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On the other side of the US, in Silicon Valley, some of the Berkeley researchers, along with hardware designers from Stanford, got together to make the first computers designed specifically to run UNIX, called ''workstations''. The most famous of these was Sun Microsystems, named after the Stanford University Network, a part of the ARPANET, the ancestor of the Internet. Other companies, like Silicon Graphics, soon followed, and even companies that historically had ignored UNIX before (HP and IBM) got into the fold with the HP 9000 (running HP/UX) and the IBM RT-PC (running either AIX or AOS, a BSD derivative).

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On the other side of the US, in Silicon Valley, some of the Berkeley researchers, along with hardware designers from Stanford, got together to make the first computers designed specifically to run UNIX, called ''workstations''.''workstations'', which shrunk the power of minicomputers down to the desktop form factor. The most famous of these was Sun Microsystems, named after the Stanford University Network, a part of the ARPANET, the ancestor of the Internet. Other companies, like Silicon Graphics, soon followed, and even companies that historically had ignored UNIX before (HP and IBM) got into the fold with the HP 9000 (running HP/UX) and the IBM RT-PC (running either AIX or AOS, a BSD derivative).
derivative). Bolstered by the existing popularity of UNIX in academia, these workstations made it the computing platform of choice for scientists and engineers around the world.


Yet another spin on the Ubuntu/Debian architecture is [[http://lxle.net LXLE]]. It is currently lesser-known than the aforementioned Ubuntu, but is gaining fame for its light-weight system requirements, and therefore gaining position on '''Distrowatch'''. At the same time, it is intended to be highly functional right out of the box, designed to surpass even Lubuntu (another light-weight variant Ubuntu). LXLE is developed with dusty-old PC machines in mind.

There are also several forks of the official Linux kernel, and other UNIX-style systems, being used on high-end electronic devices and smartphones, as well as in networking gear like Ethernet switches and routers, and in many embedded devices. For example: Apple's [=iOS=], used on the [=iPhone=], [=iPod=] Touch, and [=iPad=], contains code from the Darwin base of UsefulNotes/{{MacOS}} (formerly OS X), which itself contains code forked from [=FreeBSD=] and [=NeXTSTEP=], which the latter itself is based on [=4.3BSD=]. Google's Android operating system, [=iOS=]'s main competitor, contains a fork of the Linux kernel at its core. Also, Sony has confirmed that the UsefulNotes/PlayStation4's OS is in fact a customized version of [=FreeBSD=] while its predecessor, UsefulNotes/PlayStation3, used a customized [=FreeBSD=] kernel alongside various proprietary libraries. Several home routers also run Linux: either by default, or modded by way of [=DD-WRT, OpenWRT or Tomato=]. Linux even powers a number of Creator/MidwayGames' slot and gambling machines, and some arcade game manufacturers (ie Creator/BandaiNamcoEntertainment with their VideoGame/WanganMidnight series starting from [=WMMT4=]) prefer Linux to Windows Embedded due to the practically nonexistent licensing costs.

to:

Yet another spin on the Ubuntu/Debian architecture is [[http://lxle.net LXLE]]. It is currently lesser-known than the aforementioned Ubuntu, but is gaining fame for its light-weight system requirements, and therefore gaining position on '''Distrowatch'''.Distrowatch. At the same time, it is intended to be highly functional right out of the box, designed to surpass even Lubuntu (another light-weight variant Ubuntu). LXLE is developed with dusty-old PC machines in mind.

There are also several forks of the official Linux kernel, and other UNIX-style systems, being used on high-end electronic devices and smartphones, as well as in networking gear like Ethernet switches and routers, and in many embedded devices. For example: Apple's [=iOS=], used on the [=iPhone=], [=iPod=] Touch, and [=iPad=], contains code from the Darwin base of UsefulNotes/{{MacOS}} (formerly OS X), which itself contains code forked from [=FreeBSD=] and [=NeXTSTEP=], which the latter itself of which is based on [=4.3BSD=]. Google's Android operating system, [=iOS=]'s main competitor, contains a fork of the Linux kernel at its core. Also, Sony has confirmed that the UsefulNotes/PlayStation4's OS is in fact a customized version of [=FreeBSD=] while its predecessor, UsefulNotes/PlayStation3, used a customized [=FreeBSD=] kernel alongside various proprietary libraries. Several home routers also run Linux: either by default, or modded by way of [=DD-WRT, OpenWRT or Tomato=]. Linux even powers a number of Creator/MidwayGames' slot and gambling machines, and some arcade game manufacturers (ie Creator/BandaiNamcoEntertainment with their VideoGame/WanganMidnight series starting from [=WMMT4=]) prefer Linux to Windows Embedded due to the practically nonexistent licensing costs.



The biggest bombshell of it all, however, is probably when {{Creator/Valve Software}} decided to create a spin of ''Debian'' in 2013, calling it ''[=SteamOS=]'' and announcing that the OS will be powering its line of Steam Machine consoles, but will also be free to download for anyone interested in building their own custom Steam Machine. This after porting Steam and several games to Linux, as well as encouraging developers who're using the Steam platform to roll out Linux support as well. Creator/FeralInteractive in particular, has taken this to heart, and have [[VideoGame/TombRaider2013 ported]] [[VideoGame/DeusExMankindDivided quite]] [[VideoGame/Hitman2016 a few]] Creator/SquareEnix [[VideoGame/RiseOfTheTombRaider games]] to [=SteamOS=] and Linux since 2013. Furthermore, a lot of [[Main/GameEngine game engines]] that were previously either hard to Port over to Linux, or just outright incompatible with the system, such as Unity, Unreal Engine and Source/ Source 2, all of which are being properly supported now, largely in thanks to the common practice of indie developers making Linux ports for crowdfunding backers, and also because of a renewed interest in the platform by larger companies. The move is seen as encouraging, and many fans of Linux believe this to be finally signalling the rise of Linux as a serious competitor of Windows in the gaming arena.

to:

The biggest bombshell of it all, however, is probably when {{Creator/Valve Software}} decided to create a spin of ''Debian'' Debian in 2013, calling it ''[=SteamOS=]'' and announcing that the OS will be powering its line of Steam Machine consoles, but will also be free to download for anyone interested in building their own custom Steam Machine. This after porting Steam and several games to Linux, as well as encouraging developers who're using the Steam platform to roll out Linux support as well. Creator/FeralInteractive in particular, particular has taken this to heart, and have [[VideoGame/TombRaider2013 ported]] [[VideoGame/DeusExMankindDivided quite]] [[VideoGame/Hitman2016 a few]] Creator/SquareEnix [[VideoGame/RiseOfTheTombRaider games]] to [=SteamOS=] and Linux since 2013. Furthermore, a lot of [[Main/GameEngine game engines]] that were previously either hard to Port port over to Linux, or just outright incompatible with the system, such as Unity, Unreal Engine and Source/ Source / Source 2, all of which are being properly supported now, largely in thanks to the common practice of indie developers making Linux ports for crowdfunding backers, and also because of a renewed interest in the platform by larger companies. The move is seen as encouraging, and many fans of Linux believe this to be finally signalling the rise of Linux as a serious competitor of Windows in the gaming arena.


Starting around 1988, Sun and AT&T entered into an agreement to develop UNIX-based software together, and called the joint venture "UNIX International". As part of the agreement, Sun (who had been using a custom BSD variant called ''[=SunOS=]'' up to this point) and AT&T agreed to make a "merged" UNIX that would combine the best parts of BSD and System V; this was released as ''System V Release 4'' in 1990, with Sun's version being released under the name ''Solaris 2''[[note]]"Solaris 1" was retroactively applied to the original [=SunOS=], whereas versions of the new Solaris continued to be internally alloted [=SunOS=] version numbers[[/note]]. Other vendors, specifically DEC, IBM, and HP, felt snubbed and formed the Open Software Foundation in protest, and began work on a UNIX derivative called ''OSF/1'', which (like [[UsefulNotes/MacOS NeXTStep and, much later, Mac OS X]]), was based on the Mach microkernel and parts from 4.3 BSD.

In the meantime, the UsefulNotes/IBMPersonalComputer and its clones were taking the commercial market by storm, and the UsefulNotes/{{Mac}} was introducing people to a new way of working that many felt no one could touch. UNIX was in a state of disarray; most vendors had proprietary changes to their UNIX builds, none of which were compatible with the others, and porting software was becoming more difficult. This inspired some of the first standards for UNIX, promulgated by the POSIX working groups and by X/Open. Getting everyone to agree would be difficult, but as the PC became more and more powerful and Microsoft began talking about making a version of Windows to compete with UNIX, the impetus to cooperate grew. By the mid-1990s, UNIX International had been disbanded, and OSF stopped development on OSF/1 (leaving DEC to maintain their own branch, renamed "Tru64", for their Alpha machines); OSF merged with X/Open to form the aforementioned Open Group.

to:

Starting around 1988, Sun and AT&T entered into an agreement to develop UNIX-based software together, and called the joint venture "UNIX International". As part of the agreement, Sun (who had been using a custom BSD variant called ''[=SunOS=]'' up to this point) and AT&T agreed to make a "merged" UNIX that would combine the best parts of BSD and System V; this was released as ''System V Release 4'' in 1990, with Sun's version being released under the name ''Solaris 2''[[note]]"Solaris 1" was retroactively applied to the original [=SunOS=], whereas versions of the new Solaris continued to be internally alloted allotted [=SunOS=] version numbers[[/note]]. Other vendors, specifically DEC, IBM, and HP, felt snubbed and formed the Open Software Foundation in protest, and began work on a UNIX derivative called ''OSF/1'', which (like [[UsefulNotes/MacOS NeXTStep and, much later, Mac OS X]]), was based on the Mach microkernel and parts from 4.3 BSD.

In the meantime, the UsefulNotes/IBMPersonalComputer and its clones were taking the commercial market by storm, and the UsefulNotes/{{Mac}} was introducing people to a new way of working that many felt no one could touch. UNIX was in a state of disarray; most vendors had proprietary changes to their UNIX builds, none of which were compatible with the others, and porting software was becoming more difficult. This inspired some of the first standards for UNIX, promulgated by the POSIX working groups and by X/Open. Getting everyone to agree would be difficult, but as the PC became more and more powerful and Microsoft began talking about making a version of Windows to compete with UNIX, the impetus to cooperate grew. By the mid-1990s, UNIX International had been disbanded, and OSF stopped development on OSF/1 (leaving DEC to maintain their own branch, renamed "Tru64", [="Tru64",=] for their Alpha machines); OSF merged with X/Open to form the aforementioned Open Group.



Despite that, operating systems which incorporate the Linux kernel continue to be typically called "Linux operating systems", which GNU partisans object to. This is sometimes countered with the response that GNU isn't the only notable non-kernel component of the OS, and that the GNU position is based more on sour grapes that the project has never delivered a stable, fully usable system, as a UNIX-like system cannot operate without a kernel.[[/note]] Some of them, like Linspire, SLS and AV Linux, came and went, others such as Slackware, Red Hat (later splitting into the free Fedora and the commercial Red Hat Enterprise Linux), [=SuSE=], and Debian lived on, and new distros appear on the scene periodically, more on this later.

to:

Despite that, operating systems which incorporate the Linux kernel continue to be typically called "Linux operating systems", which GNU partisans object to. This is sometimes countered with the response that GNU isn't the only notable non-kernel component of the OS, and that the GNU position is based more on sour grapes that the project has never delivered a stable, fully usable system, as a UNIX-like system cannot operate without a kernel.[[/note]] Some of them, like Linspire, SLS and AV Linux, came and went, went; others such as Slackware, Red Hat (later splitting into the free Fedora and the commercial Red Hat Enterprise Linux), [=SuSE=], and Debian lived on, and new distros appear on the scene periodically, periodically; more on this later.



Finally, USL was bought by Novell, and Novell decided to call a truce. It was decided that, with the exception of small parts of code inside the kernel, that BSD was solely under Berkeley's license, and that the UNIX trademark would be given over to X/Open. The decision meant that [=NetBSD=] and [=FreeBSD=] could return to full development, and by the late 1990s, development speed was on par with Linux. [=NetBSD=] itself would later be forked into [=OpenBSD=], which has an emphasis on security, and [=FreeBSD=] 4.0 was forked into [=DragonFlyBSD=], due to a disagreement over an architectural change in [=FreeBSD=] 5.0.

to:

Finally, USL was bought by Novell, and Novell decided to call a truce. It was decided that, with the exception of small parts of code inside the kernel, that BSD was solely under Berkeley's license, and that the UNIX trademark would be given over to X/Open. The decision meant that [=NetBSD=] and [=FreeBSD=] could return to full development, and by the late 1990s, development speed was on par with Linux. [=NetBSD=] itself would later be forked into [=OpenBSD=], which has an emphasis on security, and [=FreeBSD=] 4.0 was forked into [=DragonFlyBSD=], due to a disagreement over an architectural change in [=FreeBSD=] 5.0.



As for Netscape, most of the company migrated to Mozilla Foundation (originally known as the Mozilla Organization),[[note]]"Mozilla" being originally a nickname for Navigator, used by the developers and in user-agent strings: accordingly, the "Mozilla" version in user-agent strings is actually (supposed to be) the equivalent Navigator version, confusingly[[/note]] a non-profit founded to handle the development of a new browser based on the Communicator code. After a few false starts (including a decision to rewrite most of the client from scratch, a move that rankled some of the Netscape veterans), the new browser was in usable shape by 2003. A slimmed-down version corresponding to Navigator only (without the built-in mail/news reader or the Web page editor) was developed alongside it, and eventually became Mozilla Firefox.[[note]]Earlier names "Phoenix" and "Firebird" were dropped due to trademark issues.[[/note]] A slimmed-down version consisting of only the email/news reader eventually became Mozilla Thunderbird. [[note]]A third-party (Linspire) fork of Composer (the HTML editor) became Nvu, which was discontinued and in turn forked as [=KompoZer=], and later [=BlueGriffon=].[[/note]] The full-blown internet suite was originally planned to be left for dead, but said group of Netscape veterans saved it by bringing it under their wing, rechristened it ''Seamonkey'', and brought it back in shape. And yes, it has a cult following to this day, again mostly by Netscape veterans who prefer the idea of heaving everything under one roof instead of in separate applications.

to:

As for Netscape, most of the company migrated to Mozilla Foundation (originally known as the Mozilla Organization),[[note]]"Mozilla" being originally a nickname for Navigator, used by the developers and in user-agent strings: accordingly, the "Mozilla" version in user-agent strings is actually (supposed to be) the equivalent Navigator version, confusingly[[/note]] a non-profit founded to handle the development of a new browser based on the Communicator code. After a few false starts (including a decision to rewrite most of the client from scratch, a move that rankled some of the Netscape veterans), the new browser was in usable shape by 2003. A slimmed-down version corresponding to Navigator only (without the built-in mail/news reader or the Web page editor) was developed alongside it, and eventually became Mozilla Firefox.[[note]]Earlier names "Phoenix" and "Firebird" were dropped due to trademark issues.[[/note]] A slimmed-down version consisting of only the email/news reader eventually became Mozilla Thunderbird. [[note]]A third-party (Linspire) fork of Composer (the HTML editor) became Nvu, which was discontinued and in turn forked as [=KompoZer=], and later [=BlueGriffon=].[[/note]] The full-blown internet suite was originally planned to be left for dead, but said group of Netscape veterans saved it by bringing it under their wing, rechristened it ''Seamonkey'', and brought it back in shape. And yes, it has a cult following to this day, again mostly by Netscape veterans who prefer the idea of heaving having everything under one roof instead of in separate applications.


Before diving into what UNIX is, it'd make sense to mention the OS that inspired it: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multics Multics]]. Multics was itself a research OS; it was highly ambitious, was highly secure, required expensive IBM-ish mainframes to run, and was also stuck in DevelopmentHell. (Eventually Honeywell-Bull would commercialize it, but that was several years off.) One of the research partners was Bell Labs, then the experimental division of the Bell System, and in 1969, they decided to leave the project. This left one programmer there, Ken Thompson, with not much else to do.

to:

Before diving into what UNIX is, it'd make sense to mention the OS that inspired it: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multics Multics]]. Multics was itself a research OS; it was highly ambitious, was highly secure, required expensive IBM-ish GE and Honeywell mainframes to run, and was also stuck in DevelopmentHell. (Eventually Honeywell-Bull would commercialize it, but that was several years off.) One of the research partners was Bell Labs, then the experimental division of the Bell System, and in 1969, they decided to leave the project. This left one programmer there, Ken Thompson, with not much else to do.


Thus, Hurd was born. Hurd was to be a completely free and open kernel, a hybrid between a Microkernel and a Monolithic kernel based on the Mach kernel layout of BSD. However, development was slow, and even as of 2013, it is still not considered suitable for everyday use. Development slumped even further when it appeared that the Linux kernel (which we will get to later in the article) had progressed much faster to the point where, by the mid-90s, it was stable enough for production use and under the right license to integrate with the rest of the GNU parts.

to:

Thus, Hurd was born. Hurd was to be a completely free and open kernel, a hybrid between a Microkernel and a Monolithic kernel based on the Mach kernel layout of BSD. However, development was slow, and even as of 2013, it is still not considered suitable for everyday use. Development slumped even further when it appeared that the Linux kernel (which we will get to later in the article) had progressed much faster to the point where, by the mid-90s, it was stable enough for production use and under the right license to integrate with the rest of the GNU parts.


Not long after the first edition of UNIX was published inside Bell Labs, Ken and Dennis started work on making the system portable. In the early 1970s, this was a big deal, since almost all [=OSes=] up to that point had been written specifically for the machine they were going to run on. The idea was to write most of the kernel in a higher-level language that could be "compiled" into code for different machines, then add small bits of machine-dependent code where needed to handle things like interrupts and memory. The language Dennis invented for the project was called [[UsefulNotes/TheCLanguage "C"]][[note]]actually a major rehash of Ken's "B", which added features to avoid depending on the size of the system word and generally make it easier to use[[/note]], and after he and Brian Kernighan published a book on it, it became a hit outside Bell Labs and even outside the UNIX community (in fact, it's highly likely the Web browser you're reading this in has C or C++[[note]]a conservative rehash of C which adds some more features such as object-oriented classes[[/note]] code in it).

to:

Not long after the first edition of UNIX was published inside Bell Labs, Ken and Dennis started work on making the system portable. In the early 1970s, this was a big deal, since almost all [=OSes=] up to that point had been written specifically for the machine they were going to run on. The idea was to write most of the kernel in a higher-level language that could be "compiled" into code for different machines, then add small bits of machine-dependent code where needed to handle things like interrupts and memory. [[note]]This follows in the footsteps of Multics, which was written in a high-level language called PL/I[[/note]] The language Dennis invented for the project was called [[UsefulNotes/TheCLanguage "C"]][[note]]actually a major rehash of Ken's "B", which added features to avoid depending on the size of the system word and generally make it easier to use[[/note]], and after he and Brian Kernighan published a book on it, it became a hit outside Bell Labs and even outside the UNIX community (in fact, it's highly likely the Web browser you're reading this in has C or C++[[note]]a conservative rehash of C which adds some more features such as object-oriented classes[[/note]] code in it).


The biggest bombshell of it all, however, is probably when {{Creator/Valve Software}} decided to create a spin of ''Debian'' in 2013, calling it ''[=SteamOS=]'' and announcing that the OS will be powering its line of Steam Machine consoles, but will also be free to download for anyone interested in building their own custom Steam Machine. This after porting Steam and several games to Linux, as well as encouraging developers who're using the Steam platform to roll out Linux support as well. Creator/FeralInteractive in particular, has taken this to heart, and have [[VideoGame/TombRaider2013 ported]] [[VideoGame/DeusExMankindDivided quite]] [[VideoGame/Hitman2016 a few]] Creator/SquareEnix [[VideoGame/RiseOfTheTombRaider games]] to [=SteamOS=] and Linux since 2013. Furthermore, a lot of [[Main/GameEngine game engines]] that were previously either hard to Port over to Linux, or just outright incompatible with the system [[note]]such as Unity, Unreal Engine and Source/ Source 2[[/note]], are being properly supported now, largely in thanks to the common practice of indie developers making Linux ports for crowdfunding backers, and also because of a renewed interest in the platform by larger companies. The move is seen as encouraging, and many fans of Linux believe this to be finally signalling the rise of Linux as a serious competitor of Windows in the gaming arena.

to:

The biggest bombshell of it all, however, is probably when {{Creator/Valve Software}} decided to create a spin of ''Debian'' in 2013, calling it ''[=SteamOS=]'' and announcing that the OS will be powering its line of Steam Machine consoles, but will also be free to download for anyone interested in building their own custom Steam Machine. This after porting Steam and several games to Linux, as well as encouraging developers who're using the Steam platform to roll out Linux support as well. Creator/FeralInteractive in particular, has taken this to heart, and have [[VideoGame/TombRaider2013 ported]] [[VideoGame/DeusExMankindDivided quite]] [[VideoGame/Hitman2016 a few]] Creator/SquareEnix [[VideoGame/RiseOfTheTombRaider games]] to [=SteamOS=] and Linux since 2013. Furthermore, a lot of [[Main/GameEngine game engines]] that were previously either hard to Port over to Linux, or just outright incompatible with the system [[note]]such system, such as Unity, Unreal Engine and Source/ Source 2[[/note]], 2, all of which are being properly supported now, largely in thanks to the common practice of indie developers making Linux ports for crowdfunding backers, and also because of a renewed interest in the platform by larger companies. The move is seen as encouraging, and many fans of Linux believe this to be finally signalling the rise of Linux as a serious competitor of Windows in the gaming arena.


As the complete system itself incorporated GNU software, with Linus's kernel being the main original contribution, Linus made the important decision to put the Linux kernel under the same license as GNU's tools and utilities, making it attractive to developers who appreciated GNU's stance. With commercial UNIX still expensive, and BSD's future unclear, Linux grew quickly, and by 1995 had reached version 1.0; already, there were several vendors offering "distributions" ("distros" for short), or fully usable [=OSes=] incorporating the Linux kernel and GNU software at that time.[[note]]There is some controversy over the definition of "Linux". Prior to Linux-based systems becoming the primary form of GNU, the term "Linux" was used for the whole system, with even [[https://www.gnu.org/bulletins/bull17.html some early GNU bulletins]] calling Linux "a free Unix system" in which "many of the utilities and libraries are GNU Project software".

As Linux rose in prominence, [[https://www.gnu.org/bulletins/bull18.html GNU changed their position]], calling Linux "a free kernel", and the distros "GNU/Linux" (or "complete systems (essentially variant GNU systems) based on the Linux kernel"), saying it is "due credit" (the GNU project being the original developers of many of the main non-kernel components, comprising more of the actual full system than the Linux kernel) and as an attempt at unifying the developer communities. GNU partisans continue to insist upon using "GNU/Linux" as the name of the complete system and "Linux" as the name of the kernel.

to:

As the complete system itself incorporated GNU software, with Linus's kernel being the main original contribution, Linus made the important decision to put the Linux kernel under the same license as GNU's tools and utilities, making it attractive to developers who appreciated GNU's stance. With commercial UNIX still expensive, and BSD's future unclear, Linux grew quickly, and by 1995 had reached version 1.0; already, there were several vendors offering "distributions" ("distros" for short), or fully usable [=OSes=] incorporating the Linux kernel and GNU software at that time.[[note]]There is some controversy over the definition of "Linux". Prior to Linux-based systems becoming the primary form of GNU, the term "Linux" was used for the whole system, with even [[https://www.gnu.org/bulletins/bull17.html some early GNU bulletins]] calling Linux "a free Unix system" in which "many of the utilities and libraries are GNU Project software".

software".\\\
As Linux rose in prominence, [[https://www.gnu.org/bulletins/bull18.html GNU changed their position]], calling Linux "a free kernel", and the distros "GNU/Linux" (or "complete systems (essentially variant GNU systems) based on the Linux kernel"), saying it is "due credit" (the GNU project being the original developers of many of the main non-kernel components, comprising more of the actual full system than the Linux kernel) and as an attempt at unifying the developer communities. GNU partisans continue to insist upon using "GNU/Linux" as the name of the complete system and "Linux" as the name of the kernel.
kernel.\\\


UNIX was once considered unfriendly, terse and somewhat elitist, requiring expensive licensing and large, expensive minicomputers to run; now, almost all of UNIX's source code is freely licensed[[labelnote:much longer explanation]]BSD variants are licensed under "BSD licenses" (these generally omit clause 3, the "advertising clause", which requires attribution in advertising -- Berkeley have rescinded theirs, and such clauses prove GPL-incompatible and generally impractical). The fourth clause (third in the three-clause variant), which forbids the use of the author's name for promotional purposes, is also frequently dropped, mainly due to the fact that copyright law generally does not give users permission to use the author's name in that way to begin with. [=FreeBSD=] and [=NetBSD=] use the two-clause form for new code ([=OpenBSD=] uses the similar ISC license instead) and either form without the advertising clause is GPL-compatible.

UNIX/32V and its predecessors (including V6 and V7) have been usable under the original BSD license (with intact advertising clause regarding Caldera International) since January 2002 by anyone who can get hold of them; the source code for V6 can be found, for example, in the Lions Book. Interestingly, this means that the V6 and 32/V code in the earlier [=BSDs=] is actually now under a BSD license.

Sun's (now Oracle's) Solaris, a UNIX System V OS (since version 2), had much of its code freed with [=OpenSolaris=]; while this was discontinued by Oracle in favor of the original proprietary Solaris OS, the irrevocable nature of free and open-source licenses such as [=OpenSolaris=]'s Common Development and Distribution License (derived from the Mozilla Public License) allowed it to be given a SpiritualSuccessor in the form of [=OpenIndiana=], by Ian Murdock of Debian fame (who hails from Scotland but now lives in the US in Indiana).

Last but not least, the Linux kernel has been free and open-source software for quite some time, having been released under the GNU General Public License (GPL) since early on in its life, ever since Linus Torvalds switched from a license prohibiting non-commercial use, and GNU (the UNIX-style environment typically used with Linux) is free and open source as its principle aim.

to:

UNIX was once considered unfriendly, terse and somewhat elitist, requiring expensive licensing and large, expensive minicomputers to run; now, almost all of UNIX's source code is freely licensed[[labelnote:much longer explanation]]BSD variants are licensed under "BSD licenses" (these generally omit clause 3, the "advertising clause", which requires attribution in advertising -- Berkeley have rescinded theirs, and such clauses prove GPL-incompatible and generally impractical). The fourth clause (third in the three-clause variant), which forbids the use of the author's name for promotional purposes, is also frequently dropped, mainly due to the fact that copyright law generally does not give users permission to use the author's name in that way to begin with. [=FreeBSD=] and [=NetBSD=] use the two-clause form for new code ([=OpenBSD=] uses the similar ISC license instead) and either form without the advertising clause is GPL-compatible.

GPL-compatible.\\\
UNIX/32V and its predecessors (including V6 and V7) have been usable under the original BSD license (with intact advertising clause regarding Caldera International) since January 2002 by anyone who can get hold of them; the source code for V6 can be found, for example, in the Lions Book. Interestingly, this means that the V6 and 32/V code in the earlier [=BSDs=] is actually now under a BSD license.

license. \\\
Sun's (now Oracle's) Solaris, a UNIX System V OS (since version 2), had much of its code freed with [=OpenSolaris=]; while this was discontinued by Oracle in favor of the original proprietary Solaris OS, the irrevocable nature of free and open-source licenses such as [=OpenSolaris=]'s Common Development and Distribution License (derived from the Mozilla Public License) allowed it to be given a SpiritualSuccessor in the form of [=OpenIndiana=], by Ian Murdock of Debian fame (who hails from Scotland but now lives in the US in Indiana). \n\n\\\
Last but not least, the Linux kernel has been free and open-source software for quite some time, having been released under the GNU General Public License (GPL) since early on in its life, ever since Linus Torvalds switched from a license prohibiting non-commercial use, and GNU (the UNIX-style environment typically used with Linux) is free and open source as its principle aim.
principal aim.\\\


Science-fiction writer Creator/NealStephenson wrote of Unix, in his essay [[http://cristal.inria.fr/~weis/info/commandline.html "In The Beginning Was The Command Line"]] in January 1999:

-->"[[UsefulNotes/MicrosoftWindows Windows]] 95 and UsefulNotes/MacOS are products, contrived by engineers [[MoneyDearBoy in the service of specific companies]]. Unix, by contrast, is not so much a product as it is a painstakingly compiled oral history of the hacker subculture. It is our [[Literature/TheEpicOfGilgamesh Gilgamesh epic]].

-->What made old epics like Gilgamesh so powerful and so long-lived was that they were living bodies of narrative that many people knew by heart, and told over and over again--making their own [[ThrowItIn personal embellishments]] whenever it struck their fancy. The bad embellishments were shouted down, the good ones picked up by others, polished, improved, and, over time, [[AscendedFanon incorporated into the story]]. Likewise, Unix is known, loved, and understood by so many hackers that it can be re-created from scratch whenever someone needs it."

to:

Science-fiction writer Creator/NealStephenson wrote of Unix, UNIX, in his essay [[http://cristal.inria.fr/~weis/info/commandline.html "In The Beginning Was The Command Line"]] in January 1999:

-->"[[UsefulNotes/MicrosoftWindows Windows]] 95 and UsefulNotes/MacOS are products, contrived by engineers [[MoneyDearBoy in the service of specific companies]]. Unix, UNIX, by contrast, is not so much a product as it is a painstakingly compiled oral history of the hacker subculture. It is our [[Literature/TheEpicOfGilgamesh Gilgamesh epic]].

-->What
epic]].\\
What
made old epics like Gilgamesh so powerful and so long-lived was that they were living bodies of narrative that many people knew by heart, and told over and over again--making their own [[ThrowItIn personal embellishments]] whenever it struck their fancy. The bad embellishments were shouted down, the good ones picked up by others, polished, improved, and, over time, [[AscendedFanon incorporated into the story]]. Likewise, Unix UNIX is known, loved, and understood by so many hackers that it can be re-created from scratch whenever someone needs it."



Once Unix was ported to C, Bell Labs started allowing researchers at universities to study its insides. Since the Bell System was still a regulated monopoly at the time, and thus couldn't sell computers or [=OSes=], Bell Labs would give university computer science departments access to the UNIX source code for the cost of duplication once they signed a non-disclosure agreement. UNIX became very popular in operating systems classes after this. The lecture notes of one Australian computer science professor, John Lions of the University of New South Wales, were compiled into a book (''Lions' Commentary on UNIX 6th Edition, with Source Code'', aka the ''Lions Book'') and became a widely bootlegged underground publication and [[KeepCirculatingTheTapes circulated]] for years this way due to both the Bell System's licensing strictures and the later UNIX Wars (see below);[[note]]sometimes described as "samizdat", a Russian loanword denoting underground copying and sharing of suppressed literature[[/note]] it was, finally, legally published in book form 20 years later, in 1996.

to:

Once Unix UNIX was ported to C, Bell Labs started allowing researchers at universities to study its insides. Since the Bell System was still a regulated monopoly at the time, and thus couldn't sell computers or [=OSes=], Bell Labs would give university computer science departments access to the UNIX source code for the cost of duplication once they signed a non-disclosure agreement. UNIX became very popular in operating systems classes after this. The lecture notes of one Australian computer science professor, John Lions of the University of New South Wales, were compiled into a book (''Lions' Commentary on UNIX 6th Edition, with Source Code'', aka the ''Lions Book'') and became a widely bootlegged underground publication and [[KeepCirculatingTheTapes circulated]] for years this way due to both the Bell System's licensing strictures and the later UNIX Wars (see below);[[note]]sometimes described as "samizdat", a Russian loanword denoting underground copying and sharing of suppressed literature[[/note]] it was, finally, legally published in book form 20 years later, in 1996.


The biggest bombshell of it all, however, is probably when {{Creator/Valve Software}} decided to create a spin of ''Debian'' in 2013, calling it ''[=SteamOS=]'' and announcing that the OS will be powering its line of Steam Machine consoles, but will also be free to download for anyone interested in building their own custom Steam Machine. This after porting Steam and several games to Linux, as well as encouraging developers who're using the Steam platform to roll out Linux support as well. Creator/FeralInteractive in particular, has taken this to heart, and have [[VideoGame/TombRaider2013 ported]] [[VideoGame/DeusExMankindDivided quite]] [[VideoGame/Hitman2016 a few]] Creator/SquareEnix [[VideoGame/RiseOfTheTombRaider games]] to [=SteamOS=] and Linux since 2013. The move is seen as encouraging, and many fans of Linux believe this to be finally signalling the rise of Linux as a serious competitor of Windows in the gaming arena.

to:

The biggest bombshell of it all, however, is probably when {{Creator/Valve Software}} decided to create a spin of ''Debian'' in 2013, calling it ''[=SteamOS=]'' and announcing that the OS will be powering its line of Steam Machine consoles, but will also be free to download for anyone interested in building their own custom Steam Machine. This after porting Steam and several games to Linux, as well as encouraging developers who're using the Steam platform to roll out Linux support as well. Creator/FeralInteractive in particular, has taken this to heart, and have [[VideoGame/TombRaider2013 ported]] [[VideoGame/DeusExMankindDivided quite]] [[VideoGame/Hitman2016 a few]] Creator/SquareEnix [[VideoGame/RiseOfTheTombRaider games]] to [=SteamOS=] and Linux since 2013. Furthermore, a lot of [[Main/GameEngine game engines]] that were previously either hard to Port over to Linux, or just outright incompatible with the system [[note]]such as Unity, Unreal Engine and Source/ Source 2[[/note]], are being properly supported now, largely in thanks to the common practice of indie developers making Linux ports for crowdfunding backers, and also because of a renewed interest in the platform by larger companies. The move is seen as encouraging, and many fans of Linux believe this to be finally signalling the rise of Linux as a serious competitor of Windows in the gaming arena.


The biggest bombshell of it all, however, is probably when {{Creator/Valve Software}} decided to create a spin of ''Debian'' in 2013, calling it ''[=SteamOS=]'' and announcing that the OS will be powering its line of Steam Machine consoles, but will also be free to download for anyone interested in building their own custom Steam Machine. This after porting Steam and several games to Linux, as well as encouraging developers who're using the Steam platform to roll out Linux support as well. Creator/FeralInteractive in particular, has taken this to heart, and has ported [[VideoGame/TombRaider2013 quite]] [[VideoGame/DeusExMankindDivided a few]] Creator/SquareEnix [[VideoGame/Hitman2016 titles]] to [=SteamOS=] and Linux. The move is seen as encouraging, and many fans of Linux believe this to be finally signalling the rise of Linux as a serious competitor of Windows in the gaming arena.

to:

The biggest bombshell of it all, however, is probably when {{Creator/Valve Software}} decided to create a spin of ''Debian'' in 2013, calling it ''[=SteamOS=]'' and announcing that the OS will be powering its line of Steam Machine consoles, but will also be free to download for anyone interested in building their own custom Steam Machine. This after porting Steam and several games to Linux, as well as encouraging developers who're using the Steam platform to roll out Linux support as well. Creator/FeralInteractive in particular, has taken this to heart, and has ported have [[VideoGame/TombRaider2013 quite]] ported]] [[VideoGame/DeusExMankindDivided quite]] [[VideoGame/Hitman2016 a few]] Creator/SquareEnix [[VideoGame/Hitman2016 titles]] [[VideoGame/RiseOfTheTombRaider games]] to [=SteamOS=] and Linux.Linux since 2013. The move is seen as encouraging, and many fans of Linux believe this to be finally signalling the rise of Linux as a serious competitor of Windows in the gaming arena.


Quirky, seemingly counterintuitive, but incredibly flexible, UNIX has gone from a little-known research operating system in the 1970s to an entire design philosophy. In its experimental days, UNIX stood in the background, influencing [=OSes=] but not making much noise on its own; that changed starting in the mid-1980s, when the first commercial UNIX products appeared, and exploded in the mid-1990s, as [=OSes=] either based directly on UNIX or following its principles came to the forefront via the World Wide Web. As of 2014, UNIX-like operating systems have finally managed to outrank Microsoft Windows in terms of usage share, with UNIX-like systems spanning pretty much all the scales and sizes of computing -- from [=uCLinux=] for microcontrollers and embedded devices, to Apple [=iOS=] and Android for smartphones, to Linux[[note]]mostly in the form of distros with the Linux kernel and GNU software plus desktop environments[[/note]] and UsefulNotes/MacOS (formerly OS X) for desktop computers, Oracle Solaris, HP-UX and IBM AIX for servers and mainframes. Even when it's not in use, however, it can be said that Unix was, in TV tropes terms, the TropeCodifier for many of the features we take for granted in modern computer systems.

to:

Quirky, seemingly counterintuitive, but incredibly flexible, UNIX has gone from a little-known research operating system in the 1970s to an entire design philosophy. In its experimental days, UNIX stood in the background, influencing [=OSes=] but not making much noise on its own; that changed starting in the mid-1980s, when the first commercial UNIX products appeared, and exploded in the mid-1990s, as [=OSes=] either based directly on UNIX or following its principles came to the forefront via the World Wide Web. As of 2014, UNIX-like operating systems have finally managed to outrank Microsoft Windows in terms of usage share, with UNIX-like systems spanning pretty much all the scales and sizes of computing -- from [=uCLinux=] for microcontrollers and embedded devices, to Apple [=iOS=] and Android for smartphones, to Linux[[note]]mostly in the form of distros with the Linux kernel and GNU software plus desktop environments[[/note]] and UsefulNotes/MacOS (formerly OS X) for desktop computers, Oracle Solaris, HP-UX and IBM AIX for servers and mainframes. Even when it's not in use, however, it can be said that Unix UNIX was, in TV tropes terms, the TropeCodifier for many of the features we take for granted in modern computer systems.


Quirky, seemingly counterintuitive, but incredibly flexible, UNIX has gone from a little-known research operating system in the 1970s to an entire design philosophy. In its experimental days, UNIX stood in the background, influencing [=OSes=] but not making much noise on its own; that changed starting in the mid-1980s, when the first commercial UNIX products appeared, and exploded in the mid-1990s, as [=OSes=] either based directly on UNIX or following its principles came to the forefront via the World Wide Web. As of 2014, UNIX-like operating systems have finally managed to outrank Microsoft Windows in terms of usage share, with UNIX-like systems spanning pretty much all the scales and sizes of computing -- from [=uCLinux=] for microcontrollers and embedded devices, to Apple [=iOS=] and Android for smartphones, to Linux[[note]]mostly in the form of distros with the Linux kernel and GNU software plus desktop environments[[/note]] and UsefulNotes/MacOS (formerly OS X) for desktop computers, Oracle Solaris, HP-UX and IBM AIX for servers and mainframes.

to:

Quirky, seemingly counterintuitive, but incredibly flexible, UNIX has gone from a little-known research operating system in the 1970s to an entire design philosophy. In its experimental days, UNIX stood in the background, influencing [=OSes=] but not making much noise on its own; that changed starting in the mid-1980s, when the first commercial UNIX products appeared, and exploded in the mid-1990s, as [=OSes=] either based directly on UNIX or following its principles came to the forefront via the World Wide Web. As of 2014, UNIX-like operating systems have finally managed to outrank Microsoft Windows in terms of usage share, with UNIX-like systems spanning pretty much all the scales and sizes of computing -- from [=uCLinux=] for microcontrollers and embedded devices, to Apple [=iOS=] and Android for smartphones, to Linux[[note]]mostly in the form of distros with the Linux kernel and GNU software plus desktop environments[[/note]] and UsefulNotes/MacOS (formerly OS X) for desktop computers, Oracle Solaris, HP-UX and IBM AIX for servers and mainframes.
mainframes. Even when it's not in use, however, it can be said that Unix was, in TV tropes terms, the TropeCodifier for many of the features we take for granted in modern computer systems.

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