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For much of this period, the King of England was also Duke of Normandy and ruled several other places -- the first three Kings didn't speak English at all, and the first four identified themselves as French, or at least Angevin, first. French remained the official court language until 1361.

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For much of this period, the King of England was also Duke of Normandy Aquitaine (and later, claimed king of ''all'' France) and ruled several other places -- the first three Kings didn't speak English at all, and the first four identified themselves as French, or at least Angevin, first. French remained the official court language until 1361.


Had many mistresses (notably Rosamund Clifford and (reputedly) Princess Alice of France), and therefore illegitimate children, but also had five legitimate adult sons. William died when only two years old, Henry the Young King died from dysentery, and Geoffrey of Brittany was trampled by a horse. When his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine had had enough of his infidelity and his high-handed ness over Aquitaine, she [[WomanScorned successfully manipulated her surviving sons into rebellion against him]].

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Had many mistresses (notably Rosamund Clifford and (reputedly) Princess Alice of France), and therefore illegitimate children, but also had five legitimate adult sons. William died when only two years old, Henry the Young King died from dysentery, and Geoffrey of Brittany was trampled by a horse. When his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine had had enough of his infidelity and his high-handed ness over Aquitaine, she [[WomanScorned successfully manipulated her surviving sons into rebellion against him]].
him]]. Although so ill he could barely speak above a whisper, he let loose one final BadassBoast toward his son Richard during said rebellion by telling him "God grant that I don't die before I can take my revenge on you". Unfortunately for him, he died shortly afterwards after hearing news that his favorite son John was siding with Richard.


* The miniseries ''Series/TheWhiteQueen'' (based on Creator/PhilippaGregory's ''Literature/TheCousinsWarSeries'' novels) follows the life of Elizabeth Woodville, a woman [[StarCrossedLovers from a traditionally Lancastrian family]] who marries Edward IV and is the mother of Edward V and his brother ("the Princes in the Tower") as well as Elizabeth of York. Richard III and his queen consort Anne Neville take center stage in the last few episodes.

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* The miniseries ''Series/TheWhiteQueen'' (based on Creator/PhilippaGregory's ''Literature/TheCousinsWarSeries'' novels) follows the life of Elizabeth Woodville, a woman commoner [[StarCrossedLovers from a traditionally Lancastrian family]] who marries Edward IV and is the mother of Edward V and his brother ("the Princes in the Tower") as well as Elizabeth of York. Richard III and his queen consort Anne Neville take center stage in the last few episodes.


During his second reign, he had some military success against France (acquiring lots of money) and Scotland (acquiring some territory), but his health failed due to a sedentary lifestyle[[note]]although there has been some academic interest in the possibility that he was poisoned by the Nevilles[[/note]] and he died in 1483. Edward had had his unreliable, alcoholic brother George Duke of Clarence killed[[note]]An urban legend that rose up shortly thereafter has George being drowned in a barrel of malmsey wine, but it appears he was simply starved to death[[/note]], leaving his favourite and youngest brother, [[UsefulNotes/RichardIII Richard, Duke of Gloucester]], as protector of his son...

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During his second reign, he had some military success against France (acquiring lots of money) and Scotland (acquiring some territory), but his health failed due to a sedentary lifestyle[[note]]although there has been some academic interest in the possibility that he was poisoned by the Nevilles[[/note]] and he died in 1483. Edward had had his unreliable, alcoholic brother George Duke of Clarence killed[[note]]An executed[[note]]An urban legend that rose up shortly thereafter has George being drowned in a barrel of malmsey wine, but it appears he was simply starved to death[[/note]], leaving his favourite and youngest brother, [[UsefulNotes/RichardIII Richard, Duke of Gloucester]], as protector of his son...


!!'''[[UsefulNotes/EdwardTheSecond Edward II]] of England'''

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!!'''[[UsefulNotes/EdwardTheSecond Edward II]] !!'''Edward II of England'''



* The TV series ''Series/TheWhiteQueen'' (based on Philippa Gregory's ''[[Literature/TheCousinsWarSeries Cousins' War]]'' series of books) follows the life of Elizabeth Woodville, a woman [[StarCrossedLovers from a traditionally Lancastrian family]] who married Edward IV and was the mother of Edward V and his brother ("the princes in the Tower") as well as Elizabeth of York.

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* The TV series miniseries ''Series/TheWhiteQueen'' (based on Philippa Gregory's ''[[Literature/TheCousinsWarSeries Cousins' War]]'' series of books) Creator/PhilippaGregory's ''Literature/TheCousinsWarSeries'' novels) follows the life of Elizabeth Woodville, a woman [[StarCrossedLovers from a traditionally Lancastrian family]] who married marries Edward IV and was is the mother of Edward V and his brother ("the princes Princes in the Tower") as well as Elizabeth of York.York. Richard III and his queen consort Anne Neville take center stage in the last few episodes.


* All the Plantagenets through Edward III are playable in ''VideoGame/CrusaderKingsII''. You have to pick a custom start date for them, though: most of the bookmarks in that time period deal with events in the Middle East, and you can't pick a custom date after 1337 (the game ends in 1453). The rest of them are playable in ''VideoGame/EuropaUniversalisIV''.

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* All the Plantagenets through Edward III are playable in ''VideoGame/CrusaderKingsII''. You have to pick a custom start date for them, though: most of the bookmarks in that time period deal with events in the Middle East, and you can't pick a custom date after 1337 (the game ends in 1453). The rest of them are playable in ''VideoGame/EuropaUniversalisIV''.''VideoGame/EuropaUniversalis IV''.



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* All the Plantagenets through Edward III are playable in ''VideoGame/CrusaderKingsII''. You have to pick a custom start date for them, though: most of the bookmarks in that time period deal with events in the Middle East, and you can't pick a custom date after 1337 (the game ends in 1453). The rest of them are playable in ''VideoGame/EuropaUniversalisIV''.


'''Consort''': ''Duchess'' UsefulNotes/EleanorofAquitaine

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'''Consort''': ''Duchess'' UsefulNotes/EleanorofAquitaineUsefulNotes/EleanorOfAquitaine


3. The most (in)famous thing was that he got into a savage argument with the original TurbulentPriest, his one time friend UsefulNotes/ThomasBecket, Archbishop of Canterbury, over whether the Church was subordinate to secular authority. His expression of frustration was construed to be a Royal Command: a RhetoricalRequestBlunder. Four knights made haste to Canterbury and brutally murdered Becket. The murder of an archbishop at the altar of his own cathedral on orders from the King was considered the worst crime in Christendom for a long time, and [[HistoricalVillainUpgrade clouded Henry's reputation in history]]. It was something Henry [[MyGreatestFailure appeared to truly show regret and remorse for]] and he was publicly whipped as penance by the canons of Canterbury Cathedral.[[note]]He confessed his sins and ordered each Bishop present to strike him five times with a wooden rod, and then each of the eighty-odd monks to strike him three times, then spent a vigil at Becket's tomb.[[/note]] (Becket, on the other hand, got made into a saint and had a great film made about him in which he was played by Creator/RichardBurton. Henry was played by Creator/PeterO'Toole).

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3. The most (in)famous thing was that he got into a savage argument with the original TurbulentPriest, his one time friend UsefulNotes/ThomasBecket, Archbishop of Canterbury, over whether the Church was subordinate to secular authority. His expression of frustration was construed to be a Royal Command: a RhetoricalRequestBlunder. Four knights made haste to Canterbury and brutally murdered Becket. The murder of an archbishop at the altar of his own cathedral on orders from the King was considered the worst crime in Christendom for a long time, and [[HistoricalVillainUpgrade clouded Henry's reputation in history]]. It was something Henry [[MyGreatestFailure appeared to truly show regret and remorse for]] and he was publicly whipped as penance by the canons of Canterbury Cathedral.[[note]]He confessed his sins and ordered each Bishop present to strike him five times with a wooden rod, and then each of the eighty-odd monks to strike him three times, then spent a vigil at Becket's tomb.[[/note]] (Becket, on the other hand, got made into a saint and had a great film made about him in which he was played by Creator/RichardBurton. Henry was played by Creator/PeterO'Toole).
Creator/PeterOToole).


3. The most (in)famous thing was that he got into a savage argument with the original TurbulentPriest, his one time friend UsefulNotes/ThomasBecket, Archbishop of Canterbury, over whether the Church was subordinate to secular authority. His expression of frustration was construed to be a Royal Command: a RhetoricalRequestBlunder. Four knights made haste to Canterbury and brutally murdered Becket. The murder of an archbishop at the altar of his own cathedral on orders from the King was considered the worst crime in Christendom for a long time, and [[HistoricalVillainUpgrade clouded Henry's reputation in history]]. It was something Henry [[MyGreatestFailure appeared to truly show regret and remorse for]] and he was publicly whipped as penance by the canons of Canterbury Cathedral.[[note]]He confessed his sins and ordered each Bishop present to strike him five times with a wooden rod, and then each of the eighty-odd monks to strike him three times, then spent a vigil at Becket's tomb.[[/note]] (Becket, on the other hand, got made into a saint and had a great film made about him in which he was played by Creator/RichardBurton).

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3. The most (in)famous thing was that he got into a savage argument with the original TurbulentPriest, his one time friend UsefulNotes/ThomasBecket, Archbishop of Canterbury, over whether the Church was subordinate to secular authority. His expression of frustration was construed to be a Royal Command: a RhetoricalRequestBlunder. Four knights made haste to Canterbury and brutally murdered Becket. The murder of an archbishop at the altar of his own cathedral on orders from the King was considered the worst crime in Christendom for a long time, and [[HistoricalVillainUpgrade clouded Henry's reputation in history]]. It was something Henry [[MyGreatestFailure appeared to truly show regret and remorse for]] and he was publicly whipped as penance by the canons of Canterbury Cathedral.[[note]]He confessed his sins and ordered each Bishop present to strike him five times with a wooden rod, and then each of the eighty-odd monks to strike him three times, then spent a vigil at Becket's tomb.[[/note]] (Becket, on the other hand, got made into a saint and had a great film made about him in which he was played by Creator/RichardBurton).
Creator/RichardBurton. Henry was played by Creator/PeterO'Toole).


Ten years old at his succession, he showed what he could do at the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, where he [[CrowningMomentOfAwesome defused the immediate threat to London while the leader, Wat Tyler, was butchered shortly behind them]], and ultimately ordered the remaining rebels to surrender, which they did. This went to his head, however, and [[NewerThanTheyThink he started the tradition]] of addressing the King as "Majesty" and "Highness". Like his great-grandfather, he didn't care for the war with France, being much more interested in art and architecture. He was also fond of good food, and had his cooks write a great cookbook, the ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forme_of_Cury Forme of Cury]]'', one of the greatest surviving resources on the (upper-class) medieval kitchen (and a great source of inspiration if you ever want to make an unusual or especially fancy dish--you'll be surprised what medieval English chefs got up to, especially considering [[HollywoodCuisine what their modern equivalents are famous for]]). A group of nobles (the "Merciless Parliament") had some of his favorites executed for abusing his youth, and he repaid them in kindness ten years later, including [[KickTheDog having his Uncle, Thomas of Woodstock,]] [[EvilNephew smothered]].

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Ten years old at his succession, he showed what he could do at the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, where he [[CrowningMomentOfAwesome defused the immediate threat to London while the leader, Wat Tyler, was butchered shortly behind them]], them, and ultimately ordered the remaining rebels to surrender, which they did. This went to his head, however, and [[NewerThanTheyThink he started the tradition]] of addressing the King as "Majesty" and "Highness". Like his great-grandfather, he didn't care for the war with France, being much more interested in art and architecture. He was also fond of good food, and had his cooks write a great cookbook, the ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forme_of_Cury Forme of Cury]]'', one of the greatest surviving resources on the (upper-class) medieval kitchen (and a great source of inspiration if you ever want to make an unusual or especially fancy dish--you'll be surprised what medieval English chefs got up to, especially considering [[HollywoodCuisine what their modern equivalents are famous for]]). A group of nobles (the "Merciless Parliament") had some of his favorites executed for abusing his youth, and he repaid them in kindness ten years later, including [[KickTheDog having his Uncle, Thomas of Woodstock,]] [[EvilNephew smothered]].


Every bit as physically tall and powerful as his father, but didn't care for war. Scotland eventually kicked him out in 1314. Spent much time indulging his passions of sailing, and granting favours and titles on his favourites. Widely rumoured to be an active homosexual, his relationships with Piers Gaveston and Hugh Despenser earned both men widespread enmity and, eventually, unpleasant deaths. Highly unpopular, he was murdered (supposedly by having a red-hot poker applied as an enema, though most historians think it was the less dramatic method of [[VorpalPillow smothering with a pillow]][[note]]Point being that, with English monarchs having assumed divine right, regicide was both high treason and a crime against God; to pull it off you needed a ''damn'' good reason, an impregnable position, or to make it look like natural causes. Now, most of the poisons of the day could leave certain external signs that even the crude physicians of the day might recognise. As did smothering. But with dissection and autopsy forbidden by religious decree, Edward's alleged cauterised bowel would have left no external signs other than a sudden attack of terminal peritonitis.[[/note]]) by order of [[LadyMacBeth his wife Isabelle]] (the "She-Wolf of France") and her lover, who planned to [[EvilMatriarch rule though her fourteen-year-old son]]...

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Every bit as physically tall and powerful as his father, but didn't care for war. Scotland eventually kicked him out in 1314. Spent much time indulging his passions of sailing, and granting favours and titles on his favourites. Widely rumoured to be an active homosexual, his relationships with Piers Gaveston and Hugh Despenser earned both men widespread enmity and, eventually, unpleasant deaths. Highly unpopular, he was murdered (supposedly by having a red-hot poker applied as an enema, though most historians think it was the less dramatic method of [[VorpalPillow smothering with a pillow]][[note]]Point being that, with English monarchs having assumed divine right, regicide was both high treason and a crime against God; to pull it off you needed a ''damn'' good reason, an impregnable position, or to make it look like natural causes. Now, most of the poisons of the day could leave certain external signs that even the crude physicians of the day might recognise. As did smothering. But with dissection and autopsy forbidden by religious decree, Edward's alleged cauterised bowel would have left no external signs other than a sudden attack of terminal peritonitis.[[/note]]) by order of [[LadyMacBeth his wife Isabelle]] Isabelle (the "She-Wolf of France") and her lover, who planned to [[EvilMatriarch rule though her fourteen-year-old son]]...


Note that the regnal numbers given below for the earlier kings are anachronistic. Like the Normans before them, the early Angevin kings were known only by their first name and a sobriquet, either a nickname or their place of birth--the former being more common in the earlier period, while place names became virtually standard towards the end of the main line of the dynasty. Regnal numbers were assigned by monks in the time of Edward [=III=].[[note]]they likely found three Edwards in a row a bit much[[/note]] The tradition of regnal nicknames continued until the end of the Plantagenet era, although (with a few exceptions) it wasn't used as often after Edward's reign. Each king's most common sobriquet is given here in parentheses after his regnal name.

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Note that the regnal numbers given below for the earlier kings are anachronistic. Like the Normans before them, the early Angevin kings were known only by their first name and a sobriquet, either a nickname or their place of birth--the former being more common in the earlier period, while place names became virtually standard towards the end of the main line of the dynasty. Regnal numbers were assigned by monks law clerks in the time of Edward [=III=].[[note]]they likely found three [[note]]Laws were (and still are) listed by regnal years. Three Edwards in a row was likely a bit much[[/note]] much for their filing systems.[[/note]] The tradition of regnal nicknames continued until the end of the Plantagenet era, although (with a few exceptions) it wasn't used as often after Edward's reign. Each king's most common sobriquet is given here in parentheses after his regnal name.


While Richard I was away, Prince John, his [[TheEvilPrince brother]], seized control of England from the regents the King had left in charge. This plays a key part in the Myth/RobinHood mythos, with Robin Hood fighting along with his band of outlaws to keep England safe from the corrupt rule of John until Richard's return. (In the early ballads, however, it's one of the Edwards' reigns that is the setting.)

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While Richard I was away, Prince John, his [[TheEvilPrince brother]], brother, seized control of England from the regents the King had left in charge. This plays a key part in the Myth/RobinHood mythos, with Robin Hood fighting along with his band of outlaws to keep England safe from the corrupt rule of John until Richard's return. (In the early ballads, however, it's one of the Edwards' reigns that is the setting.)


* The TV series ''The White Queen'' (based on Philippa Gregory's ''[[Literature/TheCousinsWarSeries Cousins' War]]'' series of books) follows the life of Elizabeth Woodville, a woman [[StarCrossedLovers from a traditionally Lancastrian family]] who married Edward IV and was the mother of Edward V and his brother ("the princes in the Tower") as well as Elizabeth of York.

to:

* The TV series ''The White Queen'' ''Series/TheWhiteQueen'' (based on Philippa Gregory's ''[[Literature/TheCousinsWarSeries Cousins' War]]'' series of books) follows the life of Elizabeth Woodville, a woman [[StarCrossedLovers from a traditionally Lancastrian family]] who married Edward IV and was the mother of Edward V and his brother ("the princes in the Tower") as well as Elizabeth of York.

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