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With a reputation comparable to UsefulNotes/GeorgeWashington in South America, Bolivar is beloved throughout the region as the man who freed them from Spain, affectionately nicknamed ''[[FounderOfTheKingdom El Libertador]]'' ("[[TheMagnificent the Liberator]]"). There are [[OurFounder statues of him]] in just about every city in the area he helped free (and in London, which immensely appreciated Venezuela's favour during the time, being the only European country they liked). As mentioned earlier, Bolivia is named after him (as is Venezuela, now, technically), making him one of the few people in history to have the honor of being a country's namesake and the only person to be still alive when the naming took place.[[note]]Cecil Rhodes was alive when Rhodesia was named, but it was a British territory, and he died before it became an independent country[[/note]] There is a square named after him in every city of Venezuela, and the largest state in the country and its capital city (formerly known as Angostura[[note]]Yes, as in the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angostura_bitters aromatic bitters]], which were invented around 1820 in the city by Dr. Johann Gottlieb Siegert, the surgeon-general of Bolívar's army, as a medicinal digestive aid for the troops. However, the unstable politics of Venezuela in the later 19th century led the Siegert family to decamp to the stability of British-controlled Trinidad, where the House of Angostura is based to this day.[[/note]]) also bear his name. Colombia has also named one of its departments after him, namely the one containing Cartagena (the country's major port on the Caribbean, was involved in several of Bolívar's famous campaigns).

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With a reputation in South America only comparable to UsefulNotes/GeorgeWashington in South America, the United States, Bolivar is beloved throughout the region as the man who freed them from Spain, affectionately nicknamed ''[[FounderOfTheKingdom El Libertador]]'' ("[[TheMagnificent the Liberator]]"). There are [[OurFounder statues of him]] in just about every city in the area he helped free (and in London, which immensely appreciated Venezuela's favour during the time, being the only European country they liked). As mentioned earlier, Bolivia is named after him (as is Venezuela, now, technically), making him one of the few people in history to have the honor of being a country's namesake and the only person to be still alive when the naming took place.[[note]]Cecil Rhodes was alive when Rhodesia was named, but it was a British territory, and he died before it became an independent country[[/note]] There is a square named after him in every city of Venezuela, and the largest state in the country and its capital city (formerly known as Angostura[[note]]Yes, as in the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angostura_bitters aromatic bitters]], which were invented around 1820 in the city by Dr. Johann Gottlieb Siegert, the surgeon-general of Bolívar's army, as a medicinal digestive aid for the troops. However, the unstable politics of Venezuela in the later 19th century led the Siegert family to decamp to the stability of British-controlled Trinidad, where the House of Angostura is based to this day.[[/note]]) also bear his name. Colombia has also named one of its departments after him, namely the one containing Cartagena (the country's major port on the Caribbean, was involved in several of Bolívar's famous campaigns).


With a reputation comparable to UsefulNotes/GeorgeWashington, Bolivar is beloved throughout much of South America, where he is widely revered as ''[[FounderOfTheKingdom El Libertador]]'' ("[[TheMagnificent the Liberator]]"). There are [[OurFounder statues of him]] in just about every city in the area he helped free (and in London, which immensely appreciated Venezuela's favour during the time, being the only European country they liked). As mentioned earlier, Bolivia is named after him (as is Venezuela, now, technically), making him one of the few people in history to have the honor of being a country's namesake and the only person to be still alive when the naming took place.[[note]]Cecil Rhodes was alive when Rhodesia was named, but it was a British territory, and he died before it became an independent country[[/note]] There is a square named after him in every city of Venezuela, and the largest state in the country and its capital city (formerly known as Angostura[[note]]Yes, as in the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angostura_bitters aromatic bitters]], which were invented around 1820 in the city by Dr. Johann Gottlieb Siegert, the surgeon-general of Bolívar's army, as a medicinal digestive aid for the troops. However, the unstable politics of Venezuela in the later 19th century led the Siegert family to decamp to the stability of British-controlled Trinidad, where the House of Angostura is based to this day.[[/note]]) also bear his name. Colombia has also named one of its departments after him, namely the one containing Cartagena (the country's major port on the Caribbean, was involved in several of Bolívar's famous campaigns).

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With a reputation comparable to UsefulNotes/GeorgeWashington, UsefulNotes/GeorgeWashington in South America, Bolivar is beloved throughout much of South America, where he is widely revered the region as the man who freed them from Spain, affectionately nicknamed ''[[FounderOfTheKingdom El Libertador]]'' ("[[TheMagnificent the Liberator]]"). There are [[OurFounder statues of him]] in just about every city in the area he helped free (and in London, which immensely appreciated Venezuela's favour during the time, being the only European country they liked). As mentioned earlier, Bolivia is named after him (as is Venezuela, now, technically), making him one of the few people in history to have the honor of being a country's namesake and the only person to be still alive when the naming took place.[[note]]Cecil Rhodes was alive when Rhodesia was named, but it was a British territory, and he died before it became an independent country[[/note]] There is a square named after him in every city of Venezuela, and the largest state in the country and its capital city (formerly known as Angostura[[note]]Yes, as in the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angostura_bitters aromatic bitters]], which were invented around 1820 in the city by Dr. Johann Gottlieb Siegert, the surgeon-general of Bolívar's army, as a medicinal digestive aid for the troops. However, the unstable politics of Venezuela in the later 19th century led the Siegert family to decamp to the stability of British-controlled Trinidad, where the House of Angostura is based to this day.[[/note]]) also bear his name. Colombia has also named one of its departments after him, namely the one containing Cartagena (the country's major port on the Caribbean, was involved in several of Bolívar's famous campaigns).


UsefulNotes/HugoChavez believed that he was assassinated by traitors and had scientists dig up his remains and test him for arsenic poisoning. While they said it ''might'' have been possible that he had some traces of arsenic, there's little chance that he was poisoned.

He's pretty beloved throughout much of South America, where he is widely known as ''[[FounderOfTheKingdom El Libertador]]'' ("[[TheMagnificent the Liberator]]"). There are [[OurFounder statues of him]] in just about every city in the area he helped free (and in London, which immensely appreciated Venezuela's favour during the time, being the only European country they liked). As mentioned earlier, Bolivia is named after him (as is Venezuela, now, technically), making him one of the few people in history to have the honor of being a country's namesake and the only person to be still alive when the naming took place.[[note]]Cecil Rhodes was alive when Rhodesia was named, but it was a British territory, and he died before it became an independent country[[/note]] There is a square named after him in every city of Venezuela, and the largest state in the country and its capital city (formerly known as Angostura[[note]]Yes, as in the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angostura_bitters aromatic bitters]], which were invented around 1820 in the city by Dr. Johann Gottlieb Siegert, the surgeon-general of Bolívar's army, as a medicinal digestive aid for the troops. However, the unstable politics of Venezuela in the later 19th century led the Siegert family to decamp to the stability of British-controlled Trinidad, where the House of Angostura is based to this day.[[/note]]) also bear his name. Colombia has also named one of its departments after him, namely the one containing Cartagena (the country's major port on the Caribbean, was involved in several of Bolívar's famous campaigns).

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UsefulNotes/HugoChavez constantly venerated Bolivar as his personal hero and believed that he was assassinated by traitors and traitors. Chavez had scientists dig up his remains and test him for arsenic poisoning. While they said it ''might'' have been possible that he had some traces of arsenic, there's little chance that he was poisoned.

He's pretty
poisoned. Chavez comparing himself with Bolivar constantly did nothing to tarnish his reputation among the anti-Chavez opposition and Venezuelan exiles, who still hold Bolivar in extremely high regard.

With a reputation comparable to UsefulNotes/GeorgeWashington, Bolivar is
beloved throughout much of South America, where he is widely known revered as ''[[FounderOfTheKingdom El Libertador]]'' ("[[TheMagnificent the Liberator]]"). There are [[OurFounder statues of him]] in just about every city in the area he helped free (and in London, which immensely appreciated Venezuela's favour during the time, being the only European country they liked). As mentioned earlier, Bolivia is named after him (as is Venezuela, now, technically), making him one of the few people in history to have the honor of being a country's namesake and the only person to be still alive when the naming took place.[[note]]Cecil Rhodes was alive when Rhodesia was named, but it was a British territory, and he died before it became an independent country[[/note]] There is a square named after him in every city of Venezuela, and the largest state in the country and its capital city (formerly known as Angostura[[note]]Yes, as in the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angostura_bitters aromatic bitters]], which were invented around 1820 in the city by Dr. Johann Gottlieb Siegert, the surgeon-general of Bolívar's army, as a medicinal digestive aid for the troops. However, the unstable politics of Venezuela in the later 19th century led the Siegert family to decamp to the stability of British-controlled Trinidad, where the House of Angostura is based to this day.[[/note]]) also bear his name. Colombia has also named one of its departments after him, namely the one containing Cartagena (the country's major port on the Caribbean, was involved in several of Bolívar's famous campaigns).


He's pretty beloved throughout much of South America, where he is widely known as ''[[FounderOfTheKingdom El Libertador]]'' ("[[TheMagnificent the Liberator]]"). There are [[OurFounder statues of him]] in just about every city in the area he helped free (and in London, which immensely appreciated Venezuela's favour during the time, being the only European country they liked). As mentioned earlier, Bolivia is named after him (as is Venezuela, now, technically), making him one of the few people in history to have the honor of being a country's namesake and the only person to be still alive when the naming took place.[[note]]Cecil Rhodes was alive when Rhodesia was named, but it was a British territory, and he died before it became an independent country[[/note]] There is a square named after him in every city of Venezuela, and the largest state in the country and its capital city (formerly known as Angostura[[note]]Yes, as in the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angostura_bitters aromatic bitters]], which were invented around 1820 in the city by the German surgeon-general of Bolívar's army as a medicinal digestive aid for the troops. However, the unstable political situation in the later 19th century led the manufacturer to decamp to the stability of British-controlled Trinidad, where the House of Angostura is based to this day.[[/note]]) also bear his name. Colombia has also named one of its departments after him, namely the one containing Cartagena (the country's major port on the Caribbean, was involved in several of Bolívar's famous campaigns).

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He's pretty beloved throughout much of South America, where he is widely known as ''[[FounderOfTheKingdom El Libertador]]'' ("[[TheMagnificent the Liberator]]"). There are [[OurFounder statues of him]] in just about every city in the area he helped free (and in London, which immensely appreciated Venezuela's favour during the time, being the only European country they liked). As mentioned earlier, Bolivia is named after him (as is Venezuela, now, technically), making him one of the few people in history to have the honor of being a country's namesake and the only person to be still alive when the naming took place.[[note]]Cecil Rhodes was alive when Rhodesia was named, but it was a British territory, and he died before it became an independent country[[/note]] There is a square named after him in every city of Venezuela, and the largest state in the country and its capital city (formerly known as Angostura[[note]]Yes, as in the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angostura_bitters aromatic bitters]], which were invented around 1820 in the city by Dr. Johann Gottlieb Siegert, the German surgeon-general of Bolívar's army army, as a medicinal digestive aid for the troops. However, the unstable political situation politics of Venezuela in the later 19th century led the manufacturer Siegert family to decamp to the stability of British-controlled Trinidad, where the House of Angostura is based to this day.[[/note]]) also bear his name. Colombia has also named one of its departments after him, namely the one containing Cartagena (the country's major port on the Caribbean, was involved in several of Bolívar's famous campaigns).


He's pretty beloved throughout much of South America, where he is widely known as ''[[FounderOfTheKingdom El Libertador]]'' ("[[TheMagnificent the Liberator]]"). There are [[OurFounder statues of him]] in just about every city in the area he helped free (and in London, which immensely appreciated Venezuela's favour during the time, being the only European country they liked). As mentioned earlier, Bolivia is named after him (as is Venezuela, now, technically), making him one of the few people in history to have the honor of being a country's namesake and the only person to be still alive when the naming took place.[[note]]Cecil Rhodes was alive when Rhodesia was named, but it was a British territory, and he died before it became an independent country[[/note]] There is a square named after him in every city of Venezuela, and the largest state in the country and its capital city (formerly known as Angostura) also bear his name. Colombia has also named one of its departments after him, namely the one containing Cartagena (the country's major port on the Caribbean, was involved in several of Bolívar's famous campaigns).

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He's pretty beloved throughout much of South America, where he is widely known as ''[[FounderOfTheKingdom El Libertador]]'' ("[[TheMagnificent the Liberator]]"). There are [[OurFounder statues of him]] in just about every city in the area he helped free (and in London, which immensely appreciated Venezuela's favour during the time, being the only European country they liked). As mentioned earlier, Bolivia is named after him (as is Venezuela, now, technically), making him one of the few people in history to have the honor of being a country's namesake and the only person to be still alive when the naming took place.[[note]]Cecil Rhodes was alive when Rhodesia was named, but it was a British territory, and he died before it became an independent country[[/note]] There is a square named after him in every city of Venezuela, and the largest state in the country and its capital city (formerly known as Angostura) Angostura[[note]]Yes, as in the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angostura_bitters aromatic bitters]], which were invented around 1820 in the city by the German surgeon-general of Bolívar's army as a medicinal digestive aid for the troops. However, the unstable political situation in the later 19th century led the manufacturer to decamp to the stability of British-controlled Trinidad, where the House of Angostura is based to this day.[[/note]]) also bear his name. Colombia has also named one of its departments after him, namely the one containing Cartagena (the country's major port on the Caribbean, was involved in several of Bolívar's famous campaigns).



* The french play Montserrat, by Emmanuel Roblès, is about a young Spanish officer betraying his country and giving Bolivar information due to the atrocities committed by Spain in Venezuela.

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* The french French play Montserrat, ''Montserrat'', by Emmanuel Roblès, is about a young Spanish officer betraying his country and giving Bolivar information due to the atrocities committed by Spain in Venezuela.


The new country, spread over a wide area and separated by geographical features like the Andes Mountains, was held together very loosely during Bolívar's lifetime, and it fell apart not long after he died. Some people would be surprised by how ahead of his time Bolívar was on some issues. Most prominently, he was a fairly early supporter of the abolition of slavery in Spanish-speaking South America, even though he came from a slaveholder family (compared to, say, UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson). Most of his reasons were political, though, as promising the end of slavery would bring the large African-descended population of Venezuela to his side, as well as guaranteeing useful support from UsefulNotes/{{Haiti}};[[note]]In two of his several periods of exile, Bolívar took refuge in Haiti. His hosts agreed to support his struggle with arms, ships, and money if he promised to fight for the abolition of slavery in the lands he freed. [[IGaveMyWord He kept his word]].[[/note]]) he was still very much a ''criollo'' of his time in terms of race, spousing in private some less pleasant post-Enlightenment views on black and indigenous people that tend to be decorously swept aside in most portrayals on him.[[note]]Bolívar did try to gain the support of some black and indigenous communities, as those were often in the Royalist side of the war (and he had himself a black nanny, Hipólita, whom he very much loved), but he was very convinced that only whites were capable to govern. In his private letters, he derided the other races as inherently brutish and untrustworthy, which he would later conclude (such as in the famous "plowing the sea" letter) this to be the very reason why the revolution he desired for the Americas ultimately failed. He also flirted with literal genocide to make an example, such as that of the Pastuso people, though this was less by racial troubles and more because the city of Pasto was stubbornly Royalist and a constant thorn in his side during his final campaign to liberate Ecuador.[[/note]] That said, after he returned to Venezuela on a Haitian ship and armed with Haitian guns, he did free all of his slaves the minute he could get to the estate where most of these slaves lived. Bolívar also annoyed his fellow rich ''criollo'' by his insistence that some kind of slave liberation--however gradual--be written into the constitutions of every country he freed from Spanish rule (after the aforementioned stop in Haiti, that is). He also believed that the role of a government was only to protect the rights of its citizens.

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The new country, spread over a wide area and separated by geographical features like the Andes Mountains, was held together very loosely during Bolívar's lifetime, and it fell apart not long after he died. Some people would be surprised by how ahead of his time Bolívar was on some issues. Most prominently, he was a fairly early supporter of the abolition of slavery in Spanish-speaking South America, even though he came from a slaveholder family (compared to, say, UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson). Most of his reasons were political, though, as promising the end of slavery would bring the large African-descended population of Venezuela to his side, as well as guaranteeing useful support from UsefulNotes/{{Haiti}};[[note]]In two of his several periods of exile, Bolívar took refuge in Haiti. His hosts agreed to support his struggle with arms, ships, and money if he promised to fight for the abolition of slavery in the lands he freed. [[IGaveMyWord He kept his word]].[[/note]]) he was still very much a ''criollo'' of his time in terms of race, spousing in private some less pleasant post-Enlightenment views on black and indigenous people that tend to be decorously swept aside in most portrayals on him.[[note]]Bolívar did try to gain the support of some black and indigenous communities, as those were often in the Royalist side of the war (and he had himself a black nanny, Hipólita, whom he very much loved), but he was very convinced that only whites were capable to govern. In his private letters, he derided the other races as inherently brutish and untrustworthy, which he would later conclude (such as in the famous "plowing the sea" letter) this to be the very reason why the revolution he desired for the Americas ultimately failed. He also flirted with literal genocide to make an example, such as that of the Pastuso people, though this particular point was less by racial troubles and more because the city of Pasto was they were stubbornly Royalist and a constant thorn in his side during his final campaign to liberate Ecuador.[[/note]] That said, after he returned to Venezuela on a Haitian ship and armed with Haitian guns, he did free all of his slaves the minute he could get to the estate where most of these slaves lived. Bolívar also annoyed his fellow rich ''criollo'' by his insistence that some kind of slave liberation--however gradual--be written into the constitutions of every country he freed from Spanish rule (after the aforementioned stop in Haiti, that is). He also believed that the role of a government was only to protect the rights of its citizens.


The new country, spread over a wide area and separated by geographical features like the Andes Mountains, was held together very loosely during Bolívar's lifetime, and it fell apart not long after he died. Some people would be surprised by how ahead of his time Bolívar was on some issues. Most prominently, he was a fairly early supporter of the abolition of slavery in Spanish-speaking South America, even though he came from a slaveholder family (compared to, say, UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson). Most of his reasons were political, though, as promising the end of slavery would bring the large African-descended population of Venezuela to his side, as well as guaranteeing useful support from UsefulNotes/{{Haiti}};[[note]]In two of his several periods of exile, Bolívar took refuge in Haiti. His hosts agreed to support his struggle with arms, ships, and money if he promised to fight for the abolition of slavery in the lands he freed. [[IGaveMyWord He kept his word]].[[/note]]) he was still very much a ''criollo'' of his time in terms of race, spousing in private some less pleasant post-Enlightenment views on black and indigenous people that tend to be decorously swept aside in most portrayals on him.[[note]]Even if he politically tried to gain the support of black and indigenous people, who were often in the Royalist side of the war (and even if he had himself a black nanny, Hipólita, whom he very much loved), he was very convinced that only whites were capable to govern, and in his private letters he derided the other races as inherently brutish and untrustworthy. He once proposed the genocide of the Pastuso people to make an example, though this was mostly because Pasto (the city in southwestern New Grenada/Colombia near the border with Ecuador that was their center) was stubbornly royalist and was a constant thorn in his side during his final campaign to liberate Ecuador.[[/note]] That said, after he returned to Venezuela on a Haitian ship and armed with Haitian guns, he did free all of his slaves the minute he could get to the estate where most of these slaves lived. Bolívar also annoyed his fellow rich ''criollo'' by his insistence that some kind of slave liberation--however gradual--be written into the constitutions of every country he freed from Spanish rule (after the aforementioned stop in Haiti, that is). He also believed that the role of a government was only to protect the rights of its citizens.

to:

The new country, spread over a wide area and separated by geographical features like the Andes Mountains, was held together very loosely during Bolívar's lifetime, and it fell apart not long after he died. Some people would be surprised by how ahead of his time Bolívar was on some issues. Most prominently, he was a fairly early supporter of the abolition of slavery in Spanish-speaking South America, even though he came from a slaveholder family (compared to, say, UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson). Most of his reasons were political, though, as promising the end of slavery would bring the large African-descended population of Venezuela to his side, as well as guaranteeing useful support from UsefulNotes/{{Haiti}};[[note]]In two of his several periods of exile, Bolívar took refuge in Haiti. His hosts agreed to support his struggle with arms, ships, and money if he promised to fight for the abolition of slavery in the lands he freed. [[IGaveMyWord He kept his word]].[[/note]]) he was still very much a ''criollo'' of his time in terms of race, spousing in private some less pleasant post-Enlightenment views on black and indigenous people that tend to be decorously swept aside in most portrayals on him.[[note]]Even if he politically tried [[note]]Bolívar did try to gain the support of some black and indigenous people, who communities, as those were often in the Royalist side of the war (and even if he had himself a black nanny, Hipólita, whom he very much loved), but he was very convinced that only whites were capable to govern, and in govern. In his private letters letters, he derided the other races as inherently brutish and untrustworthy. He once proposed untrustworthy, which he would later conclude (such as in the famous "plowing the sea" letter) this to be the very reason why the revolution he desired for the Americas ultimately failed. He also flirted with literal genocide of the Pastuso people to make an example, such as that of the Pastuso people, though this was mostly less by racial troubles and more because the city of Pasto (the city in southwestern New Grenada/Colombia near the border with Ecuador that was their center) was stubbornly royalist Royalist and was a constant thorn in his side during his final campaign to liberate Ecuador.[[/note]] That said, after he returned to Venezuela on a Haitian ship and armed with Haitian guns, he did free all of his slaves the minute he could get to the estate where most of these slaves lived. Bolívar also annoyed his fellow rich ''criollo'' by his insistence that some kind of slave liberation--however gradual--be written into the constitutions of every country he freed from Spanish rule (after the aforementioned stop in Haiti, that is). He also believed that the role of a government was only to protect the rights of its citizens.


Bolivar was President of a union of much of these colonies known as Gran Colombia from 1819 until 1830. At one point he was declared dictator for life, but it seems he never intended to actually rule absolutely for his entire life. At most, he wanted to have a life presidency with expansive but nevertheless not limitless powers--that is, he wanted to be President King George, not Emperor Napoleon. He ''hated'' what Napoleon had done to the First French Republic--he had been in Paris during Napoleon's coronation in 1804, and had pointedly locked himself in his room and stayed away from the coronation festivities. Had Bolívar wanted to become a monarch, he probably could have--but he never wanted to, and so he never did.

to:

Bolivar was President of a union of much of these colonies known as Gran Colombia from 1819 until 1830. At one point he was declared dictator for life, but it seems he never intended to actually rule absolutely for his entire life. At most, he wanted to have a life presidency with expansive but nevertheless not limitless powers--that is, he wanted to be President King George, not Emperor Napoleon. The comparison to Napoleon is significant: He ''hated'' what Napoleon had done to the First French Republic--he Republic. During his pre-revolution jaunt in Europe as a bereaved young widower, Bolívar had been in Paris during Napoleon's coronation in 1804, and had pointedly locked himself in his room and stayed away from the coronation festivities. Had Bolívar wanted to become a monarch, he probably could have--but he never wanted to, and so he never did.


Bolivar was President of a union of much of these colonies known as Gran Colombia from 1819 until 1830. At one point he was declared dictator for life, but it seems he never intended to actually rule absolutely for his entire life. At most, he wanted to have a life presidency with expansive but nevertheless not limitless powers--that is, he wanted to be King George, not Emperor Napoleon. Indeed, over the course of his career he was a bit like UsefulNotes/OliverCromwell, perpetually finding himself in power, trying to create a civilian constitutional government he could hand things over to, handing power to that government, seeing the new order torn apart by competing factions less interested than him in maintaining the new regime, and ultimately being asked to retake power to restore stability. In the end, declaring the famous quote "all who served the revolution have plowed the sea" to express his disappointment on the result of his project, he resigned several months before his death at the relatively young age of 47, from what appears to have been tuberculosis.

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Bolivar was President of a union of much of these colonies known as Gran Colombia from 1819 until 1830. At one point he was declared dictator for life, but it seems he never intended to actually rule absolutely for his entire life. At most, he wanted to have a life presidency with expansive but nevertheless not limitless powers--that is, he wanted to be President King George, not Emperor Napoleon. He ''hated'' what Napoleon had done to the First French Republic--he had been in Paris during Napoleon's coronation in 1804, and had pointedly locked himself in his room and stayed away from the coronation festivities. Had Bolívar wanted to become a monarch, he probably could have--but he never wanted to, and so he never did.

Indeed, over the course of his career he was a bit like UsefulNotes/OliverCromwell, perpetually finding himself in power, trying to create a civilian constitutional government he could hand things over to, handing power to that government, seeing the new order torn apart by competing factions less interested than him in maintaining the new regime, and ultimately being asked to retake power to restore stability. In the end, declaring the famous quote "all who served the revolution have plowed the sea" to express his disappointment on the result of his project, he resigned several months before his death at the relatively young age of 47, from what appears to have been tuberculosis.


Bolivar was President of a union of much of these colonies known as Gran Colombia from 1819 until 1830. At one point he was declared dictator for life, but it seems he never intended to actually rule absolutely for his entire life. At most, he wanted to have a life presidency with expansive but nevertheless not limitless powers. Indeed, over the course of his career he was a bit like UsefulNotes/OliverCromwell, perpetually finding himself in power, trying to create a civilian constitutional government he could hand things over to, handing power to that government, seeing the new order torn apart by competing factions less interested than him in maintaining the new regime, and ultimately being asked to retake power to restore stability. In the end, declaring the famous quote "all who served the revolution have plowed the sea" to express his disappointment on the result of his project, he resigned several months before his death at the relatively young age of 47, from what appears to have been tuberculosis.

to:

Bolivar was President of a union of much of these colonies known as Gran Colombia from 1819 until 1830. At one point he was declared dictator for life, but it seems he never intended to actually rule absolutely for his entire life. At most, he wanted to have a life presidency with expansive but nevertheless not limitless powers.powers--that is, he wanted to be King George, not Emperor Napoleon. Indeed, over the course of his career he was a bit like UsefulNotes/OliverCromwell, perpetually finding himself in power, trying to create a civilian constitutional government he could hand things over to, handing power to that government, seeing the new order torn apart by competing factions less interested than him in maintaining the new regime, and ultimately being asked to retake power to restore stability. In the end, declaring the famous quote "all who served the revolution have plowed the sea" to express his disappointment on the result of his project, he resigned several months before his death at the relatively young age of 47, from what appears to have been tuberculosis.


Bolívar thought that a republic like the one in the United States [[DemocracyIsBad would not end well]] in the brutal world of South America (he once even said that the people suffered from "triple yoke of ignorance, tyranny, and vice").[[note]]To be fair, the British colonies in North America were allowed to essentially rule themselves and elect their own rulers, something the Spanish colonies never experienced, and that is why he thought it was better suited up there.[[/note]] This wasn't to say he was an autocrat, however; his model was the British system of King, Lords, and Commons, with the King replaced with an elected executive president for life and the Lords replaced with a hereditary Senate. (In that sense, he was strikingly similar to UsefulNotes/AlexanderHamilton, who had similar ideas for the United States.) He was also not a fan of federalism, for the same reasons, and advocated strong powers for the central government (again like Hamilton, although more extreme[[note]]Hamilton was willing to accept federalism in the United States, if only because the country was so vast and the states were already well established as governing units by 1787. He merely advocated for the federal government to be as powerful as possible. Bolívar wanted unitary government for his Gran Colombia, even though it was almost as big as the early United States--indeed, Gran Colombia was larger than the US of Hamilton's day by about 150,000 square miles--and the divisions between Venezuela, New Granada (what is now Colombia), and the Audiencia of Quito (now Ecuador) were even older and more deeply rooted than the ones among the U.S. states.[[/note]]).

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Bolívar thought that a republic like the one in the United States [[DemocracyIsBad would not end well]] in the brutal world of South America (he once even said that the people suffered from "triple yoke of ignorance, tyranny, and vice").[[note]]To be fair, the British colonies in North America were allowed to essentially rule themselves and elect their own rulers, something the Spanish colonies never experienced, and that is why he thought it was better suited up there.[[/note]] This wasn't to say he was an a despot or autocrat, however; his model was the British system of King, Lords, and Commons, with the King replaced with an elected executive president for life and the Lords replaced with a hereditary Senate. (In that sense, he was strikingly similar to UsefulNotes/AlexanderHamilton, who had similar ideas for the United States.) He was also not a fan of federalism, for the same reasons, and advocated strong powers for the central government (again like Hamilton, although more extreme[[note]]Hamilton was willing to accept federalism in the United States, if only because the country was so vast and the states were already well established as governing units by 1787. He merely advocated for the federal government to be as powerful as possible. Bolívar wanted unitary government for his Gran Colombia, even though it was almost as big as the early United States--indeed, Gran Colombia was larger than the US of Hamilton's day by about 150,000 square miles--and the divisions between Venezuela, New Granada (what is now Colombia), and the Audiencia of Quito (now Ecuador) were even older and more deeply rooted than the ones among the U.S. states.[[/note]]).


The new country, spread over a wide area and separated by geographical features like the Andes Mountains, was held together very loosely during Bolívar's lifetime, and it fell apart not long after he died. Some people would be surprised by how ahead of his time Bolívar was on some issues. Most prominently, he was a fairly early supporter of the abolition of slavery in Spanish-speaking South America, even though he came from a slaveholder family (compared to, say, UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson). Most of his reasons were political, though, as promising the end of slavery would bring the large African-descended population of Venezuela to his side, as well as guaranteeing useful support from UsefulNotes/{{Haiti}};[[note]]In two of his several periods of exile, Bolívar took refuge in Haiti. His hosts agreed to support his struggle with arms, ships, and money if he promised to fight for the abolition of slavery in the lands he freed. [[IGaveMyWord He kept his word]].[[/note]]) he was still very much a ''criollo'' of his time in terms of race, spousing in private some less pleasant post-Enlightenment views on black and indigenous people that tend to be decorously swept aside in most portrayals on him.[[note]]Even if he politically tried to gain the support of black and indigenous people, who were often in the Royalist side of the war (and even if he had himself a black nanny, Hipólita, whom he very much loved), he was very convinced that only whites were capable to govern, and in his private letters he derided the other races as inherently brutish and untrustworthy; he once proposed the genocide of the ''Pastuso'' people to make an example.[[/note]] That said, after he returned to Venezuela on a Haitian ship and armed with Haitian guns, he did free all of his slaves the minute he could get to the estate where most of these slaves lived. Bolívar also annoyed his fellow rich ''criollo'' by his insistence that some kind of slave liberation--however gradual--be written into the constitutions of every country he freed from Spanish rule (after the aforementioned stop in Haiti, that is). He also believed that the role of a government was only to protect the rights of its citizens.

to:

The new country, spread over a wide area and separated by geographical features like the Andes Mountains, was held together very loosely during Bolívar's lifetime, and it fell apart not long after he died. Some people would be surprised by how ahead of his time Bolívar was on some issues. Most prominently, he was a fairly early supporter of the abolition of slavery in Spanish-speaking South America, even though he came from a slaveholder family (compared to, say, UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson). Most of his reasons were political, though, as promising the end of slavery would bring the large African-descended population of Venezuela to his side, as well as guaranteeing useful support from UsefulNotes/{{Haiti}};[[note]]In two of his several periods of exile, Bolívar took refuge in Haiti. His hosts agreed to support his struggle with arms, ships, and money if he promised to fight for the abolition of slavery in the lands he freed. [[IGaveMyWord He kept his word]].[[/note]]) he was still very much a ''criollo'' of his time in terms of race, spousing in private some less pleasant post-Enlightenment views on black and indigenous people that tend to be decorously swept aside in most portrayals on him.[[note]]Even if he politically tried to gain the support of black and indigenous people, who were often in the Royalist side of the war (and even if he had himself a black nanny, Hipólita, whom he very much loved), he was very convinced that only whites were capable to govern, and in his private letters he derided the other races as inherently brutish and untrustworthy; he untrustworthy. He once proposed the genocide of the ''Pastuso'' Pastuso people to make an example.example, though this was mostly because Pasto (the city in southwestern New Grenada/Colombia near the border with Ecuador that was their center) was stubbornly royalist and was a constant thorn in his side during his final campaign to liberate Ecuador.[[/note]] That said, after he returned to Venezuela on a Haitian ship and armed with Haitian guns, he did free all of his slaves the minute he could get to the estate where most of these slaves lived. Bolívar also annoyed his fellow rich ''criollo'' by his insistence that some kind of slave liberation--however gradual--be written into the constitutions of every country he freed from Spanish rule (after the aforementioned stop in Haiti, that is). He also believed that the role of a government was only to protect the rights of its citizens.


The new country, spread over a wide area and separated by geographical features like the Andes Mountains, was held together very loosely during Bolívar's lifetime, and it fell apart not long after he died. Some people would be surprised by how ahead of his time Bolívar was on some issues. Most prominently, he was a fairly early supporter of the abolition of slavery in Spanish-speaking South America, even though he came from a slaveholder family (compared to, say, UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson). Most of his reasons were political, though, as promising the end of slavery would bring the large African-descended population of Venezuela to his side, as well as guaranteeing useful support from UsefulNotes/{{Haiti}};[[note]]In two of his several periods of exile, Bolívar took refuge in Haiti. His hosts agreed to support his struggle with arms, ships, and money if he promised to fight for the abolition of slavery in the lands he freed. [[IGaveMyWord He kept his word]].[[/note]]) he was still very much a ''criollo'' of his time in terms of race, spousing in private some less pleasant post-Enlightenment views on black and indigenous people that tend to be decorously swept aside in most portrayals on him.[[note]]Even if he politically tried to gain the support of black and indigenous people, who were often in the Royalist side of the war (and even if he had himself a black nanny, Hipólita, whom he very much loved), he was very convinced that only whites were capable to govern, and in his private letters he derided the other races as inherently brutish and untrustworthy; he once proposed the genocide of the ''Pastuso'' people to make an example.[[/note]] That said, after he returned to Venezuela on a Haitian ship and armed with Haitian guns, he did free all of his slaves the minute he could get to the estate where most of these slaves lived. He also believed that the role of a government was only to protect the rights of its citizens.

to:

The new country, spread over a wide area and separated by geographical features like the Andes Mountains, was held together very loosely during Bolívar's lifetime, and it fell apart not long after he died. Some people would be surprised by how ahead of his time Bolívar was on some issues. Most prominently, he was a fairly early supporter of the abolition of slavery in Spanish-speaking South America, even though he came from a slaveholder family (compared to, say, UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson). Most of his reasons were political, though, as promising the end of slavery would bring the large African-descended population of Venezuela to his side, as well as guaranteeing useful support from UsefulNotes/{{Haiti}};[[note]]In two of his several periods of exile, Bolívar took refuge in Haiti. His hosts agreed to support his struggle with arms, ships, and money if he promised to fight for the abolition of slavery in the lands he freed. [[IGaveMyWord He kept his word]].[[/note]]) he was still very much a ''criollo'' of his time in terms of race, spousing in private some less pleasant post-Enlightenment views on black and indigenous people that tend to be decorously swept aside in most portrayals on him.[[note]]Even if he politically tried to gain the support of black and indigenous people, who were often in the Royalist side of the war (and even if he had himself a black nanny, Hipólita, whom he very much loved), he was very convinced that only whites were capable to govern, and in his private letters he derided the other races as inherently brutish and untrustworthy; he once proposed the genocide of the ''Pastuso'' people to make an example.[[/note]] That said, after he returned to Venezuela on a Haitian ship and armed with Haitian guns, he did free all of his slaves the minute he could get to the estate where most of these slaves lived. Bolívar also annoyed his fellow rich ''criollo'' by his insistence that some kind of slave liberation--however gradual--be written into the constitutions of every country he freed from Spanish rule (after the aforementioned stop in Haiti, that is). He also believed that the role of a government was only to protect the rights of its citizens.


The new country, spread over a wide area and separated by geographical features like the Andes Mountains, was held together very loosely during Bolívar's lifetime, and it fell apart not long after he died. Some people would be surprised by how ahead of his time Bolívar was on some issues. Most prominently, he was a fairly early supporter of the abolition of slavery in Spanish-speaking South America, even though he came from a slaveholder family (compared to, say, UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson). Most of his reasons were political, though, as promising the end of slavery would bring the large African-descended population of Venezuela to his side, as well as guaranteeing useful support from UsefulNotes/{{Haiti}};[[note]]In two of his several periods of exile, Bolívar took refuge in Haiti. His hosts agreed to support his struggle with arms, ships, and money if he promised to fight for the abolition of slavery in the lands he freed. [[IGaveMyWord He kept his word]].[[/note]]) he was still very much a ''criollo'' of his time in terms of race, spousing in private some less pleasant post-Enlightenment views on black and indigenous people that tend to be decorously swept aside in most portrayals on him.[[note]]Even if he politically tried to gain the support of black and indigenous people, who were often in the Royalist side of the war (and even if he had himself a black nanny, Hipólita, whom he very much loved), he was very convinced that only whites were capable to govern, and in his private letters he derided the other races as inherently brutish and untrustworthy; he once proposed the genocide of the ''Pastuso'' people to make an example.[[/note]] That said, after he returned to Venezuela on a Haitian ship supported by Haitian guns, he did free all of his slaves the minute he could get to the estate where most of these slaves lived. He also believed that the role of a government was only to protect the rights of its citizens.

to:

The new country, spread over a wide area and separated by geographical features like the Andes Mountains, was held together very loosely during Bolívar's lifetime, and it fell apart not long after he died. Some people would be surprised by how ahead of his time Bolívar was on some issues. Most prominently, he was a fairly early supporter of the abolition of slavery in Spanish-speaking South America, even though he came from a slaveholder family (compared to, say, UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson). Most of his reasons were political, though, as promising the end of slavery would bring the large African-descended population of Venezuela to his side, as well as guaranteeing useful support from UsefulNotes/{{Haiti}};[[note]]In two of his several periods of exile, Bolívar took refuge in Haiti. His hosts agreed to support his struggle with arms, ships, and money if he promised to fight for the abolition of slavery in the lands he freed. [[IGaveMyWord He kept his word]].[[/note]]) he was still very much a ''criollo'' of his time in terms of race, spousing in private some less pleasant post-Enlightenment views on black and indigenous people that tend to be decorously swept aside in most portrayals on him.[[note]]Even if he politically tried to gain the support of black and indigenous people, who were often in the Royalist side of the war (and even if he had himself a black nanny, Hipólita, whom he very much loved), he was very convinced that only whites were capable to govern, and in his private letters he derided the other races as inherently brutish and untrustworthy; he once proposed the genocide of the ''Pastuso'' people to make an example.[[/note]] That said, after he returned to Venezuela on a Haitian ship supported by and armed with Haitian guns, he did free all of his slaves the minute he could get to the estate where most of these slaves lived. He also believed that the role of a government was only to protect the rights of its citizens.


The new country, spread over a wide area and separated by geographical features like the Andes Mountains, was held together very loosely during Bolívar's lifetime, and it fell apart not long after he died. Some people would be surprised by how ahead of his time Bolívar was on some issues. Most prominently, he was a fairly early supporter of the abolition of slavery in Spanish-speaking South America, even though he came from a slaveholder family (compared to, say, UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson). Most of his reasons were political, though, as promising the end of slavery would bring the large African-descended population of Venezuela to his side, as well as guaranteeing useful support from UsefulNotes/{{Haiti}};[[note]]In two of his several periods of exile, Bolívar took refuge in Haiti. His hosts agreed to support his struggle with arms, ships, and money if he promised to fight for the abolition of slavery in the lands he freed. [[IGaveMyWord He kept his word]].[[/note]]) he was still very much a ''criollo'' of his time in terms of race, spousing in private some less pleasant post-Enlightenment views on black and indigenous people that tend to be decorously swept aside in most portrayals on him.[[note]]Even if he politically tried to gain the support of black and indigenous people, who were often in the Royalist side of the war (and even if he had himself a black nanny, Hipólita, whom he very much loved), he was very convinced that only whites were capable to govern, and in his private letters he derided the other races as inherently brutish and untrustworthy; he once proposed the genocide of the ''Pastuso'' people to make an example.[[/note]] He also believed that the role of a government was only to protect the rights of its citizens.

to:

The new country, spread over a wide area and separated by geographical features like the Andes Mountains, was held together very loosely during Bolívar's lifetime, and it fell apart not long after he died. Some people would be surprised by how ahead of his time Bolívar was on some issues. Most prominently, he was a fairly early supporter of the abolition of slavery in Spanish-speaking South America, even though he came from a slaveholder family (compared to, say, UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson). Most of his reasons were political, though, as promising the end of slavery would bring the large African-descended population of Venezuela to his side, as well as guaranteeing useful support from UsefulNotes/{{Haiti}};[[note]]In two of his several periods of exile, Bolívar took refuge in Haiti. His hosts agreed to support his struggle with arms, ships, and money if he promised to fight for the abolition of slavery in the lands he freed. [[IGaveMyWord He kept his word]].[[/note]]) he was still very much a ''criollo'' of his time in terms of race, spousing in private some less pleasant post-Enlightenment views on black and indigenous people that tend to be decorously swept aside in most portrayals on him.[[note]]Even if he politically tried to gain the support of black and indigenous people, who were often in the Royalist side of the war (and even if he had himself a black nanny, Hipólita, whom he very much loved), he was very convinced that only whites were capable to govern, and in his private letters he derided the other races as inherently brutish and untrustworthy; he once proposed the genocide of the ''Pastuso'' people to make an example.[[/note]] That said, after he returned to Venezuela on a Haitian ship supported by Haitian guns, he did free all of his slaves the minute he could get to the estate where most of these slaves lived. He also believed that the role of a government was only to protect the rights of its citizens.

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