAllen'''˛˛[[DescribeTopicHere Describe All Jews Are Cheapskates Here. It's free, after all.]]˛˛Simply put, the stereotype that Jewish people are thrifty with their cash and liable to [[JewishComplaining complain]] about having to spend it. Being smart with money actually is part of Jewish culture, for various reasons, but this trope is about exaggerating that aspect to comic levels. Jews aren't just good with money, but really cheap. They won't spend money if they don't have to, even if it's a necessity. They would haggle with anyone over anything (especially since JewsLoveToArgue). This kind of joke comes [[SelfDeprecation especially from Jews themselves]] ([[NWordPrivileges so doesn't always carry the]] UnfortunateImplications of similar tropes).˛˛By the way, this doesn't preclude ConspicuousConsumption, just that they will make it clear they got it at a better price. Usually they "know a guy" who can give them a fantastic discount on something, possibly because it FellOffTheBackOfATruck (although they would never stoop to actual stealing, themselves. Incidentally, you see this one a lot from Jewish characters living in and around New York City or New Jersey, which are major shipping hubs).˛˛In Great Britain, this trope is less common, since Jews are a much smaller and less [[YouHaveToHaveJews culturally-represented]] minority, and their economical niche is [[ThriftyScot filled by Scotsmen]], a never-failing source of British ethnic jokes. Yorkshiremen also have this reputation, especially among [[OopNorth other Northerners]]. Welsh people point at ''Cardis'' - people from West Wales.[[note]]Cardiganshire[[/note]] In France, the Normans have this reputation; in Germany it's Swabians, Westphalians and (among Westphalians) people from Lippe; In Spain, the Catalans; In Sweden, Smålanders. Parsimony is also seen as a peculiarly Prussian trait. In Northern Europe, the Dutch and the Finns tend to have a reputation of frugality. In modern times, thriftiness is often a trait associated with East Asians especially the Chinese. [[note]]Curiously, those Chinese who have heard of Jews at all will often hold either this opinion or GreedyJew about them, but consider it a ''positive'' trait![[/note]] Also, the Cold War-era generation of people from the former Eastern Bloc, no matter what ethnicity, is stereotyped this way by the younger, more Westernized generation, [[InsultBackfire to which they agree with pride]] [[JustifiedTrope as this lifestyle enabled them to survive in the times of mass poverty and low living standards]], and chastise younger people for their consumerism.˛˛This is a LighterAndSofter successor to the old GreedyJew stereotype. ''[[Administrivia/RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgment Do not confuse the two.]]'' Even this trope borders on NWordPrivileges as, like any ethnic stereotype, it can be quite offensive when coming from an outsider.˛˛See also AllJewsAreAshkenazi, YiddishAsASecondLanguage.˛˛[[noreallife]]˛----˛!!I can't afford to pay for all of these examples. I'm a Jew:˛˛[[foldercontrol]]˛˛[[folder:Comedy]]˛* Creator/RussellPeters has a bit about how this stereotype is extremely offensive... to ''Indians''. Because ''they're'' the cheapest ethnic group and damn proud of it, so why should the Jews get the reputation for it?˛-->'''Russell:''' People are like "Jews are cheap!" We're like ''[Indian accent]'' "No, that is very incorrect. ''I'' am cheap. Jews are ''thrifty''. ''BIIIIIG'' difference."˛[[/folder]]˛˛[[folder:Comic Books]]˛* The ''ComicBook/AmericanSplendor'' episode "Standing Behind Old Jewish Ladies in Supermarkets" is about the various incidents the narrator observes of old Jewish ladies trying to get discounts. At the end of the story, he's astonished to encounter an old Jewish lady who actually ''gives back'' the extra change the cashier gave her by accident.˛* In ''ComicBook/{{Maus}}'', Creator/ArtSpiegelman's dad is... well... a walking racial stereotype, going to comical lengths to avoid spending money (including taking back half eaten boxes of cereal to a supermarket and harassing the manager until ''he actually gets a refund for the uneaten portions''.) This brought some heat that the book was promoting racism, except Art [[RealityIsUnrealistic was simply chronicling things his father did while he wrote the comic]]. The first pages of the second book [[LampshadeHanging shows]] [[StopBeingStereotypical Art's fear of portraying his father's behavior]]. Vladek defends himself by saying he's obsessive over money because careful manipulation of ''very'' scarce resources is what saved his life many times. Vladek's wife, Mala, on the other hand, comments that they both have Holocaust survivors in their families, and Vladek is the only one they know who behaves this way.˛* Don Jacoibo, a previous character in ''ComicBook/{{Condorito}}'', was a very amoral Jewish loan shark.˛[[/folder]]˛˛[[folder:Fan Works]]˛* Angel Schmaltzy of ''WebVideo/BigOAbridged'' is this, as seen in [[ Episodes 3]] and [[ 4]]. Oh, and Cassius614, who does the voice, is Jewish.˛* In another AbridgedSeries, ''WebVideo/RanmaOneHalfTheAbridgedChronicles'' uses this with Ryōga. (The creators are Jewish, and turned Ryōga into a Jew for their series because of the WanderingJew trope.)˛--> '''Ranma:''' Hey, I liked that shirt! I got it on sale.\˛'''Ryōga:''' Big deal! I could have haggled it down to even less!˛[[/folder]]˛˛[[folder:Films -- Live-Action]]˛* In her film ''Jesus Is Magic'', Creator/SarahSilverman performs a song that begins, "I love you like bears love honey / I love you like Jews love money."˛* The mother in ''Film/TakingWoodstock''. She turns out to have a huge stash of money in the end, she just was tight with the money to keep her son helping around the motel.˛* In the "Jewsploitation" film ''Film/TheHebrewHammer'', the title character tells his BlackBestFriend that a "Stereotype Alarm" in the villain's base will go off if they do something stereotypical, and he then lists a series of classic black racial stereotypes (including playing basketball and eating watermelon). His friend explains that, despite his pride in his heritage and membership in the Kwanzaa Liberation Front, he does not exemplify these stereotypes, but then the Hammer [[IdiotBall picks up a penny from the floor]] thinking that Raheem had dropped it, setting off the alarm.˛** An earlier scene had him and Esther escaping from a mob via the Jewish Underground - which played like an amusement park ride through Jewish history, including awful scenes of their persecution throughout history that both she and Mordecai laugh at... until they see a Jewish woman getting her credit card declined at Macy's, [[SkewedPriorities at which point both become somber]].˛* In ''Film/MontyPythonsLifeOfBrian'', failure to haggle in the market is a surefire way to attract a lot of unwanted attention.˛* In ''Film/AVeryHaroldAndKumar3DChristmas'', Seth Goldstein (who has recently converted to Christianity) asking Kumar to pay back the 57 cents that he owes is taken as a sign that he is still a Jew at heart.˛* In ''Film/{{Humoresque}}'', Leon's Jewish father doesn't want to fork over $4 to buy Leon a violin at a thrift store. It's $4 in early 20th century money, but still. A bit of humor follows as Leon's father tries to convince him that a kazoo and a music box are just as good.˛* ''Film/TheHouseOfRothschild'': Even a movie about antisemitism can't resist this joke. A cabbie complains about the small tip he got from Nathan Rothschild--the richest Jew in Europe--saying that even Nathan's daughter Julie tips him more. Nathan shoots back that Julie has a rich father, but he doesn't.˛[[/folder]]˛˛[[folder:Jokes]]˛* Once, God sent an angel to Earth, to bring the most worthy people the Ten Commandments. At first, the angel went to... [[{{Eagleland}} the USA]] and greeted them:˛-->'''Angel:''' People of God's own country, I bring you God's commandments! The first one says "Thou shalt not kill"--\˛'''Americans:''' [[BigWhat What?!]] Are you one of those commie pacifist anti-capital-punishment pinkoes? Piss off!\˛''[frustrated, the angel goes to France instead and tries it again]''\˛'''Angel:''' People of the country where God would like to live, I bring you God's commandments! The first one says "Thou shalt not kill"; the second one "Thou shalt not commit adultery"--\˛'''Frenchmen:''' What!? You want us to give up our ménage à trois? Get out!\˛''[very frustrated, the angel walks on Earth and finally finds the Jews]''\˛'''Angel:''' Dear Jews, I bring you God's commandments! The first one says--\˛'''Jews:''' Cut it, just tell us how much it'll cost us!\˛'''Angel:'''' Why, cost? The Ten commandments don't cost anything!\˛'''Jews:'''' What, they're free? Sure, we'll take all of them!˛* A Jewish son went to his Jewish father to ask for $20 to go to the movies. His father said "$20? What do you need $10 dollars for at the movies? [[InflationaryDialogue Fine, here's your $5!]]"˛* Did you hear about the Jewish car? It not only stops on a dime, but it picks the dime up.˛* Via Creator/StephenFry's grandfather: "Do you know why [[SelfDeprecatingHumour we]] have such big noses? Because air is free."˛* Implied in a joke that requires a visual:˛** A newly-widowed Jewish woman comes home with her husbands ashes and spreads them over the coffee table. "Harry?" she says to the ashes "Remember that fur coat I always wanted? I'm wearing it now. The ''insurance money'', Harry. Remember the nice car I always wanted? It's out in the driveway. The ''insurance money'', Harry. You know that blow job you always wanted, Harry?" [Mimic blowing the ashes off the table.]˛* Q: Why does a fifty pence coin have seven sides? A: so you can get it out of a Jew's hand with a spanner.˛* Q: Why is Hebrew read from right to left? A: To keep consistent with the way Jews read a restaurant menu. Looking at the price first, ''then'' what food it is.˛[[/folder]]˛˛[[folder:Literature]]˛* Harry Kemelman's ''Rabbi'' series often involves this in its plots.˛* The ''Literature/LeftBehind'' series [[ uses this trope]], falling firmly on the UnfortunateImplications end of the scale.˛* Creator/EphraimKishon called himself a cheapskate, although this was well justified by the high taxes in Israel.˛* An older example is the Jewish Doctor in ''Literature/ArabianNights'' sub-story "The Hunchback's Tale" who thinks about money when he hears a patient comes to visit, but is portrayed as a sympathetic character and a competent doctor.˛* In the ''Literature/WorldWar'' series, RAF radar operator David Goldfarb is always careful to be generous, so that his friends don't accuse him of this trope.˛[[/folder]]˛˛[[folder:Live-Action TV]]˛* ''Series/TheDailyShow'': Jon Stewart makes jokes about this, like with comparing Yom Kippur to Lent: "Forty days, to one day. Even in sin, you're paying retail!"˛* Jerry's family in ''Series/{{Seinfeld}}''. His father takes particular pride in finding merchandise that is so cheap that it might be stolen. However, he also InsistsOnPaying for everything when Jerry is around (because he and and his wife refuse to believe Jerry isn't broke). Jerry himself is actually a subversion; he's immensely generous with his money and often givens thoughtful and expensive gifts. It's one of the character's few redeeming traits. ˛* Ross Geller from ''Series/{{Friends}}'' (but not his sister, Monica).˛* In ''Series/CurbYourEnthusiasm'', Larry David, despite being a half-billionaire, is portrayed as being even worse than George Costanza, his ''Seinfeld'' alter-ego, when it comes to money. Larry is rather often characterized as a "cheap Jew" in his endless quibbling and penny pinching over tips, bills, and other minor sums that he shouldn't really care about in his financial position. In contrast, on the show, the ''actual'' Jason Alexander (who is also Jewish) is shown tipping both generously and anonymously, much to Larry's annoyance. He usually "justifies" it by [[SeinfeldianConversation going on tangents]] about various social conventions, riffs on which ''Curb Your Enthusiasm'' and ''Seinfeld'' run on.˛* It was a little subtle, but Buddy Sorrell on ''Series/TheDickVanDykeShow'' was Jewish and always had "a guy" for anything you wanted to get cheaply.˛* In one episode of ''[[Series/KnowingMeKnowingYouWithAlanPartridge Knowing Me Knowing You]]'', a Jewish comedian is guesting, and Alan asks him to tell a joke about Jews, which he does. Alan responds, to general disgust, with:˛-->'''Alan:''' ...Did you hear about the Jewish hotel keeper? He kept a fork in the sugar bowl.˛* ''Series/TheTwoRonnies'' snuck in a joke about Disraeli combining the stereotype with real 19th century politics.˛--> '''Voter:''' Don't you think the Turks were wrong to order wholesale slaughter in the Balkans? \˛'''Disraeli:''' It would have been wrong to order it retail.˛* ''Series/TheNanny''. Fran is something of a played with example. Fran was an avid Fashionista and frequently mentioned having her credit cards maxed out, including an episode dealing with being a shopping addict. On the other, she was shown to be rather thrifty about it, favoring outlet malls, shoving her feet into too-small shoes that were on sale, and showing that some of her clothes came from having designer Todd Oldham as a cousin. Her family plays it much more straight: Grandma Yetta apparently recycled tea bags, Sylvia would buy cheap shoes and put them in the freezer so they'd be less painful, and she apparently taught Fran such tips as "why buy Sweet-n-Low when restaurants give it away" and "suck the innards out of chocolate covered cherries before they weigh the bag."˛* In the episode of ''Series/TheSopranos'' where Tony's debts with his Jewish friend and loan shark Hesh grows out of control, he complains about him fitting this trope to his shrink. She responds by saying that it's an ugly stereotype. In a first-season episode Hesh ''does'' almost spoil Tony's and Johnny Sack's plan to bail Hesh himself out of some hock with Junior, who has instituted a retroactive tax on Hesh's businesses upon becoming boss. Junior listens and "magnanimously" lowers the rate, and the back taxes owed to "three hundred". Before anyone else can react, Hesh says, "Two-fifty!" There's a moment of brittle silence, and then Junior smiles. "What did I tell you? Hang on to your cock when you negotiate with these desert people!"˛* Showing how old this particular trope is, OfficerAndAGentleman [[PragmaticHero Lucius Vorenus]] on ''Series/{{Rome}}'' enlists the aid of Hebrew bodyguard/mercenary [[BadassIsraeli Timon]] -- for a price -- in the second season.˛-->'''Vorenus:''' Fair enough. I expected no public service from a Jew.˛* One character on ''Series/TheYoungOnes'' (played by [[ Arnold Brown]]) plays with this trope by describing himself as being "Scottish and Jewish -- two racial stereotypes for the price of one!" Works on multiple levels because in the UK the Scots are also commonly stereotyped as being cheapskates, and two of anything for the price of one would therefore appeal to them, too.˛* In an episode of ''Series/ShamelessUS'', Frank tries to sell a gold watch to a Jewish pawnbroker. After clumsily trying to get in the pawnbroker's favor by talking about how he thinks the [[UsefulNotes/ArabIsraeliConflict Israelis should just smash up the Palestinians]] (the pawnbroker supports a 2 state solution), Frank gets annoyed when the pawnbroker won't raise his offered price, saying that he's "Jewing him down" incorrectly.˛* In ''Series/FreaksAndGeeks'', Neil Schweiber is discussing negative stereotypes with an unnamed black character, claiming Jews have it much worse because "Last year, I was elected school treasurer. I didn't even run!" ˛[[/folder]]˛˛[[folder:Music]]˛* Music/WeirdAlYankovic's "Pretty Fly for a Rabbi." The eponymous rabbi "won't pay retail price," but "if you want to haggle, ''oy!'' He'll make you such a deal!"˛* Rap group Clipse's "Wamp Wamp (What It Do)" gives us:˛-->''17 a brick, yeah, go and tell 'em that\˛ I got the wamp wamp when I move it its still damp\˛ Mildew-ish when I heat it, it turn bluish\˛ It cools to a tight wad, the Pyrex is Jewish''˛* Music/{{Macklemore}} caught some criticism for performing in a costume that a lot of people saw as an anti-Semitic stereotype (it included, among other things, a hook nose taken from a witch mask). He claimed the UnfortunateImplications were a coincidence, but it didn't help his case that the song he was performing was "Thrift Shop", a song about picking up goods on the cheap.˛[[/folder]]˛˛[[folder:Myths & Religion]]˛* In ''Literature/TheBible'' when the Lord announces his intention to destroy the cities of [[WretchedHive Sodom and Gomorrah]] because the people are sinful, Abraham ''haggles with God'' over how many righteous men in the city would be enough to spare it -- and specifically, his innocent nephew Lot. In the end, there aren't enough righteous residents, but Lot and his daughters get out anyway. [[ParentalIncest The "Lot and his daughters" thing becomes a problem not too long after...]]˛* Jacob, later known as "Israel", managed to buy his brother Esau's inheritance with a bowl of lentil stew. Although this was not so much Jacob being cheap as it was Esau selling his birthright too easily. (Lentil stew ''is'' delicious -- ask anyone who's had it done well--but ''really...'')˛* One UsefulNotes/{{Islam}}ic legend says that God originally commanded all Muslims to pray 500 times a day, and when Muhammad was returning home thinking how can such a commandment be fulfilled, he met Moses who (remembering how hard it was for his people to keep all of the 613 enumerated commandments) ''sent him back to God to haggle'' about the amount. ''Twice''. That's why Muslims pray only five times a day. And Moses advised Muhammad to go back a third time, to get it down to three or even one, but Muhammad, not being a Jew, lacked the chutzpah (and [[JewsLoveToArgue taste for arguing]]) to keep the bargaining going.˛[[/folder]]˛˛[[folder:Podcasts]]˛* When ''Podcast/ChapoTrapHouse'' reviewed [[ a documentary by Dinesh D'Souza]], they observed that the film's demonization of Saul Alinsky (known for writing the book ''Rules For Radicals'') seemed to rely on this stereotype rather than the usual right-wing methods of smearing him as a nefarious lefty demagogue. ˛ ˛[[/folder]]˛[[folder:Radio]]˛* Jack Benny of ''Radio/TheJackBennyProgram''.˛** Perhaps it bears mentioning that his birth name was "Benjamin Kubelsky." His stage persona (not his [[MeanCharacterNiceActor real-life personality]]) was one of the most titanic cheapskates in all of comedy, and provided him with what is widely regarded as one of the funniest exchanges in the history of radio:˛--->'''Mugger:''' Your money or your life.\˛''[long pause]''\˛'''Mugger:''' I said, your money or your life!\˛'''Jack:''' ''I'm thinking it over!!''˛** Jack Benny is kind of an unusual example of this, as while his persona is a perfect example of this trope, that persona wasn't explicitly Jewish and was more of a WASP if anything. Thus, his being a Jewish stereotype/being played by a Jewish actor is sort of {{subtext}}.˛* A popular radio show presenter was dropped from commercial radio in the north of England. The reason was that he created an on-air persona intended to be the meanest, tightest, most close-fisted miserly person anywhere in the world. To reinforce the point, he brought together the two ethnicities universally most regarded as being, er, ''careful'' with money, and created the {{Twofer}} character of Angus [=McGoldstein=] (Scottish and Jewish). Listeners were not amused and cases were brought. ˛[[/folder]]˛˛[[folder:Video Games]]˛* The Merchant class in ''VideoGame/PokemonClover''. Aside from being designed after the stereotypical GreedyJew and having Jewish names, they are the only trainers that won't give you ''any'' money when you defeat them. This is most obvious when you rescue them from [[ThoseWackyNazis Polk]], when they still refuse to give you anything despite the fact that you saved their lives.˛[[/folder]]˛˛[[folder:Web Comics]]˛* Hinted at in ''Webcomic/EverydayHeroes'', when Lee Free (the oldest one) convinces the arcade manager to let Summer and Carrie WorkOffTheDebt for the damages they caused... then turns around and [[ charges them for his legal services]]. However, since it only took him two minutes of work, at his regular hourly rate, his fee amounts to five dollars total (or, as he puts it, "lunch at Taco Bell").˛* Some bullies mock Ferris with this in ''Webcomic/{{Fishbones}}''.˛[[/folder]]˛˛[[folder:Web Videos]]˛* On ''WebVideo/SteamTrain'', Danny (who is Jewish) admitted that this stereotype always confused him:˛-->'''Danny:''' That is the dumbest stereotype, who doesn't love money? Everyone loves money.˛[[/folder]]˛˛[[folder:Western Animation]]˛* Gets some use on ''WesternAnimation/DrawnTogether''. For example, Clara's anti-Jew scarecrow, which looks like a waiter with a sign saying "Tips please" on it.˛* ''WesternAnimation/FamilyGuy'' tends to do this a lot, partially because one of its creators is Jewish.˛** "When You Wish Upon a Weinstein," where Peter wants to find a Jew to do his accounts (the person he finds, a Jewish accountant, points out that this is an unfair stereotype).˛** In another episode FlashbackTwist, Peter tries to pass himself off as a Hasidic Jew to get off work. At a synagogue, he strikes up a conversation filled with this stereotype and gets [[GroinAttack kicked in the groin]].˛--->'''Peter:''' Hey, how about all those coupons in the Sunday paper, huh? Some good deals there. Hey, y'know, I went into a store last week and they wanted 800 bucks for a TV, but I [[PersonAsVerb "ussed"]] him down to 500.˛** They even go UpToEleven and pull this on Jesus, where he delivers an Aesop on religion. Peter asks Jesus to prove he's Jewish by calculating an appropriate tip on a $180 bill.˛--->'''Jesus:''' Eighteen dollars, ''which is fair!''˛** In the episode where Meg turns to a life of crime and robs the pharmacy Mort tells her she can take the donation money for children with cancer since he never gives it to them anyway.˛** And in the same scene, when Brian is trying to use a magazine article to convince her not to go through with the robbery, Mort complains "This isn't a library!"˛** In "Road to Germany" Mort gets sent back into the past and mistakes the presence of his relatives as that he's in heaven, going out of his way to add titles of cheapness to their names, such as frugal, thrifty and "didn't like to spend a lot of money on anything."˛** In "Mr. and Mrs. Stewie", Stewie and his new girlfriend, Penelope put a bomb in Mort's wallet, which will explode when he opens it. Two weeks pass, and Mort is still okay.˛** In "Burning Down the Bayit", Peter has difficulty explaining the concept of 'Buy one, get one free' to Mort who only hears non-sensical gibberish. Though only in reference to doing it in his own store since he hears the phrase just fine when Peter brings up a theoretical store doing the same offer, and asks him excitedly which store it is.˛* In a ''WesternAnimation/RobotChicken'' skit where [=Seth McFarlane=] has the power to setup {{Cutaway Gag}}s, he brings up the idea of ''Scooby Jew''. Cut to a stereotypically-dressed Scooby haggling over Scooby snacks in exchange for going into a haunted house.˛* ''WesternAnimation/SouthPark'': ˛** Kyle's cousin plays this for laughs, along with other New England Jew stereotypes.˛--->'''Kyle Schwartz:''' You-- you paid your friends to not make fun of me?\˛'''Kyle:''' Look, it's not because anything's wrong with you.\˛'''Kyle Schwartz:''' Wow, uh, you think it takes $40 to get people to like me?\˛'''Kyle:''' Kyle, I-- I'm sorry.\˛'''Kyle Schwartz:''' [[DoWrongRight Because, I mean, I really think you could have done it for about $12.50.]]˛** Kyle himself gets this in "Fun With Weapons;" he thinks he should dump his weapons so he can deny he ever had them, but Cartman smirks and tells him he would never allow himself to throw away something he spent money on. [[JerkassHasAPoint He's right]].˛** Cartman at one point demands the small sack of gold from Kyle that he states all Jews carry. Kyle actually does carry gold on him. Not only that, but he carries a bag of fake gold just in case someone tries to take the gold.˛** Subverted in "Night of the Living Homeless" when Kyle gives a homeless man $20. Because of that, all of the homeless invade South Park. But it turns out that it wasn't Kyle's fault, but the fault of the neighboring town of Evergreen, who exiled the homeless.˛** And then subverted majorly in "Margaritaville" when he uses his American Express credit card (with no spending limit) to pay off the debts of all of South Park, much to the dismay of his mother Sheila, who say he's ruining himself. However, this is almost a [[DoubleSubverted double subversion]] as the entire episode has Kyle as a [[MessianicArchetype Christ allegory]], equating his taking on said debt with Christ's martyrdom.˛* Ends up in ''WesternAnimation/StaticShock'' of all places. At Frieda's Chanukah party, the lights go out (due to super villain hyjinks) and one of the guests, who is presumably also Jewish, jibes Frieda's dad that he was probably too cheap to pay the electric bill.˛* Inverted by ''WesternAnimation/{{Futurama}}'''s [[ButtMonkey Dr. Zoidberg]]. Not only is he established as being terrible with money (easily falling for scams or buying multiple items from infomercials), but (more positively) [[spoiler: "The Tip of the Zoidberg" reveals that he was perfectly willing to sacrifice a lucrative career for the sake of Prof. Farnsworth's friendship]].˛[[/folder]]˛----


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