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The Chechnya Wars were a series of conflicts between the [[UsefulNotes/{{Russia}} Russian Federation]] and the rebellious province of Chechnya styled as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria from 1994 to 2009. They are split into two parts - the first war raging from 1994 to 1996 and the second one from 2000 to 2009. Though these wars were mostly fought on regional scale, their origins traced from far longer way back to the 18th Century and had far reaching consequences beyond just being nationalistic and sectarian in nature, as they served as a prelude to TheWarOnTerror due to second war dealing with Islamic terrorists before 9/11 and it also helped shape Russia as we know today with UsefulNotes/VladimirPutin's rise.

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The Chechnya Wars were a series of conflicts between the [[UsefulNotes/{{Russia}} Russian Federation]] and the rebellious province of Chechnya styled as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria from 1994 to 2009. They are split into two parts - the first war raging from 1994 to 1996 and the second one from 2000 to 2009. Though these wars were mostly fought on regional scale, their origins traced from far longer way back to the 18th Century and had far reaching consequences beyond just being nationalistic and sectarian in nature, as they served as a prelude to TheWarOnTerror UsefulNotes/TheWarOnTerror due to second war dealing with Islamic terrorists before 9/11 and it also helped shape Russia as we know today with UsefulNotes/VladimirPutin's rise.


The Chechens had finally achieved the dream of independence, or rather, the ''[[PyrrhicVictory nightmare]]'' of independence. The war was nothing short of devastating for their newly independent country, on top of it being unrecognized by no one else in the international community except by fellow pariah state UsefulNotes/{{Afghanistan}} controlled by the Taliban. With their infrastructure being dependent on the mafia and criminals smuggling goods into their territory thanks to Dudayev, Chechens began turning to raids and kidnappings across the border which proved very profitable. Foreign nationals were specially valuable for their captors could charge very high ransoms, but very often, those kidnapped were often sold into slavery openly in the streets where they would be mistreated by their masters.

to:

The Chechens had finally achieved the dream of independence, or rather, the ''[[PyrrhicVictory nightmare]]'' of independence. The war was nothing short of devastating for their newly independent country, on top of it being unrecognized by no one else in the international community except by fellow pariah state UsefulNotes/{{Afghanistan}} controlled by the Taliban. With their infrastructure being dependent on the mafia and criminals smuggling goods into their territory thanks to Dudayev, Chechens began turning to raids and kidnappings across the border which proved very profitable. Foreign nationals were specially especially valuable for their captors could charge very high ransoms, but very often, those kidnapped were often sold into slavery openly in the streets where they would be mistreated by their masters.


The war proved to be integral in solidifying Putin's leadership and popularity for the Russian people. By rallying under a common threat, they were reunited after Yeltsin's disastrous mishandling of the conflict. However, the conflict contributed to deep changes in Russia's politics and society with a some Western commentators lamenting that the wars killed Russia's fledging democracy in its cradle by handing it over to a strong-handed ruler. Former KGB agent Alexander Litvinenko was notorious for accusing Putin of among many things, [[FalseFlagOperation orchestrating the apartment bombings as an excuse to justify a war against the Chechens]] and transform Russia into an mafia state. The fact that none of the Chechen separatists ever took credit for these bombings [[note]]Specially Basayev who lead the invasion into Dagestan that also served as lynchpin for the second conflict and took credit for several terrorist attacks consistently denied having ordered those specific bombings [[/note]] and Litvinenko's death by poisoning in 2006 under mysterious circumstances led to several theories about Russia's involvement in provoking the war.

to:

The war proved to be integral in solidifying Putin's leadership and popularity for the Russian people. By rallying under a common threat, they were reunited after Yeltsin's disastrous mishandling of the conflict. However, the conflict contributed to deep changes in Russia's politics and society with a some Western commentators lamenting that the wars killed Russia's fledging democracy in its cradle by handing it over to a strong-handed ruler. Former KGB agent Alexander Litvinenko was notorious for accusing Putin of among many things, [[FalseFlagOperation orchestrating the apartment bombings as an excuse to justify a war against the Chechens]] and transform Russia into an mafia state. The fact that none of the Chechen separatists ever took credit for these bombings [[note]]Specially Basayev who lead the invasion into Dagestan that also served as lynchpin for the second conflict and took credit for several terrorist attacks consistently denied having ordered those specific bombings [[/note]] and Litvinenko's death by poisoning in 2006 under mysterious circumstances led to several theories about Russia's involvement in provoking the war.
war. [[note]] It should be noted that while he was one of the most important political dissidents at the time he lived, many claims made by Livtnenko were considered absurd for being provided with no evidence and essentially blaming Russia for ''every little thing'' that went wrong. So while his death is still considered very sketchy, his allegations were taken with a grain of salt [[/note]].


The Chechens had finally achieved the dream of independence, or rather, the ''[[PyrrhicVictory nightmare]]'' of independence. The war was nothing short of devastating for their newly independent country, on top of it being unrecognized by no one else in the international community except by fellow pariah state UsefulNotes/{{Afghanistan}} controlled by the Taliban. With their infrastructure being dependent on the mafia and criminals smuggling goods into their territory thanks to Dudayev, Chechens began turning to raids and kidnapping across the border which proved very profitable.

to:

The Chechens had finally achieved the dream of independence, or rather, the ''[[PyrrhicVictory nightmare]]'' of independence. The war was nothing short of devastating for their newly independent country, on top of it being unrecognized by no one else in the international community except by fellow pariah state UsefulNotes/{{Afghanistan}} controlled by the Taliban. With their infrastructure being dependent on the mafia and criminals smuggling goods into their territory thanks to Dudayev, Chechens began turning to raids and kidnapping kidnappings across the border which proved very profitable.
profitable. Foreign nationals were specially valuable for their captors could charge very high ransoms, but very often, those kidnapped were often sold into slavery openly in the streets where they would be mistreated by their masters.



Outbreaks of xenophobia and racism grew as result of the extremist actions: Chechens were regarded in Russia as "bandits" and "terrorists" who were naturally inclined to violence, religious fanaticism and having no morals (nevermind, Chechen civilians were among the biggest casualties) with Islamic terrorists of Russian origin being often labeled "Chechens" even if they were not ethnically such. The Beslan crisis is considered a turning point for the conflict and a particularly shameful moment for Chechens as the international community reacted with revulsion towards the massacre as one spokesman lamented that "Such a bigger blow could not be dealt upon us... People around the world will think that Chechens are monsters if they could attack children". Since then, Chechens became disillusioned with the cause of independence and have largely become part of Russia of their own volition.

to:

Outbreaks of xenophobia and racism grew as result of the extremist actions: Chechens were regarded in Russia as "bandits" and "terrorists" who were naturally inclined to violence, religious fanaticism and having no morals (nevermind, Chechen civilians were among the biggest casualties) with Islamic terrorists of Russian origin being often labeled "Chechens" even if they were not ethnically such. Beforehand, the kidnappings of foreigners were considered a major blow and serious obstacle for the internation recognition of the breakway republic - something which Maskhadov acknowledged and tried to clamp down to no avail. The Beslan crisis is considered was a turning point for the conflict and a particularly shameful moment for Chechens as the international community reacted with revulsion towards the massacre as one spokesman lamented that "Such a bigger blow could not be dealt upon us... People around the world will think that Chechens are monsters if they could attack children". Since then, Chechens became disillusioned with the cause of independence and have largely become part of Russia of their own volition.


In order to quell the unrest between the locals and the international community, Putin installed Akhmad Kadyrov (who had defected to the Russians) as the new President of Chechnya in hopes of bringing the Chechens together against the separatists, and he also had [[DystopianEdict a tight hand around the media in order to not show the war's horrors into the open]]. By 2000, the Russians had already pushed out all of the separatists out of Grozny and took control of the most important asset of the war, the people. Though the military phase was over very quickly, the war certainly wasn't as the insurgency phase would take place through most of the decade and see the worst atrocities leaking out of Chechnya and into Russia abroad.

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In order to quell the unrest between the locals and the international community, Putin installed Akhmad Kadyrov (who had defected to the Russians) as the new President of Chechnya in hopes of bringing the Chechens together against the separatists, and he also had [[DystopianEdict a tight hand around the media in order to not show the war's horrors into the open]]. By 2000, the Russians had already pushed out all of the separatists out of Grozny and took control of the most important asset of the war, the people. Though the military phase was over very quickly, the war certainly wasn't as the insurgency phase would take place through most of the decade and see the worst atrocities leaking out of Chechnya and into Russia abroad.
proper.


To not repeat the same mistakes of the previous war, federal forces would begin with a prolonged air raid campaign over Grozny before a land invasion could happen. By the time they rolled out and took the city, federal forces didn't suffer nearly as many casualties as the first time and became a glorified mop cleaning up the mess as the bulk of the warlords had already retreated into the mountains to [[HereWeGoAgain restart their guerrilla campaign]]. The Russians started a campaign of bombings to clear out the mountains, even though to fully complete this task would take decades. The ruthlessness employed by the Russians saw several civilians being killed, a refugee crisis into the neighboring republics of Dagestan and Ingushetia and the West being shocked with the war crimes being committed by both federal and separatist forces.

to:

To not repeat the same mistakes of the previous war, federal forces would begin with a prolonged air raid campaign over Grozny before a land invasion could happen. By the time they rolled out and took the city, federal forces didn't suffer nearly as many casualties as the first time and became a glorified mop cleaning up the mess as the bulk of the warlords had already retreated into the mountains to [[HereWeGoAgain restart their guerrilla campaign]]. The Russians started a campaign of bombings to clear out the mountains, even though to fully complete this task would take decades. The ruthlessness employed by the Russians saw several many civilians being killed, a refugee crisis into the neighboring republics of Dagestan and Ingushetia and the West being shocked with the war crimes being committed by both federal and separatist forces.


Meanwhile, the situation in Russia wasn't any better. Yeltsin's actions during the war made him extremely unpopular and it took every bit of influence in the PropagandaMachine to sway the public opinion in his favor. Nostalgia for the Soviet Union peaked and many feared that Russia would descend into anarchy with the old man's health ailing, it was time for a new generation to take place. Enter the former KGB agent Vladimir Putin, who would become the second President of Russia and would focus on solving the Chechen problem as a way of strengthening Russia and bringing together the presidency, the government and people.

to:

Meanwhile, the situation in Russia wasn't any better. Yeltsin's actions during the war made him extremely unpopular and it took every bit of influence in the PropagandaMachine to sway the public opinion in his favor. Nostalgia for the Soviet Union peaked and many feared that Russia would descend into anarchy anarchy, and with the old man's Yeltsin's health ailing, it was time for a new generation to take place.over. Enter the former KGB agent Vladimir Putin, who would become the second President of Russia and would focus on solving the Chechen problem as a way of strengthening Russia and bringing together the presidency, the government and people.


The Chechens had finally achieved the dream of independence, or rather, the ''[[PyrrhicVictory nightmare]]'' of independence. The war was nothing short of devastating for their newly independent country, on top of it being unrecognized by no one else in the international community except by fellow pariah state UsefulNotes/{{Afghanistan}} controlled by the Taliban. With their infrastructure was dependent on the mafia and criminals smuggling goods into their territory thanks to Dudayev, Chechens began turning to raids and kidnapping across the border which proved very profitable.

to:

The Chechens had finally achieved the dream of independence, or rather, the ''[[PyrrhicVictory nightmare]]'' of independence. The war was nothing short of devastating for their newly independent country, on top of it being unrecognized by no one else in the international community except by fellow pariah state UsefulNotes/{{Afghanistan}} controlled by the Taliban. With their infrastructure was being dependent on the mafia and criminals smuggling goods into their territory thanks to Dudayev, Chechens began turning to raids and kidnapping across the border which proved very profitable.



The separatist movement of Ichkeria (or whatever remains of it) has been rebranded as the "Caucasian Emirate", a jihadist organization with ties to other groups like Taliban, Al-Qaeda and ISIS, but it has been on an ever-diminishing presence on the region as the years go by and with no ability to threaten the Russian Federation. Many volunteers have joined the [[UsefulNotes/TheArabSpring Syrian Civil War]] to fight on the side of jihadists against the Russians who support the Assad regime (though Russians employed Chechen volunteers of their own), as well as alongside Ukrainian separatists during the Crimean crisis, which is ironic considering they are Orthodox Christians just like their common enemies.

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The separatist movement of Ichkeria (or whatever remains of it) has been rebranded as the "Caucasian Emirate", a jihadist organization with ties North Caucasus insurgency continues to other groups like Taliban, Al-Qaeda and ISIS, this day even after official operations were concluded, but it has been on they were an ever-diminishing presence on the region as the years go by threat and with no ability longer able to threaten the Russian Federation. Federation's territorial integrity like before. It's still very much real problem on a local level in Chechnya as well as Dagestan, though the police forces and local militias are able to handle the insurgent problem. Many Chechens volunteers have joined the [[UsefulNotes/TheArabSpring Syrian Civil War]] to fight on the side of rebel jihadists against the Russians who support the Assad regime supported by the Russians (though Russians employed Chechen volunteers of their own), as well as alongside Ukrainian separatists during the Crimean crisis, which is ironic considering they are Orthodox Christians just like their common enemies.



The North Caucasus insurgency continued for about eight more years from 2009 to 2017, but is more or less dead today. Over the last two decades, Chechnya's standard of living has massively improved- [[https://knoema.com/atlas/Russian-Federation/Chechnya-Republic-of/Life-expectancy-at-birth life expectancy]] is six years higher than it was at the turn of the century (and above the Russian average), its GDP PPP per capita has [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_federal_subjects_of_Russia_by_GRP#Per_capita more than]] [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_federal_subjects_of_Russia_by_GDP_per_capita tripled]] over the last fifteen years, and the formerly bombed-out capital of Grozny has [[http://discovery-russia.ru/photos/big/0_66607_f2a9248e_orig.jpg been rebuilt]] as a more or less modern city. Unfortunately for Chechnya itself, it still has many issues. While much richer than at any other time in history, Chechnya is still by far the poorest constituent republic of the Russian Federation (at $6,245 GDP PPP per capita in 2018, it's about on par with mid-tier Sub-Saharan African countries like Nigeria or Angola). Additionally while the republic is an autonomous entity that embraces its Islamic roots as well as being a loyal subject of the Federation, the region has become very repressive under President Ramzan Kadyrov (though nowhere near as much as it was under Ichkeria obviously- no open-air slave markets), who is accused of widespread human right violations such as kidnappings, forced disappearances, torture, extrajudicial killings and the most infamous one of all: an concentration camp for LGBT individuals. This resulted in backlash from Western entities and the USA imposing sanctions on Kadyrov himself, who denied these allegations though he hasn't made himself look better by fiercely antagonizing his critics and stating gays don't exist in Chechnya, "weren't human" and "their families should kill them", as well as voicing support for {{domestic abuse}}, honor killings, polygamy (even though it's illegal in Russia) with any Muslim who speaks out against the practice being [[NoTrueScotsman no true adherent of their faith]], among many controversies.

Even though the possibility of yet another Chechnya War erupting as the ones before seems unlikely with the local insurgency being nowhere near as powerful as it used to be, as well as Putin and Kadyrov enjoying a friendly relationship, the Chechen leader has shown complete disregard for Russian legislature and is implementing what witnesses can only describe as [[FullCircleRevolution sharia law]]. Not only did [[https://www.themoscowtimes.com/2015/04/23/kadyrov-authorizes-his-police-to-shoot-officers-from-other-parts-of-russia-a46061 he authorized his militia]] (which is reported to be more feared and dangerous among Chechen civilians than the separatists themselves) to [[UnfriendlyFire shoot any police officers from other parts of Russia]], he also made bold moves like crossing the border to Ingushetia and [[https://nationalinterest.org/feature/kremlin-cannot-continue-ignore-chaos-chechnya-36497 pressuring its neighbor to surrender 10% of their territory]]. It remains to be seen if the Kremlin will be forced to reassert its authority towards it's unruly subject republic.

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The North Caucasus insurgency continued for about eight more years from 2009 to 2017, but is more or less dead today. Over the last two decades, Chechnya's standard of living has massively improved- [[https://knoema.com/atlas/Russian-Federation/Chechnya-Republic-of/Life-expectancy-at-birth life expectancy]] is six years higher than it was at the turn of the century (and above the Russian average), its GDP PPP per capita has [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_federal_subjects_of_Russia_by_GRP#Per_capita more than]] [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_federal_subjects_of_Russia_by_GDP_per_capita tripled]] over the last fifteen years, and the formerly bombed-out capital of Grozny has [[http://discovery-russia.ru/photos/big/0_66607_f2a9248e_orig.jpg been rebuilt]] as a more or less modern city. Unfortunately for Chechnya itself, it still has many issues. While much richer than at any other time in history, Chechnya is still by far the poorest constituent republic of the Russian Federation (at $6,245 GDP PPP per capita in 2018, it's about on par with mid-tier Sub-Saharan African countries like Nigeria or Angola). Additionally while the republic is an autonomous entity that embraces its Islamic roots as well as being a loyal subject of the Federation,

Furthermore,
the region has become is still considered very dangerous to visit and live not only because of the low-level insurgency and the repressive under regime of President Ramzan Kadyrov (though nowhere near as much as it was under Ichkeria obviously- no open-air slave markets), who is accused of widespread human right violations such as kidnappings, forced disappearances, torture, extrajudicial killings and the most infamous one of all: an concentration camp for LGBT individuals. This resulted in backlash from Western entities and the USA imposing sanctions on Kadyrov himself, who denied these allegations though he hasn't made himself look better by fiercely antagonizing his critics and stating gays don't exist in Chechnya, "weren't human" and "their families should kill them", as well as voicing support for {{domestic abuse}}, honor killings, polygamy (even though it's illegal in Russia) with any Muslim who speaks out against the practice being [[NoTrueScotsman no true adherent of their faith]], among many controversies.

Even though the possibility of yet another Chechnya War erupting as the ones before seems unlikely with the local insurgency being nowhere near as powerful as it used to be, as well as Putin and Kadyrov enjoying a friendly relationship, the Chechen leader has shown complete disregard for Russian legislature and is implementing what witnesses can only describe as [[FullCircleRevolution sharia law]]. Not only did [[https://www.themoscowtimes.com/2015/04/23/kadyrov-authorizes-his-police-to-shoot-officers-from-other-parts-of-russia-a46061 he authorized his militia]] (which is reported to be more feared and dangerous among Chechen civilians than the separatists themselves) to [[UnfriendlyFire shoot any police officers from other parts of Russia]], he also made bold moves like crossing the border to Ingushetia and [[https://nationalinterest.org/feature/kremlin-cannot-continue-ignore-chaos-chechnya-36497 pressuring its neighbor to surrender 10% of their territory]]. It remains to be seen if the Kremlin will continue to turn an blind eye to appease it's unruly subject republic in the name of peace or be forced to reassert its authority towards it's unruly subject republic.Chechnya once again.


!Works set in this conflict

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!Works set in that depict/reference this conflict


* One episode of ''Series/SevenDays'' takes place during this period as Parker and Olga head into Chechnya to rescue a kidnapped [[DesignerBabies test tube baby]] from a Chechen militia that wants to raise the child to be their future leader. Russian officials grant them access into the region but warn them the bombing campaign is about to step up soon.

to:

* One episode of ''Series/SevenDays'' takes place during this period as Parker and Olga head into Chechnya to rescue a kidnapped [[DesignerBabies test tube baby]] from a Chechen militia that wants to raise the child to be their future leader. Russian officials grant them access into the region but warn them the bombing campaign is about to step up soon.soon.
* ''VideoGame/CallOfDutyModernWarfare2019'' heavily [[RippedFromTheHeadlines references the conflict]] alongside the Syrian Civil War. Rather than Chechnya, the game largely takes place in Urzikstan which is also located in the Caucasus, was invaded by Russia in the 90s and features clashing between secular nationalists and Islamists. Furthermore, Urzikstan's flag closely resembles the Republic of Ichkeria's.


* ''Film/TheSearch'' received an remake of the same name in 2014 which follows the same premise but it's [[SettingUpdate set during]] the Chechen conflict with, replacing the original protagonists (an American soldier and a German boy) with a French NGO worker and a Chechen boy, respectively.

to:

* ''Film/TheSearch'' received an remake of the same name in 2014 which follows the same premise but it's [[SettingUpdate set during]] the Chechen conflict with, replacing the original protagonists (an American soldier and a German boy) with a French NGO worker and a Chechen boy, respectively.respectively.
* One episode of ''Series/SevenDays'' takes place during this period as Parker and Olga head into Chechnya to rescue a kidnapped [[DesignerBabies test tube baby]] from a Chechen militia that wants to raise the child to be their future leader. Russian officials grant them access into the region but warn them the bombing campaign is about to step up soon.


Unfortunately for Chechnya itself, things haven't improved much since the end of the war. While the republic is an autonomous entity that embraces its Islamic roots as well as being a loyal subject of the Federation, the region has become very repressive under President Ramzan Kadyrov, who is accused of widespread human right violations such as kidnappings, forced disappearances, torture, extrajudicial killings and the most infamous one of all: an concentration camp for LGBT individuals. This resulted in backlash from Western entities and the USA imposing sanctions on Kadyrov himself, who denied these allegations though he hasn't made himself look better by fiercely antagonizing his critics and stating gays don't exist in Chechnya, "weren't human" and "their families should kill them", as well as voicing support for {{domestic abuse}}, honor killings, polygamy (even though it's illegal in Russia) with any Muslim who speaks out against the practice being [[NoTrueScotsman no true adherent of their faith]], among many controversies.

Even though the possibility of yet another Chechnya War erupting as the ones before seems unlikely with the local insurgency being nowhere near as powerful as it used to be, as well as Putin and Kadyrov enjoying a friendly relationship, the Chechen leader has shown complete disregard for Russian legislature and is implementing what witnesses can only describe as [[FullCircleRevolution sharia law]]. Not only did he authorized his militia (which is reported to be more feared and dangerous among Chechen civilians than the separatists themselves) to [[UnfriendlyFire shoot any police officers from other parts of Russia]], he also made bold moves like crossing the border to Ingushetia and [[https://nationalinterest.org/feature/kremlin-cannot-continue-ignore-chaos-chechnya-36497 pressuring its neighbor to surrender 10% of their territory]]. It remains to be seen if the Kremlin will be forced to reassert its authority towards it's unruly subject republic.

to:

The North Caucasus insurgency continued for about eight more years from 2009 to 2017, but is more or less dead today. Over the last two decades, Chechnya's standard of living has massively improved- [[https://knoema.com/atlas/Russian-Federation/Chechnya-Republic-of/Life-expectancy-at-birth life expectancy]] is six years higher than it was at the turn of the century (and above the Russian average), its GDP PPP per capita has [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_federal_subjects_of_Russia_by_GRP#Per_capita more than]] [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_federal_subjects_of_Russia_by_GDP_per_capita tripled]] over the last fifteen years, and the formerly bombed-out capital of Grozny has [[http://discovery-russia.ru/photos/big/0_66607_f2a9248e_orig.jpg been rebuilt]] as a more or less modern city. Unfortunately for Chechnya itself, things haven't improved it still has many issues. While much since richer than at any other time in history, Chechnya is still by far the end poorest constituent republic of the war. While Russian Federation (at $6,245 GDP PPP per capita in 2018, it's about on par with mid-tier Sub-Saharan African countries like Nigeria or Angola). Additionally while the republic is an autonomous entity that embraces its Islamic roots as well as being a loyal subject of the Federation, the region has become very repressive under President Ramzan Kadyrov, Kadyrov (though nowhere near as much as it was under Ichkeria obviously- no open-air slave markets), who is accused of widespread human right violations such as kidnappings, forced disappearances, torture, extrajudicial killings and the most infamous one of all: an concentration camp for LGBT individuals. This resulted in backlash from Western entities and the USA imposing sanctions on Kadyrov himself, who denied these allegations though he hasn't made himself look better by fiercely antagonizing his critics and stating gays don't exist in Chechnya, "weren't human" and "their families should kill them", as well as voicing support for {{domestic abuse}}, honor killings, polygamy (even though it's illegal in Russia) with any Muslim who speaks out against the practice being [[NoTrueScotsman no true adherent of their faith]], among many controversies.

Even though the possibility of yet another Chechnya War erupting as the ones before seems unlikely with the local insurgency being nowhere near as powerful as it used to be, as well as Putin and Kadyrov enjoying a friendly relationship, the Chechen leader has shown complete disregard for Russian legislature and is implementing what witnesses can only describe as [[FullCircleRevolution sharia law]]. Not only did [[https://www.themoscowtimes.com/2015/04/23/kadyrov-authorizes-his-police-to-shoot-officers-from-other-parts-of-russia-a46061 he authorized his militia militia]] (which is reported to be more feared and dangerous among Chechen civilians than the separatists themselves) to [[UnfriendlyFire shoot any police officers from other parts of Russia]], he also made bold moves like crossing the border to Ingushetia and [[https://nationalinterest.org/feature/kremlin-cannot-continue-ignore-chaos-chechnya-36497 pressuring its neighbor to surrender 10% of their territory]]. It remains to be seen if the Kremlin will be forced to reassert its authority towards it's unruly subject republic.


Chechnya is located into the Northern Caucasus, a mountainous region bordered between Europe and Asia whose peoples are predominantly Muslim, having adopted UsefulNotes/{{Islam}} as their religion in contrast to their {{UsefulNotes/Orthodox Christian|ity}} neighbors in UsefulNotes/{{Georgia|Europe}}, UsefulNotes/{{Armenia}} and more importantly, the [[UsefulNotes/TsaristRussia Tsardom of Russia]]. In the late 18th Century, the Russians would begin an expansion into the region under UsefulNotes/CatherineTheGreat, though the campaign would be very long going through three Tsars and facing several enemies like the Circassians and the [[TheTheocracy Caucasian Imamate]] governed by Imam Shamil before the Caucasus fell into their control in 1864.

By the early 20th Century as the [[UsefulNotes/RedOctober Russian Revolution]] was underway, the Chechens found an opportunity to break away with a good portion of other Caucasian nations like Dagestan and Ingushetia to form their independent republics. When the USSR emerged as the victors with UsefulNotes/JosefStalin in charge, they were brought into heel as satellite Communist republics. The Chechens would prove their stubbornness is not easily curbed and when the Nazis invaded the Soviet Union during UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, they [[EnemyMine threw their lot with them]] against the "Red Imperialists", seeing the Nazis as their "liberators". Unfortunately for them, the Nazis were routed and when the Russians regained control of the Northern Caucasus region, Stalin ordered the entire Chechen and Ingusheti populations to be displaced by the [[SecretPolice NKVD]] on grounds of being [[TheQuisling collaborators to the Nazis]]. This was known as [[ThePurge Operation Lentil]], which saw hundreds of thousands being relocated to UsefulNotes/{{Kazakhstan}} with up to a third of their population dying off in death marches due to exposure to the inhospitable Kazakh areas, and in return Russians would resettle the abandoned region as per Soviet policy.

It wouldn't be until the 50s when UsefulNotes/NikitaKhrushchev took power that [[PetTheDog he permitted them to return to their homeland]]. Decades passed and as the Soviet Union weakened, the Chechens were clamoring to gain their independence from it, with General Dzhokar Dudayev [[DestinationDefenestration literally throwing out]] the Soviet administrators in 1991 and being elected the first President of Chechnya - curiously, it was one of the first republics to declare independence before the USSR disintegrated. However, by the time the Union fell and it was split into several different countries, Chechnya wasn't recognized and instead was officially part of the Russian Federation. The Chechens still considered themselves independent, and due to the persecution[[note]]Aka [[ANaziByAnyOtherName ethnic cleansing]][[/note]] of non-Chechen minorities within the region and the oil fields being integral for Russia's infrastructure, the Russian President UsefulNotes/BorisYeltsin began to prioritize the Chechen problem. After attempts to oust Dudayev by peaceful means or otherwise, the Russian administration formally declared an invasion to put down the separatist movement.

to:

Chechnya is located into the Northern Caucasus, a mountainous region bordered between Europe and Asia whose peoples are predominantly Muslim, having adopted UsefulNotes/{{Islam}} as their religion in contrast to their {{UsefulNotes/Orthodox Christian|ity}} neighbors in UsefulNotes/{{Georgia|Europe}}, UsefulNotes/{{Armenia}} and more importantly, the [[UsefulNotes/TsaristRussia Tsardom of Russia]]. In the late 18th Century, the Russians would begin an expansion into the region under UsefulNotes/CatherineTheGreat, though the campaign would be very long going through three Tsars and facing several enemies like the Circassians and before being concluded in 1864 when they defeated the [[TheTheocracy Caucasian Imamate]] governed by Imam Shamil before the Caucasus fell into their control in 1864.

Shamil. By the early 20th Century as the [[UsefulNotes/RedOctober Russian Revolution]] was underway, the Chechens found an opportunity to break away with a good portion of other Caucasian nations like Dagestan and Ingushetia to form their independent republics. states.

When the USSR emerged as the victors with UsefulNotes/JosefStalin in charge, they were brought into heel as satellite Communist republics. The Chechens would prove their stubbornness is not easily curbed and when the Nazis invaded the Soviet Union during UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, they [[EnemyMine threw their lot with them]] against the "Red Imperialists", seeing the Nazis as their "liberators". Unfortunately for them, the Nazis were routed and when the Russians regained control of the Northern Caucasus region, Stalin ordered the entire Chechen and Ingusheti populations to be displaced by the [[SecretPolice NKVD]] on grounds of being [[TheQuisling collaborators to the Nazis]]. This was known as [[ThePurge Operation Lentil]], which saw hundreds of thousands being relocated to UsefulNotes/{{Kazakhstan}} with up to a third of their population dying off in death marches due to exposure to the inhospitable Kazakh areas, and in return Russians would resettle the abandoned region as per Soviet policy.

It wouldn't be until the 50s when UsefulNotes/NikitaKhrushchev took power that [[PetTheDog he permitted them to return to their homeland]]. Decades passed and as the Soviet Union weakened, the Chechens were clamoring to gain their independence from it, with General Dzhokar Dudayev [[DestinationDefenestration literally throwing out]] the Soviet administrators in 1991 and being elected the first President of Chechnya - curiously, it was one of the first republics to declare independence before the USSR disintegrated. However, by the time the Union fell and it was split into several different countries, Chechnya wasn't recognized and instead was officially part of the Russian Federation. The Chechens still considered themselves independent, and due to the persecution[[note]]Aka [[ANaziByAnyOtherName ethnic cleansing]][[/note]] of non-Chechen minorities within the region and the oil fields being integral for Russia's infrastructure, the Russian President UsefulNotes/BorisYeltsin began to prioritize the Chechen problem. After attempts At firs, he began arming Chechens sympathetic to oust Dudayev by peaceful means or otherwise, Moscow using the criminal network that took hold of the urban areas, but then he sent Russian administration conscripts disguised as Chechens to stage a coup. The attempt failed miserably with Yeltsin being humiliated when the conscripts were exposed in national television by Dudayev. As such, he mobilized the federal troops and formally declared an invasion to put down the separatist movement.
of Chechenya.



The Chechens had finally achieved the dream of independence, or rather, the ''[[PyrrhicVictory nightmare]]'' of independence. The war was nothing short of devastating for their country; whereas their original infrastructure was merely fragile, it became non-existent after the conflict, as they relied on the mafia and criminals smuggling goods into their territory thanks to Dudayev. Maskhadov promised the Chechens peace, but he could do no more than that, since their nation were all by themselves and no other nation recognized Chechnya due to their quasi-independence. Without an enemy to fight, the army began to splinter and field commanders became warlords who oversaw criminal activities like kidnapping across the border which proved highly profitable in order to replace the devastated infrastructure.

Religious extremism became very rife within the republic: Chechens were a majorly Sufi Muslims motivated by [[PatrioticFervor nationalism]], but began converting to [[TheFundamentalist radical Wahhabism]] thanks to al-Qaeda's influence. A [[AHouseDivided schism took place]] between the secular nationalists such as Maskhadov and Kadyrov who tried to curb fundamentalism, and Islamists like Basayev who promoted it to advance their personal power as Chechnya deteriorated into lawlessness. Eventually, the secular Maskhadov was strong-armed into applying ''sharia'' law by the warlords against the Chechens people's will and his own.

to:

The Chechens had finally achieved the dream of independence, or rather, the ''[[PyrrhicVictory nightmare]]'' of independence. The war was nothing short of devastating for their country; whereas newly independent country, on top of it being unrecognized by no one else in the international community except by fellow pariah state UsefulNotes/{{Afghanistan}} controlled by the Taliban. With their original infrastructure was merely fragile, it became non-existent after the conflict, as they relied dependent on the mafia and criminals smuggling goods into their territory thanks to Dudayev. Maskhadov promised the Dudayev, Chechens peace, but he could do no more than that, since their nation were all by themselves and no other nation recognized Chechnya due to their quasi-independence. Without an enemy to fight, the army began turning to splinter raids and field commanders became warlords who oversaw criminal activities like kidnapping across the border which proved highly profitable in order to replace the devastated infrastructure.

Religious extremism became
very rife within the republic: Chechens were a majorly Sufi Muslims motivated by [[PatrioticFervor nationalism]], but began converting to [[TheFundamentalist radical Wahhabism]] thanks to al-Qaeda's influence. profitable.

A [[AHouseDivided schism took place]] between among Chechens, as many began turning to [[TheFundamentalist Wahhabi Islam]] under al-Qaeda influence which clashed with their traditional Sufi values. Of course, there was more than just religious differences: the secular Islamists envisioned to "free the Caucasus from the Russian yoke" and establish a Islamic state, while nationalists were interested in just surviving and knew that such as Maskhadov and Kadyrov who tried to curb fundamentalism, and Islamists aspirations would provoke Russia's wrath once again. They also didn't like Basayev who promoted it to advance the presence of foreigners like Arabs and Afghans co-opting their independence to serve their own personal power as Chechnya deteriorated into lawlessness. Eventually, ''jihad''. Nevertheless, the secular Maskhadov was strong-armed into applying ''sharia'' law by the warlords Islamists against the Chechens people's his own will and the Chechen people at large, as he had lost control of his own.
men who became warlords.



As the warlords grew bolder and bolder with their raids across the border, Shamil Basayev and fellow warlord Ibn al-Khattab invaded the neighboring republic of Dagestan, which was also of Muslim-majority, taking over several villages in hopes of "liberating the entire Caucasus from the Russian yoke". The Russian response was [[CurbStompBattle swift and effective]]: the armed forces alongside Dagestani police officers and partisans outnumbered the terrorists 10 to 1 and now fighting completely out of their element, they were kicked back to Chechnya. The invasion of Dagestan, alongside a series of bombings in Russian territories perpetrated by the Chechens served as ''casus belli'' for the second Chechnya War with Putin declaring that "there is no border with Chechnya".

to:

As With the warlords grew growing bolder and bolder with their raids across the border, Shamil Basayev and fellow warlord Ibn al-Khattab invaded the neighboring republic of Dagestan, which was also of Muslim-majority, taking over several villages in hopes of "liberating the entire Caucasus from the Russian yoke".process. The Russian response was [[CurbStompBattle swift and effective]]: the armed forces alongside Dagestani police officers and partisans outnumbered the terrorists 10 to 1 and now fighting completely out of their element, they were kicked back to Chechnya. The invasion of Dagestan, alongside a series of bombings in Russian territories perpetrated by the Chechens served as ''casus belli'' for the second Chechnya War with Putin declaring that "there is no border with Chechnya".



In order to quell the unrest between the locals and the international community, Putin installed Akhmad Kadyrov (who had defected to the Russians) as the now President of Chechnya in hopes of bringing the Chechens together against the separatists, and he also had [[DystopianEdict a tight hand around the media in order to not show the war's horrors into the open]]. By 2000, the Russians had already pushed out all of the separatists out of Grozny and took control of the most important asset of the war, the people. Though the military phase was over very quickly, the war certainly wasn't as the insurgency phase would take place through most of the decade and see the worst atrocities leaking out of Chechnya and into Russia abroad.

to:

In order to quell the unrest between the locals and the international community, Putin installed Akhmad Kadyrov (who had defected to the Russians) as the now new President of Chechnya in hopes of bringing the Chechens together against the separatists, and he also had [[DystopianEdict a tight hand around the media in order to not show the war's horrors into the open]]. By 2000, the Russians had already pushed out all of the separatists out of Grozny and took control of the most important asset of the war, the people. Though the military phase was over very quickly, the war certainly wasn't as the insurgency phase would take place through most of the decade and see the worst atrocities leaking out of Chechnya and into Russia abroad.



Outbreaks of xenophobia and racism grew as result of the extremist actions: Chechens were regarded in Russia as "bandits" and "terrorists" who were naturally inclined to violence, religious fanaticism and having no morals (nevermind, Chechen civilians were among the biggest casualties) with Islamic terrorists of Russian origin being often labeled "Chechens" even if they were not ethnically such. The Beslan crisis is considered a turning point for the conflict and a particularly shameful moment for Chechens as the international community reacted with revulsion towards the massacre as one spokesman lamented that "Such a bigger blow could not be dealt upon us... People around the world will think that Chechens are monsters if they could attack children". As a result, Chechens became disillusioned with the cause of independence.

to:

Outbreaks of xenophobia and racism grew as result of the extremist actions: Chechens were regarded in Russia as "bandits" and "terrorists" who were naturally inclined to violence, religious fanaticism and having no morals (nevermind, Chechen civilians were among the biggest casualties) with Islamic terrorists of Russian origin being often labeled "Chechens" even if they were not ethnically such. The Beslan crisis is considered a turning point for the conflict and a particularly shameful moment for Chechens as the international community reacted with revulsion towards the massacre as one spokesman lamented that "Such a bigger blow could not be dealt upon us... People around the world will think that Chechens are monsters if they could attack children". As a result, Since then, Chechens became disillusioned with the cause of independence.independence and have largely become part of Russia of their own volition.


In order to quell the unrest between the locals and the international community, Putin installed Akhmad Kadyrov as the now President of Chechnya in hopes of bringing the Chechens together against the separatists, and he also had a tight hand around the media in order to not show the war's horrors into the open. By 2000, the Russians had already pushed out all of the separatists out of Grozny and took control of the most important asset of the war, the people. Though the military phase was over very quickly, the war certainly wasn't as the insurgency phase would take place through most of the decade and see the worst atrocities leaking out of Chechnya and into Russia abroad.

to:

In order to quell the unrest between the locals and the international community, Putin installed Akhmad Kadyrov (who had defected to the Russians) as the now President of Chechnya in hopes of bringing the Chechens together against the separatists, and he also had [[DystopianEdict a tight hand around the media in order to not show the war's horrors into the open.open]]. By 2000, the Russians had already pushed out all of the separatists out of Grozny and took control of the most important asset of the war, the people. Though the military phase was over very quickly, the war certainly wasn't as the insurgency phase would take place through most of the decade and see the worst atrocities leaking out of Chechnya and into Russia abroad.



These atrocities shocked the International community, specially in the aftermath of 9/11 which Putin used to highlight his own fight against Islamic terrorism and gain more support from the West. Though Basayev was the mastermind of these terrorist attacks, he was just one of the several Ichkeria militant leaders that were highly disorganized and had their different agendas, while the pro-Moscow Kadyrov was able to pacify and centralize Chechen into an autonomous republic for the Russian Federation. As such in 2004 saw the apogee of terrorist attacks, when alongside the aforementioned Beslan school siege, a stadium bombing claimed Kadyrov's life alongside 29 people, leaving his son Ranzam as the next President of Chechnya. The next years after 2004 would see the insurgency die down following the deaths of Basayev and Maskhadov putting an end to the dreams of an secular Ichkeria republic, leaving now the terrorists aimless except for lashing out against the rest. Very slowly, the responsibility of fighting separatists would be slowly transferred from federal forces to Kadyrov's militia, and billions were spent in order to reconstruct Grozny. The anti-terrorist operations would officially end in 2009.


to:

These atrocities shocked the International community, specially in the aftermath of 9/11 which Putin used to highlight his own fight against Islamic terrorism and gain more support from the West. Though Basayev was the mastermind of these terrorist attacks, he was just [[DividedWeFall one of the several Ichkeria militant leaders that were highly disorganized and had their different agendas, agendas]], while the pro-Moscow Kadyrov was able to pacify and centralize Chechen into an autonomous republic for the Russian Federation. As such in 2004 saw the apogee of terrorist attacks, when alongside the aforementioned Beslan school siege, a stadium bombing claimed Kadyrov's life alongside 29 people, leaving his son Ranzam as the next President of Chechnya. The next years after 2004 would see the insurgency die down following the deaths of Basayev and Maskhadov putting an end to the dreams of an secular Ichkeria republic, leaving now which was reorganized into the terrorists aimless except for lashing out against the rest.jihadist faction Caucasian Emirate by his successors. Very slowly, the responsibility of fighting separatists would be slowly transferred from federal forces to Kadyrov's militia, and billions were spent in order to reconstruct Grozny. The anti-terrorist operations would officially end in 2009.




The war proved to be integral in solidifying Putin's leadership and popularity for the Russian people. By rallying under a common threat, they were reunited after Yeltsin's disastrous mishandling of the conflict. However, the conflict contributed to deep changes in Russia's politics and society with a some Western commentators lamenting that the wars killed Russia's fledging democracy in its cradle by handing it over to a strong-handed ruler. Former KGB agent Alexander Litvinenko was notorious for accusing Putin of among many things, [[FalseFlagOperation orchestrating the apartment bombings as an excuse to justify a war against the Chechens]] and transform Russia into an mafia state. The fact that none of the Chechen separatists ever took credit for these bombings [[note]]Specially Basayev who lead the invasion into Dagestan that also served as ''causus belli'' for the second conflict and took credit for several terrorist attacks consistently denied having ordered those bombings [[/note]] and Litvinenko's death by poisoning in 2006 under mysterious circumstances led to several theories about Russia's involvement in provoking the war.

Outbreaks of xenophobia and racism grew as result of the extremist actions: Chechens were regarded in Russia as "bandits" and "terrorists" who were naturally inclined to violence, religious fanaticism and having no morals (nevermind, Chechen civilians were among the biggest casualties) with Islamic terrorists of Russian origin being labeled "Chechens" even if they were not ethnically such. The Beslan crisis is considered a turning point for the conflict and a particularly shameful moment for Chechens as the international community reacted with revulsion towards the massacre as one spokesman lamented that "Such a bigger blow could not be dealt upon us... People around the world will think that Chechens are monsters if they could attack children". As a result, Chechens became disillusioned with the cause of independence.

to:

The war proved to be integral in solidifying Putin's leadership and popularity for the Russian people. By rallying under a common threat, they were reunited after Yeltsin's disastrous mishandling of the conflict. However, the conflict contributed to deep changes in Russia's politics and society with a some Western commentators lamenting that the wars killed Russia's fledging democracy in its cradle by handing it over to a strong-handed ruler. Former KGB agent Alexander Litvinenko was notorious for accusing Putin of among many things, [[FalseFlagOperation orchestrating the apartment bombings as an excuse to justify a war against the Chechens]] and transform Russia into an mafia state. The fact that none of the Chechen separatists ever took credit for these bombings [[note]]Specially Basayev who lead the invasion into Dagestan that also served as ''causus belli'' lynchpin for the second conflict and took credit for several terrorist attacks consistently denied having ordered those specific bombings [[/note]] and Litvinenko's death by poisoning in 2006 under mysterious circumstances led to several theories about Russia's involvement in provoking the war.

Outbreaks of xenophobia and racism grew as result of the extremist actions: Chechens were regarded in Russia as "bandits" and "terrorists" who were naturally inclined to violence, religious fanaticism and having no morals (nevermind, Chechen civilians were among the biggest casualties) with Islamic terrorists of Russian origin being often labeled "Chechens" even if they were not ethnically such. The Beslan crisis is considered a turning point for the conflict and a particularly shameful moment for Chechens as the international community reacted with revulsion towards the massacre as one spokesman lamented that "Such a bigger blow could not be dealt upon us... People around the world will think that Chechens are monsters if they could attack children". As a result, Chechens became disillusioned with the cause of independence.


Religious extremism became very rife within the republic: Chechens were a majorly Sufi Muslims motivated by [[PatrioticFervor nationalism]], but began converting to [[TheFundamentalist radical Wahhabism]] thanks to al-Qaeda's influence. A [[AHouseDivided schism took place]] between the secular nationalists such as Maskhadov and Kadyrov who tried to curb fundamentalism, and Islamists like Basayev who promoted it to advance their personal power as Chechnya deteriorated into lawlessness.

to:

Religious extremism became very rife within the republic: Chechens were a majorly Sufi Muslims motivated by [[PatrioticFervor nationalism]], but began converting to [[TheFundamentalist radical Wahhabism]] thanks to al-Qaeda's influence. A [[AHouseDivided schism took place]] between the secular nationalists such as Maskhadov and Kadyrov who tried to curb fundamentalism, and Islamists like Basayev who promoted it to advance their personal power as Chechnya deteriorated into lawlessness.
lawlessness. Eventually, the secular Maskhadov was strong-armed into applying ''sharia'' law by the warlords against the Chechens people's will and his own.



Outbreaks of xenophobia and racism grew as result of the extremist actions, nevermind Chechen civilians were the biggest casualties. Chechens in particular were associated with "bandits" and "terrorists" who were naturally inclined to violence, religious fanaticism and having no morals than "obeying the warlord" with Islamic terrorists of Russian origin being labeled as "Chechens" even if they were not ethnically Chechens. The Beslan crisis is considered a turning point and particularly shameful moment for Chechens as the international community reacted with revulsion towards the massacre as one spokesman lamented that "Such a bigger blow could not be dealt upon us...People around the world will think that Chechens are monsters if they could attack children".

to:

Outbreaks of xenophobia and racism grew as result of the extremist actions, nevermind Chechen civilians were the biggest casualties. actions: Chechens in particular were associated with regarded in Russia as "bandits" and "terrorists" who were naturally inclined to violence, religious fanaticism and having no morals than "obeying (nevermind, Chechen civilians were among the warlord" biggest casualties) with Islamic terrorists of Russian origin being labeled as "Chechens" even if they were not ethnically Chechens. such. The Beslan crisis is considered a turning point for the conflict and a particularly shameful moment for Chechens as the international community reacted with revulsion towards the massacre as one spokesman lamented that "Such a bigger blow could not be dealt upon us...us... People around the world will think that Chechens are monsters if they could attack children".children". As a result, Chechens became disillusioned with the cause of independence.

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