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* Scotland gets their first debut as a playable empire in the sixth ''Videogame/{{Civilization}}'' game, led by Robert the Bruce. Their strengths lie in industry and science with golf courses as their national improvement. Unlike other civs they get two, shorter, songs in their theme tune. Scotland the Brave and Bonny Dundee https://youtu.be/YLHFlKKxsfE


Many began moving to Lowland cities, which thanks to the political and economic Union enacted in 1707 were beginning to experience the first stirrings of the Industrial Revolution. The Lowland Scots, being Presbyterians, had found much in common with the English Dissenters -- Baptists, Congregationalists, Quakers, Unitarians, and of course [[CaptainObvious Presbyterians]] -- who, except for the Quakers, were (like the Scottish Presbyterians) essentially Calvinist, agreeing for the most part on theology and differing in practice; and as for the Quakers, despite their weird theory and practice, their businesslike, hardworking, and agreeable ethos combined with the common experience of High Church Anglican disdain led most of the other Dissenters (English or Scottish) to give them a pass. The English Dissenters had pioneered the new industrial techniques,[[note]]For instance, Abraham Darby, a Quaker, developed the first efficient way to make high-quality pig iron and steel; Thomas Newcomen, a Baptist, had made critical improvements to the steam engine; Josiah Wedgwood, a Unitarian, not only developed excellent ceramics but also invented techniques critical to the new factory system; and Sampson Lloyd and John Barclay, both Quakers, had the ingenious idea of expanding modern banking to the North of England and to Scotland.[[/note]] and eventually word of these new ideas came to the Lowland Scots, who began setting up their own factories and coming up with their own techniques.[[note]]Recall that James Watt, who invented the condenser critical to efficient steam engines, was the son of a Covenanter from Renfrewshire; the Newcomen steam engine he improved upon was probably brought up to Glasgow by a Quaker -- and was designed by a Baptist; and John Wilkinson, who developed solid, precision-engineered cylinders needed for efficient an inexpensive Watt engines and was one of Watt's major suppliers, was an English Presbyterian. Also, research into fuel efficiency was initiated by Scottish whisky distillers; industrial production of coal tar--critical to the eventual development of the chemical industry--was invented by the 9th Earl of Dundonald, the chief of Clan Cochrane, also from Renfrewshire; Glaswegian Charles Mackintosh founded the rubber industry with his, erm, macintosh (the raincoat); gas light was invented by Watt's engineer-assistant, the Ayrshireman William Murdoch (who also developed a lot else and eventually made partner in Watt's firm); a and the groundwork for the modern theoretical justification for capitalism was developed by the very Scottish Adam Smith.[[/note]] By the mid-19th century, the Lowlands were one of the most industrialised regions in the world--and were chock-full of labourers from the Highlands (and Ireland, but that's another matter), coming in via the new-built canals and railways. At this point, with so many people from all over Scotland not where they were before a mere thirty or forty years before, the Clan system had clearly become what it is today: more as a focus of identity then as the political system it once was.

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Many began moving to Lowland cities, which thanks to the political and economic Union enacted in 1707 were beginning to experience the first stirrings of the Industrial Revolution. The Lowland Scots, being Presbyterians, had found much in common with the English Dissenters -- Baptists, Congregationalists, Quakers, Unitarians, and of course [[CaptainObvious Presbyterians]] Presbyterians -- who, except for the Quakers, were (like the Scottish Presbyterians) essentially Calvinist, agreeing for the most part on theology and differing in practice; and as for the Quakers, despite their weird theory and practice, their businesslike, hardworking, and agreeable ethos combined with the common experience of High Church Anglican disdain led most of the other Dissenters (English or Scottish) to give them a pass. The English Dissenters had pioneered the new industrial techniques,[[note]]For instance, Abraham Darby, a Quaker, developed the first efficient way to make high-quality pig iron and steel; Thomas Newcomen, a Baptist, had made critical improvements to the steam engine; Josiah Wedgwood, a Unitarian, not only developed excellent ceramics but also invented techniques critical to the new factory system; and Sampson Lloyd and John Barclay, both Quakers, had the ingenious idea of expanding modern banking to the North of England and to Scotland.[[/note]] and eventually word of these new ideas came to the Lowland Scots, who began setting up their own factories and coming up with their own techniques.[[note]]Recall that James Watt, who invented the condenser critical to efficient steam engines, was the son of a Covenanter from Renfrewshire; the Newcomen steam engine he improved upon was probably brought up to Glasgow by a Quaker -- and was designed by a Baptist; and John Wilkinson, who developed solid, precision-engineered cylinders needed for efficient an inexpensive Watt engines and was one of Watt's major suppliers, was an English Presbyterian. Also, research into fuel efficiency was initiated by Scottish whisky distillers; industrial production of coal tar--critical to the eventual development of the chemical industry--was invented by the 9th Earl of Dundonald, the chief of Clan Cochrane, also from Renfrewshire; Glaswegian Charles Mackintosh founded the rubber industry with his, erm, macintosh (the raincoat); gas light was invented by Watt's engineer-assistant, the Ayrshireman William Murdoch (who also developed a lot else and eventually made partner in Watt's firm); a and the groundwork for the modern theoretical justification for capitalism was developed by the very Scottish Adam Smith.[[/note]] By the mid-19th century, the Lowlands were one of the most industrialised regions in the world--and were chock-full of labourers from the Highlands (and Ireland, but that's another matter), coming in via the new-built canals and railways. At this point, with so many people from all over Scotland not where they were before a mere thirty or forty years before, the Clan system had clearly become what it is today: more as a focus of identity then as the political system it once was.


* '''Cock-a-leekie Soup''': [[HaveAGayOldTime Yes, that's what it's called.]] Basically chicken, leek and potato soup. Bland, comforting and only memorable for the title, and that it originally contained prunes. Y'know, for the fibre!

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* '''Cock-a-leekie Soup''': '''[[InherentlyFunnyWords Cock-a-leekie Soup]]''': [[HaveAGayOldTime Yes, that's what it's called.]] Basically chicken, leek and potato soup. Bland, comforting and only memorable for the title, and that it originally contained prunes. Y'know, for the fibre!fibre! Some traditional cooks will still put the prunes in, going by the (cook)book and following the old-fashioned, original recipe; contemporary cooks might leave the prunes out to try new and innovative variants.


->''"[A] notion has been entertained that the moral spine in Scotland is more flexible than in England. The truth however is, that an elementary difference exists in the public feelings of the two nations quite as great as in the idioms of their respective dialects. The English are a justice-loving people, according to charter and statute; the Scotch are a wrong-resenting race, according to right and feeling: and the character of liberty among them takes its aspect from that peculiarity."''

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->''"[A] notion has been entertained that the moral spine in Scotland is more flexible than in England. The truth however is, truth, however, is that an elementary difference exists in the public feelings of the two nations quite as great as in the idioms of their respective dialects. The English are a justice-loving people, according to charter and statute; the Scotch are a wrong-resenting race, according to right and feeling: and the character of liberty among them takes its aspect from that peculiarity."''



Often in American (and even English) television, all Scots wear the kilt all the time. It also seems to be believed that they [[GoingCommando often go]] [[VaporWear without underwear]] -- especially when they compete in the Highland Games or when Highland Dancing. In reality you would almost never see a kilted person walking down the street, and if you do see one chances are he'd be on the way to a wedding or other festivities. Basically, in any situation where an American would wear a tuxedo, a Scotsman would wear a kilt. And underwear is actually required at the Highland Games and in Highland Dancing competitions! It's also a requirement to wear undergarments with rental kilts for far more grave reasons than embarrassment. Although if you own a kilt and are wearing it, it's far more common than is realised to go without underwear.[[note]] Though any American or Sassenach tropers considering wearing a kilt like this should know that Scotland is really, ''really'' cold, so be prepared to have your "equipment"...wither. Seriously. Even if you're from Alaska or Minnesota or Michigan or Upstate New York or Massachusetts or Maine, which all get colder than Scotland, you'd be surprised how much underwear is helpful in that department.[[/note]] It's more of a personal choice thing. You'll occasionally see a kilted person playing the bagpipes on certain high streets for charity or because they are part of an actual bagpiping club, but that's it.

In recent years this has changed somewhat, with some sport fans -- mostly rugby and football -- choosing to wear a casual version of the kilt and their team's jersey on the streets or to matches.

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Often in American (and even English) television, all Scots wear the kilt all the time. It also seems to be believed that they [[GoingCommando often go]] [[VaporWear without underwear]] -- especially when they compete in the Highland Games or when Highland Dancing. In reality reality, you would almost never see a kilted person walking down the street, and if you do see one one, chances are he'd be on the way to a wedding or other festivities. Basically, in any situation where an American would wear a tuxedo, a Scotsman would wear a kilt. And underwear is actually required at the Highland Games and in Highland Dancing competitions! It's also a requirement to wear undergarments with rental kilts for far more grave reasons than embarrassment. Although if you own a kilt and are wearing it, it's far more common than is realised to go without underwear.[[note]] Though any American or Sassenach tropers considering wearing a kilt like this should know that Scotland is really, ''really'' cold, so be prepared to have your "equipment"...wither. Seriously. Even if you're from Alaska or Minnesota or Michigan or Upstate New York or Massachusetts or Maine, which all get colder than Scotland, you'd be surprised how much underwear is helpful in that department.[[/note]] It's more of a personal choice thing. You'll occasionally see a kilted person playing the bagpipes on certain high streets for charity or because they are part of an actual bagpiping club, but that's it.

In recent years this has changed somewhat, with some sport sports fans -- mostly rugby and football -- choosing to wear a casual version of the kilt and their team's jersey on the streets or to matches.



The familiar feudal system which we know from ''Literature/{{Ivanhoe}}'' and KingArthur and which comes to mind when we think of the phrase "Middle Ages" was actually far more limited in scope in history. In any case it only took partial root in Scotland. Instead, especially in the Highlands and the borderlands, feudalism was rather light and merged with the Celtic/Early Medieval pseudofamilial societies that we call TheClan. There were several reasons for this, not least of which is that Scotland, unlike England, was never conquered by the Normans[[note]]A few Norman lords did make their way up to Scotland, but they didn't conquer anything; usually they happened to hold estates in the far [[OopNorth North of England]] and married or allied their way into Lowland estates; much of what Norman customs exist in Scotland came from them and by diffusion[[/note]] and retained much of its Celtic base.

A Clan was a tribal network named after its first patron. It included the chief, the clan elders and the clansfolk which were often the tenants of the chief as well. Each Clan operated like an independent principality -- for instance, the [=MacDonalds=], who held the title "Lords of the Isles" (i.e., Hebrides) were a great sea power in their own right, and had history been just a little bit different, they could have been an independent power or subjected to the Norwegian Crown. Several larger Clans could field several thousand warriors. The system ingrained itself into Scottish life and was a referent for delicate matters of internal politics. For instance one King of Scots, when deciding how the [[UsefulNotes/{{Romani}} Roma]] should be integrated into the system, simply declared one of them "Chief of the Egyptians" (Gypsies), effectively declaring them a new Clan. Another example is the title of the Scottish monarch, which is tribal rather then feudal in concept. The proper title is King (or Queen) of Scots. That is, the Queen of Scots (known more commonly by her English title [[UsefulNotes/HMTheQueen Elizabeth II]]) is not the Lady of a manor named [=ScotLAND=] of which "Scotsfolk" are tenants; she is the chieftainess of a "clan of clans" named ''Scots'' which happens to possess [=SCOTland=] as its patrimony.

The Clan system along the English border was slightly different from that in the Highlands, forged from constant warfare with England, and which lasted even after (roughly) amiable relations were established during the reign of [[UsefulNotes/ElizabethI Elizabeth of England]] and [[UsefulNotes/TheHouseOfStuart James VI of Scotland]] (of course, how nasty can you get with your most acceptable likely heir?).[[note]]Yes, Elizabeth killed James' mother, UsefulNotes/MaryOfScotland, but that was politically necessary simply because she's Roman Catholic, which no doubt raised not a few eyebrows among noblemen suspicious of Rome's encroachment. It was NothingPersonal, and everyone understood that nobody took any pleasure in the business. Frankly, many Scots were almost relieved to be rid of Mary; the very populous Lowlands were pretty much entirely Protestant, and as upset they might have been at the killing of their sovereign, they appreciated the opportunity to raise a good Protestant King.[[/note]] When James succeeded his second-degree aunt, placing the kingdoms under the same ruler for the first time, the Border clans were ethnically cleansed. After that they tended to be resettled in areas where highly ferocious people could be out of sight of Westminster, but not out from indigenous peoples whom the Crown also found inconvenient. In Ireland they formed much of the ancestry of the Ulstermen. In North America they became the "Scots-Irish", settling in the Appalachians and further West, thus presaging the famous anti-gub'mint orneriness of these regions. The Highland Clans took longer to subdue. They tended to take the side of the House of Stuart in the various civil wars and were almost eliminated culturally after the Battle of Culloden in 1745. They were saved by two quirks of history. One was that it was realised that Highlanders made for useful soldiers and were as apt to serve the Crown as to rebel against it. The other was the Romantic literary movement, notably as represented by Sir Creator/WalterScott. During this time ethnic exoticism became seen as colorful instead of dangerous, and the clans became fashionable in the ruling classes of Great Britain. Many of the customs we associate with the Clans in fact date from this period. For instance, the Tartans, or clan heraldry on the kilts, were in fact not standardized until this period. In another way, however, this was a bad time for the Highlands, as it was the time of the notorious Clearances in which landholders were evicting tenants for the sake of changing agricultural products; the largest landowners were of course their own chiefs who found that in a now pacified Scotland there was more status to be had from wealth than the number of followers (to be fair a few chiefs actually beggared themselves trying to protect their clans from economic conditions). Some of the evicted tenants survived by migration to North America (particularly Canada) and other places; others survived from the pay for [[UsefulNotes/BritsWithBattleships soldiering]] and related work across UsefulNotes/TheBritishEmpire.

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The familiar feudal system which we know from ''Literature/{{Ivanhoe}}'' and KingArthur and which comes to mind when we think of the phrase "Middle Ages" was actually far more limited in scope in history. In any case case, it only took partial root in Scotland. Instead, especially in the Highlands and the borderlands, feudalism was rather light and merged with the Celtic/Early Medieval pseudofamilial pseudo-familial societies that we call TheClan. There were several reasons for this, not least of which is that Scotland, unlike England, was never conquered by the Normans[[note]]A few Norman lords did make their way up to Scotland, but they didn't conquer anything; usually they happened to hold estates in the far [[OopNorth North of England]] and married or allied their way into Lowland estates; much of what Norman customs exist in Scotland came from them and by diffusion[[/note]] and retained much of its Celtic base.

A Clan was a tribal network named after its first patron. It included the chief, the clan elders elders, and the clansfolk which were often the tenants of the chief as well. Each Clan operated like an independent principality -- for instance, the [=MacDonalds=], who held the title "Lords of the Isles" (i.e., Hebrides) were a great sea power in their own right, and had history been just a little bit different, they could have been an independent power or subjected to the Norwegian Crown. Several larger Clans could field several thousand warriors. The system ingrained itself into Scottish life and was a referent for delicate matters of internal politics. For instance instance, one King of Scots, when deciding how the [[UsefulNotes/{{Romani}} Roma]] should be integrated into the system, simply declared one of them "Chief of the Egyptians" (Gypsies), effectively declaring them a new Clan. Another example is the title of the Scottish monarch, which is tribal rather then than feudal in concept. The proper title is King (or Queen) of Scots. That is, the Queen of Scots (known more commonly by her English title [[UsefulNotes/HMTheQueen Elizabeth II]]) is not the Lady of a manor named [=ScotLAND=] of which "Scotsfolk" are tenants; she is the chieftainess of a "clan of clans" named ''Scots'' which happens to possess [=SCOTland=] as its patrimony.

The Clan system along the English border was slightly different from that in the Highlands, forged from constant warfare with England, and which lasted even after (roughly) amiable relations were established during the reign of [[UsefulNotes/ElizabethI Elizabeth of England]] and [[UsefulNotes/TheHouseOfStuart James VI of Scotland]] (of course, how nasty can you get with your most acceptable likely heir?).[[note]]Yes, Elizabeth killed James' mother, UsefulNotes/MaryOfScotland, but that was politically necessary simply because she's Roman Catholic, which no doubt raised not a few eyebrows among noblemen suspicious of Rome's encroachment. It was NothingPersonal, and everyone understood that nobody took any pleasure in the business. Frankly, many Scots were almost relieved to be rid of Mary; the very populous Lowlands were pretty much entirely Protestant, and as upset they might have been at the killing of their sovereign, they appreciated the opportunity to raise a good Protestant King.[[/note]] When James succeeded his second-degree aunt, placing the kingdoms under the same ruler for the first time, the Border clans were ethnically cleansed. After that they tended to be resettled in areas where highly ferocious people could be out of sight of Westminster, but not out from indigenous peoples whom the Crown also found inconvenient. In Ireland Ireland, they formed much of the ancestry of the Ulstermen. In North America they became the "Scots-Irish", settling in the Appalachians and further West, thus presaging the famous anti-gub'mint orneriness of these regions. The Highland Clans took longer to subdue. They tended to take the side of the House of Stuart in the various civil wars and were almost eliminated culturally after the Battle of Culloden in 1745. They were saved by two quirks of history. One was that it was realised that Highlanders made for useful soldiers and were as apt to serve the Crown as to rebel against it. The other was the Romantic literary movement, notably as represented by Sir Creator/WalterScott. During this time ethnic exoticism became seen as colorful instead of dangerous, and the clans became fashionable in the ruling classes of Great Britain. Many of the customs we associate with the Clans in fact date from this period. For instance, the Tartans, or clan heraldry on the kilts, were in fact not standardized until this period. In another way, however, this was a bad time for the Highlands, as it was the time of the notorious Clearances in which landholders were evicting tenants for the sake of changing agricultural products; the largest landowners were were, of course course, their own chiefs who found that in a now pacified Scotland there was more status to be had from wealth than the number of followers (to be fair a few chiefs actually beggared themselves trying to protect their clans from economic conditions). Some of the evicted tenants survived by migration to North America (particularly Canada) and other places; others survived from the pay for [[UsefulNotes/BritsWithBattleships soldiering]] and related work across UsefulNotes/TheBritishEmpire.



It is a common fiction in Romantic depictions of Scotland to view the Clans as rugged individualists, [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacobite_Risings#The_Rebellion.2FRising_of_1745_.28.27The_Forty-Five.27.29 fiercely pro-independence and pro-Stuart]]. This is not necessarily the case. Many clans simply did not conform to the rural, NobleSavage archetype created for them by later authors. Clans Campbell and Douglas enjoyed considerable influence and power within the urban government of Scotland pre and post Union. During the religious turmoil of the 16th and 17th centuries, many clans were happy to renounce the rule of the Pope. Similarly, many clans enthusiastically committed to Union with England and the equal prestige with the English aristocracy that this granted them. By the time the Jacobite rising of 1745 rolled around, the clans were split, when previously they had wholeheartedly supported the Stewarts. With the exception of the island and coastal clans, many stayed neutral during the Stewart conflict or supported the Government. Notably, of the largest and most powerful clans, the Campbells, the Douglases, the [=MacLeods=], the [=MacDonalds=], and the Mackenzies, all except the Mackenzies and [=MacDonalds=] stayed loyal to the British government, with the [=MacDonalds=] joining Charles Stuart and the Mackenzies staying neutral.

As an interesting bit of trivia, the word "clan" is a transliteration from "children" in Gaelic. For instance the [=MacBobs=] would be the "Children of Bob". This is a system of clan/tribal nomenclature that is familiar in several parts of the world including the Middle East as readers of Literature/TheBible (which is largely about the "Children of Israel") will remember.


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It is a common fiction in Romantic depictions of Scotland to view the Clans as rugged individualists, [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacobite_Risings#The_Rebellion.2FRising_of_1745_.28.27The_Forty-Five.27.29 fiercely pro-independence and pro-Stuart]]. This is not necessarily the case. Many clans simply did not conform to the rural, NobleSavage archetype created for them by later authors. Clans Campbell and Douglas enjoyed considerable influence and power within the urban government of Scotland pre pre- and post Union.post-Union. During the religious turmoil of the 16th and 17th centuries, many clans were happy to renounce the rule of the Pope. Similarly, many clans enthusiastically committed to Union with England and the equal prestige with the English aristocracy that this granted them. By the time the Jacobite rising of 1745 rolled around, the clans were split, when previously they had wholeheartedly supported the Stewarts. With the exception of the island and coastal clans, many stayed neutral during the Stewart conflict or supported the Government. Notably, of the largest and most powerful clans, the Campbells, the Douglases, the [=MacLeods=], the [=MacDonalds=], and the Mackenzies, all except the Mackenzies and [=MacDonalds=] stayed loyal to the British government, with the [=MacDonalds=] joining Charles Stuart and the Mackenzies staying neutral.

As an interesting bit of trivia, the word "clan" is a transliteration from "children" in Gaelic. For instance instance, the [=MacBobs=] would be the "Children of Bob". This is a system of clan/tribal nomenclature that is familiar in several parts of the world including the Middle East as readers of Literature/TheBible (which is largely about the "Children of Israel") will remember.




** Demonstrating how traditional and international food can be deliciously merged: The Spicy Haggis Panini is a delicious sandwich, and Haggis Pakora is widely available in take-away restaurants around Glasgow. Haggis can basically be used wherever minced meat is used. It really works well in tomato-based dishes like Bolognese, Lasagne and Chilli con carne.

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** Demonstrating how traditional and international food can be deliciously merged: The Spicy Haggis Panini is a delicious sandwich, and Haggis Pakora is widely available in take-away restaurants around Glasgow. Haggis can basically be used wherever minced meat is used. It really works well in tomato-based dishes like Bolognese, Lasagne and Chilli con carne.Carne.



* '''Scotch Pies''': a Scottish institution even more than the 'White Pudding Supper'.[[note]]Descriptions of what goes into a Scotch Pie are not readily available, because if people knew what goes into them, they probably wouldn't eat them. It's a ball of heavily-seasoned cooked mince held together with filler, inside a deep-fried pastry case: the Glasgow writer Tom Leonard accurately characterised it as a 'peppery little stodge-bomb'. Not to be confused with the classier variant, also available in takeaways, the Steak Pie, which is cooked steak in a rich gravy, also inside a pastry case. Much tastier, slightly more expensive, not as 'street'.[[/note]] If they went away, what would the football fans eat instead? It doesn't bear thinking about.
** The '''Macaroni Pie''' variant comes as a particular shock to tourists, who often find it difficult to wrap their heads around the idea.[[note]]Yes, it's macaroni cheese, inside a pie. By comparison, Haggis (which contains protein, minerals and whole grains) is ''health food''. Also, looking at the rest of the list, you will notice that this carbohydrate bomb is the only vegetarian option.[[/note]]

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* '''Scotch Pies''': a Scottish institution even more than the 'White Pudding Supper'.[[note]]Descriptions of what goes into a Scotch Pie are not readily available, available because if people knew what goes into them, they probably wouldn't eat them. It's a ball of heavily-seasoned cooked mince held together with filler, inside a deep-fried pastry case: the Glasgow writer Tom Leonard accurately characterised it as a 'peppery little stodge-bomb'. Not to be confused with the classier variant, also available in takeaways, the Steak Pie, which is cooked steak in a rich gravy, also inside a pastry case. Much tastier, slightly more expensive, not as 'street'.[[/note]] If they went away, what would the football fans eat instead? It doesn't bear thinking about.
** The '''Macaroni Pie''' variant comes as a particular shock to tourists, who often find it difficult to wrap their heads around the idea.[[note]]Yes, it's macaroni cheese, inside a pie. By comparison, Haggis (which contains protein, minerals minerals, and whole grains) is ''health food''. Also, looking at the rest of the list, you will notice that this carbohydrate bomb is the only vegetarian option.[[/note]]



* The '''Scotch Egg''', a hard-boiled egg that has been de-shelled, wrapped in sausage meat, rolled in breadcrumbs, and--[[RunningGag yes]]--deep-fried. Contrary to popular belief, the Scotch Egg was actually invented in Victorian London, and the etymology is unconnected to Scotland.[[note]]The Scotch Egg is associated in British popular culture with a certain kind of stolid, schlubby masculinity, being the favourite food of the accountant Keith in ''Series/TheOfficeUK''. This is perhaps because they're usually sold in supermarkets and eaten cold, in which condition they taste boring but reassuring. Heaten up or served fresh, they are crispier and tastier. Reheating them also has the effect of causing the sausage meat to lose some of its fat, making them ''marginally'' less bad for you.[[/note]]

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* The '''Scotch Egg''', a hard-boiled egg that has been de-shelled, wrapped in sausage meat, rolled in breadcrumbs, and--[[RunningGag yes]]--deep-fried. Contrary to popular belief, the Scotch Egg was actually invented in Victorian London, and the etymology is unconnected to Scotland.[[note]]The Scotch Egg is associated in British popular culture with a certain kind of stolid, schlubby masculinity, being the favourite food of the accountant Keith in ''Series/TheOfficeUK''. This is perhaps because they're usually sold in supermarkets and eaten cold, in which condition they taste boring but reassuring. Heaten Heated up or served fresh, they are crispier and tastier. Reheating them also has the effect of causing the sausage meat to lose some of its fat, making them ''marginally'' less bad for you.[[/note]]



*** A note on Scottish beers, a weary traveller may find beers labelled as 60, 70, 80, or 90 Shilling. This due to a quirk of past Scottish licensing laws (Creator/TheBBC has a good article [[http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A288317 here]]) Basically the lower the shilling, the weaker the beer. Lager is generally Tennents' (who used to put pictures of half naked women on their cans) and they do a lot of sponsorship of major events.
*** As with Whisky (above) there are a [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_breweries_in_Scotland number of microbreweries making specialist beers]]. Once again, sampling them all would be the work of a lifetime.
*** Scotland also has number of Fruit Wine makers, most famous are probably [[http://www.cairnomohr.com/ Cairn O'Mohr]] (say it [[IncrediblyLamePun out-loud]]) and [[http://www.moniackcastle.co.uk/index.htm Moniack Castle]].

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*** A note on Scottish beers, a weary traveller may find beers labelled as 60, 70, 80, or 90 Shilling. This due to a quirk of past Scottish licensing laws (Creator/TheBBC has a good article [[http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A288317 here]]) Basically the lower the shilling, the weaker the beer. Lager is generally Tennents' (who used to put pictures of half naked half-naked women on their cans) and they do a lot of sponsorship of major events.
*** As with Whisky (above) (above), there are a [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_breweries_in_Scotland number of microbreweries making specialist beers]]. Once again, sampling them all would be the work of a lifetime.
*** Scotland also has a number of Fruit Wine makers, most famous are probably [[http://www.cairnomohr.com/ Cairn O'Mohr]] (say it [[IncrediblyLamePun out-loud]]) and [[http://www.moniackcastle.co.uk/index.htm Moniack Castle]].



*** Craft beers are increasingly Serious Business in Scotland, with younger drinkers in particular growing tired of the heavier, sweeter ales preferred by the older generation. The aforementioned Brew Dog is the most notorious of Scotland's craft brewers, especially for its questionable marketing techniques.[[note]]One campaign featured the owners of the company dressed in drag, posing in a neon-lit window in the manner of sex workers, with a sign saying "Don't make us do this"; this was widely perceived as being offensive to LGBT people, as well as sex workers.[[/note]]

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*** Craft beers are increasingly Serious Business in Scotland, with younger drinkers drinkers, in particular particular, growing tired of the heavier, sweeter ales preferred by the older generation. The aforementioned Brew Dog is the most notorious of Scotland's craft brewers, especially for its questionable marketing techniques.[[note]]One campaign featured the owners of the company dressed in drag, posing in a neon-lit window in the manner of sex workers, with a sign saying "Don't make us do this"; this was widely perceived as being offensive to LGBT people, as well as sex workers.[[/note]]



Scotland has had its own Parliament since 1999. It has accumulated many powers ever since. Pressure had been growing for ''devolution'' (transfer of powers to a more local level) in the previous decades. In the 1950s Scotland's politics were very much in harmony in England's. A variety of factors caused the two to fall out of step: the end of the British Empire, the discovery of North Sea oil and industrial decline over the next few decades. That had the twin effect of giving Scotland a political scene that was more left-wing than England's and that featured a prominent nationalist movement. The Scottish National Party (SNP) is the main political party to advocate independence. The other that has a foothold in the Scottish Parliament is the Greens. Three UK-wide parties have been the main organisers of opposition to independence, even if they don't agree on much else: Labour, the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats.

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Scotland has had its own Parliament since 1999. It has accumulated many powers ever since. Pressure had been growing for ''devolution'' (transfer of powers to a more local level) in the previous decades. In the 1950s Scotland's politics were very much in harmony in England's. A variety of factors caused the two to fall out of step: the end of the British Empire, the discovery of North Sea oil and industrial decline over the next few decades. That had the twin effect of giving Scotland a political scene that was more left-wing than England's and that featured a prominent nationalist movement. The Scottish National Party (SNP) is the main political party to advocate independence. The other that has a foothold in the Scottish Parliament is the Greens. Three UK-wide parties have been the main organisers of opposition to independence, even if they don't agree on much else: Labour, the Conservatives Conservatives, and the Liberal Democrats.



Finally, Scotland also has differing traditions for the holiday season. Christmas is traditionally less important (people working on Christmas Day is still quite common, and almost everyone is back at work by the 27th), with an increased emphasis on New Year's Eve (known as Hogmanay). Hogmanay is, more or less, a gigantic booze-up. Ceilidh music and the singing of Auld Lang Syne are also very common. Street parties are held - most famously in Edinburgh - and [[Creator/TheBBC BBC Scotland]] has an evening of programmes dedicated to it. Both New Year's Day and January 2nd are UsefulNotes/BankHolidays in Scotland, basically to deal with the almighty hangovers from Hogmanay. Hogmany programming traditionally revolved around the late, great Rikki Fulton's ''[[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QSDaNIdmV-Y Last Call]]'' monologue prior to the bells. Over time this has been replaced with ''Chewin' the Fat'' and ''Series/StillGame'' specials and football-themed sketch show ''Only an Excuse''. Creator/TheBBC coverage is often mocked as consistently being downright awful for [[TheEighties some unfathomable reason]].

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Finally, Scotland also has differing traditions for the holiday season. Christmas is traditionally less important (people working on Christmas Day is still quite common, and almost everyone is back at work by the 27th), with an increased emphasis on New Year's Eve (known as Hogmanay). Hogmanay is, more or less, a gigantic booze-up. Ceilidh music and the singing of Auld Lang Syne are also very common. Street parties are held - most famously in Edinburgh - and [[Creator/TheBBC BBC Scotland]] has an evening of programmes dedicated to it. Both New Year's Day and January 2nd are UsefulNotes/BankHolidays in Scotland, basically to deal with the almighty hangovers from Hogmanay. Hogmany Hogmanay programming traditionally revolved around the late, great Rikki Fulton's ''[[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QSDaNIdmV-Y Last Call]]'' monologue prior to the bells. Over time this has been replaced with ''Chewin' the Fat'' and ''Series/StillGame'' specials and football-themed sketch show ''Only an Excuse''. Creator/TheBBC coverage is often mocked as consistently being downright awful for [[TheEighties some unfathomable reason]].



* Destro, weapons supplier of the evil Cobra organisation in ''Franchise/GIJoe'', is the scottish James Mc Cullen XXIV, and some battles have even happened in his family castle.

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* Destro, weapons supplier of the evil Cobra organisation in ''Franchise/GIJoe'', is the scottish Scottish James Mc Cullen XXIV, and some battles have even happened in his family castle.



* Carl Barks's [[ComicBook/DisneyDucksComicUniverse Scrooge McDuck]]. The ancestral [=McDuck=] lands were a part of the lowlands called "Dismal Downs", but by Scrooge's birth the family had long since decamped to Glasgow.

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* Carl Barks's [[ComicBook/DisneyDucksComicUniverse Scrooge McDuck]]. The ancestral [=McDuck=] lands were a part of the lowlands called "Dismal Downs", but by Scrooge's birth birth, the family had long since decamped to Glasgow.



* ''ComicBook/DeKiekeboes'': In "De Doedelzak van Mac Reel" a Scottish scientist named Mac Reel (pun on "mackrel") is introduced. He lives in a castle in Scotland, where he wears a kilt and plays the bagpipes.

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* ''ComicBook/DeKiekeboes'': In "De Doedelzak van Mac Reel" a Scottish scientist named Mac Reel (pun (a pun on "mackrel") is introduced. He lives in a castle in Scotland, where he wears a kilt and plays the bagpipes.



* Also from Disney, ''Film/{{Maleficent}}'' is meant to be set in a fairy tale version of Medieval Scotland. Though the original ''Disney/SleepingBeauty'' was meant to be set in France, the filmmakers for this Live-Action, TwiceToldTale version reset the characters in and around the Scottish Highlands due to the film's greater emphasis on TheFairFolk. The highlands in particular play a huge role, being portrayed as a LandOfFaerie where the title character lives with various other fairy creatures, opposite a human kingdom whose king wishes to conquer the fairy realm to expand his territory.

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* Also from Disney, ''Film/{{Maleficent}}'' is meant to be set in a fairy tale version of Medieval Scotland. Though the original ''Disney/SleepingBeauty'' was meant to be set in France, the filmmakers for this Live-Action, TwiceToldTale version reset the characters in and around the Scottish Highlands due to the film's greater emphasis on TheFairFolk. The highlands Highlands, in particular particular, play a huge role, being portrayed as a LandOfFaerie where the title character lives with various other fairy creatures, opposite a human kingdom whose king wishes to conquer the fairy realm to expand his territory.



* ''Film/{{Doomsday}}'' opens with Scotland being quarantined to contain a very nasty plague known as "the Reaper virus". Protagonist Eden, a small child at the time, gets out just barely in time. As an adult, she has to return to try to find a medical researcher the government hopes has found a cure, since the virus is back. [[spoiler:Turns out that the only survivors are those who were immune in the first place. She gets that information back to London, but [[IChooseToStay elects to stay in her native country.]]]]

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* ''Film/{{Doomsday}}'' opens with Scotland being quarantined to contain a very nasty plague known as "the Reaper virus". Protagonist Eden, a small child at the time, gets out just barely in time. As an adult, she has to return to try to find a medical researcher the government hopes has found a cure, cure since the virus is back. [[spoiler:Turns out that the only survivors are those who were immune in the first place. She gets that information back to London, but [[IChooseToStay elects to stay in her native country.]]]]



* Creator/GeorgeMacDonaldFraser, who wrote, among other things, his splendid history of the Border Clans, ''Literature/TheSteelBonnets'' and his memoir of his experiences in a Border regiment during UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, ''Quartered Safe Out Here''. Also his experiences in the Gordon Highlanders, told in the ''Literature/McAuslan'' stories.

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* Creator/GeorgeMacDonaldFraser, who wrote, among other things, his splendid history of the Border Clans, ''Literature/TheSteelBonnets'' and his memoir of his experiences in a Border regiment during UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, ''Quartered Safe Out Here''. Also his experiences in the Gordon Highlanders, Highlanders told in the ''Literature/McAuslan'' stories.



* ''Series/{{Taggart}}'': As almost every English actor's CV will typically contain an appearance in ''Series/TheBill'', every Scottish actor's will feature a bit-part in ''{{Series/Taggart}}''. Except Creator/DavidTennant who has failed the audition several times. (He did ''The Bill'' instead.)

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* ''Series/{{Taggart}}'': As almost every English actor's CV will typically contain an appearance in ''Series/TheBill'', every Scottish actor's will feature a bit-part in ''{{Series/Taggart}}''. Except for Creator/DavidTennant who has failed the audition several times. (He did ''The Bill'' instead.)



* ''Series/PowerRangersRPM'' has Flynn [=McAllistair=] (the Blue Ranger), who is proud of his heritage, dressed up like William Wallace in a flashback, and wore a kilt to a wedding. The greatest battle of the series is Kiwi Actor vs. Scottish Accent.

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* ''Series/PowerRangersRPM'' has Flynn [=McAllistair=] (the Blue Ranger), who is proud of his heritage, dressed up like as William Wallace in a flashback, and wore a kilt to a wedding. The greatest battle of the series is Kiwi Actor vs. Scottish Accent.



* ''Series/StarTrekTheNextGeneration'' had an episode where the PlanetOfHats people were supposed to be descended from Scots. Needless to say not a single one of the accents involved would be recognised as Scottish by anyone from Scotland.

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* ''Series/StarTrekTheNextGeneration'' had an episode where the PlanetOfHats people were supposed to be descended from Scots. Needless to say say, not a single one of the accents involved would be recognised as Scottish by anyone from Scotland.



* ''Series/{{Highlander}}'s'' main character was, oddly, from the highlands. Although by the time of the series his accent had faded, it was often seen in flashbacks, along with just about every other Scottish trope possible. Except for the Claymore; he used one in some flashbacks, but at some point he picked up a Japanese Katana instead and started using that for everything.

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* ''Series/{{Highlander}}'s'' main character was, oddly, from the highlands. Although by the time of the series his accent had faded, it was often seen in flashbacks, along with just about every other Scottish trope possible. Except for the Claymore; he used one in some flashbacks, but at some point point, he picked up a Japanese Katana instead and started using that for everything.



* Music/{{ACDC}} front man, Bon Scott, was from Kirriemuir, Scotland. Also, the Young brothers have Scottish descent.

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* Music/{{ACDC}} front man, frontman, Bon Scott, was from Kirriemuir, Scotland. Also, the Young brothers have Scottish descent.



* Scotland has a large body of traditional and folk music, much of it dealing with Scottish life and history. The most prominent exponents of Scottish folk were The Corries, a duo comprised of Ronnie Browne and the late, great Roy Williamson, who helped popularise the folk revival of the '60s, and penned ''Flower of Scotland'', the nation's unofficial anthem. Other artists include Silly Wizard, The Clutha and The Tannahill Weavers, among many others.
** Highly successful celtic rock band Runrig hail from the Hebridean island of Skye. Much of their music deals with Scottish culture and tradition and makes use of the Gaelic language. They have covered several traditional songs, most famously ''Loch Lomond'', which became something of an anthem, and the definitive rock adaptation of the song.
** Numerous folk punk and celtic punk bands, in Scotland and elsewhere make use of music and lyrics inspired by folk music, including The Real [=McKenzies=] from Canada, Flatfoot 56 from the United States, and the Nyah Fearties from Scotland itself.

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* Scotland has a large body of traditional and folk music, much of it dealing with Scottish life and history. The most prominent exponents of Scottish folk were The Corries, a duo comprised of Ronnie Browne and the late, great Roy Williamson, who helped popularise the folk revival of the '60s, '60s and penned ''Flower of Scotland'', the nation's unofficial anthem. Other artists include Silly Wizard, The Clutha Clutha, and The Tannahill Weavers, among many others.
** Highly successful celtic Celtic rock band Runrig hail from the Hebridean island of Skye. Much of their music deals with Scottish culture and tradition and makes use of the Gaelic language. They have covered several traditional songs, most famously ''Loch Lomond'', which became something of an anthem, and the definitive rock adaptation of the song.
** Numerous folk punk and celtic Celtic punk bands, in Scotland and elsewhere make use of music and lyrics inspired by folk music, including The Real [=McKenzies=] from Canada, Flatfoot 56 from the United States, and the Nyah Fearties from Scotland itself.



* Scotland has a rich poetic traditional, including a great body of work in the Scots language, most famously the work of [[Creator/RobertBurns Robert "Rabbie" Burns]], a Scottish national hero whose popularity has led to his usurpation of the epithet "The Bard" within Scotland and the Scottish expatriate community (the title traditionally being used to describe Shakespeare in the English-speaking world). Much of his work was written in the Scots dialect, albeit a variety more Anglicised than is traditional, and deals with Scottish history and culture, particularly the Wars of Independence and the Jacobite Wars, both of which allowed Burns to indulge in his then radical positions of Scottish nationalism and republicanism without betraying his subversive message to then-rampant censorship. He also wrote songs, or adapted poems to music, including such canon examples as ''Scots Wha Hae'', ''Comin' Thro' The Rye'' and ''Auld Lang Syne'', the latter having achieved popularity throughout the English-speaking world.
* William Topaz [=McGonagall=] is notorious as probably the worst-ever poet in British history; he is the TropeNamer for GiftedlyBad. The other Wiki has an [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_McGonagall article]].
* Like many countries Scotland has a base of traditional folklore in poetry and prose as well as more formally noted authors. The historian, soldier, and spy UsefulNotes/FitzroyMaclean as late as the 20th century remembered as a youth hearing the Maclean clan bard telling tales of the deeds of his clan that sound from description like they would have satisfied any Klingon for warlikeness and bloodthirst. Other elements include stories of Fair Folk, "second sight", fisherman's tales and the like. Traditionally it was common for a clan to have a hereditary bard who would go into battle by the side of the chief to [[IntrepidReporter record his deeds and those of the clan]] albeit presumably with [[UnreliableNarrator more stress on drama then accuracy]].

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* Scotland has a rich poetic traditional, tradition, including a great body of work in the Scots language, most famously the work of [[Creator/RobertBurns Robert "Rabbie" Burns]], a Scottish national hero whose popularity has led to his usurpation of the epithet "The Bard" within Scotland and the Scottish expatriate community (the title traditionally being used to describe Shakespeare in the English-speaking world). Much of his work was written in the Scots dialect, albeit a variety more Anglicised than is traditional, and deals with Scottish history and culture, particularly the Wars of Independence and the Jacobite Wars, both of which allowed Burns to indulge in his then radical then-radical positions of Scottish nationalism and republicanism without betraying his subversive message to then-rampant censorship. He also wrote songs, or adapted poems to music, including such canon examples as ''Scots Wha Hae'', ''Comin' Thro' The Rye'' and ''Auld Lang Syne'', the latter having achieved popularity throughout the English-speaking world.
* William Topaz [=McGonagall=] is notorious as probably the worst-ever poet in British history; he is the TropeNamer for GiftedlyBad. The other Other Wiki has an [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_McGonagall article]].
* Like many countries Scotland has a base of traditional folklore in poetry and prose as well as more formally noted authors. The historian, soldier, and spy UsefulNotes/FitzroyMaclean as late as the 20th century remembered as a youth hearing the Maclean clan bard telling tales of the deeds of his clan that sound from description like they would have satisfied any Klingon for warlikeness and bloodthirst. Other elements include stories of Fair Folk, "second sight", fisherman's tales and the like. Traditionally it was common for a clan to have a hereditary bard who would go into battle by the side of the chief to [[IntrepidReporter record his deeds and those of the clan]] albeit presumably with [[UnreliableNarrator more stress on drama then than accuracy]].



* Sultry succubus Morrigan Aensland, of ''VideoGame/{{Darkstalkers}}'' fame is Scottish, and is named after a Celtic war goddess. She even has an approximate Scots accent in ''Marvel Vs Capcom 3''.

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* Sultry succubus Morrigan Aensland, of ''VideoGame/{{Darkstalkers}}'' fame is Scottish, Scottish and is named after a Celtic war goddess. She even has an approximate Scots accent in ''Marvel Vs Capcom 3''.


* ''WesternAnimation/CountDuckula'' had an episode where the Count and co' travelled to Scotland to find the Loch Ness Monster. There they ran into the Count's Scottish Uncle Rory MacDuckula.

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* ''WesternAnimation/CountDuckula'' had an episode where the Count and co' travelled to Scotland to find the Loch Ness Monster. There they ran into the Count's Scottish Uncle Rory MacDuckula.[=MacDuckula=].



* The ''WesternAnimation/KimPossible'' villain Duff Killigan wears a kilt and tam'o'shanter, lives in a castle, is obsessed with golf, loves haggis and has a soundtrack of bagpipes playing whenever he appears onscreen.
* ''WesternAnimation/TheSimpsons'': Groundskeeper Willie, also a bag of clichés. But he's right about thing: there's nae a animal alive that can outrun a greased Scotsman.

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* The ''WesternAnimation/KimPossible'' villain Duff Killigan wears a kilt and tam'o'shanter, lives in a castle, is obsessed with golf, loves haggis haggis, and has a soundtrack of bagpipes playing whenever he appears onscreen.
* ''WesternAnimation/TheSimpsons'': Groundskeeper Willie, also a bag of clichés. But he's right about one thing: there's nae a animal alive that can outrun a greased Scotsman.

Added DiffLines:

* While it's not readily apparent from the get-go, musician and former Music/TalkingHeads frontman Music/DavidByrne hails from Dumbarton; he and his family moved to Maryland at a young age, both for work reasons and because of religious tensions within his extended family (as his father was a Catholic married to a Presbyterian), and has spent the rest of his life in America since then.


The West of Scotland is also notorious for the sectarian feud between Catholics and Protestants, typically made manifest in the Old Firm: the bitter rivalry between Celtic and Rangers, Glasgow's most widely recognised football teams, with most Catholics aligning to the former and and Protestants the latter, and people asking "What team are you?" to ascertain one's religious denomination. Note that this question is also used by those of a less than social disposition as an indicator of whether or not you're allowed to live another day, and is always rhetorical -- the correct answer is whichever team the enquirer supports, and wrong answers or attempts to TakeAThirdOption often end in violence. A safe answer for the unsure is "Queen's Park", since, despite being one of Scotland's less-than-stellar teams, their home ground, Hampden Park, is the national stadium, and should instill enough patriotism in the attacker to allow you to escape to safer ground, or at least change the subject. Although present in other parts of Scotland such as Edinburgh and Dundee, nowhere else is the conflict so aggravated. It's also (far more prominently and scarily) present in Northern and even the Republic of Ireland.

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The West of Scotland is also notorious for the sectarian feud between Catholics and Protestants, typically made manifest in the Old Firm: the bitter rivalry between Celtic and Rangers, Glasgow's most widely recognised football teams, with most Catholics aligning to the former and and Protestants the latter, and people asking "What team are you?" to ascertain one's religious denomination. Note that this question is also used by those of a less than social disposition as an indicator of whether or not you're allowed to live another day, and is always rhetorical -- the correct answer is whichever team the enquirer supports, and wrong answers or attempts to TakeAThirdOption often end in violence. A safe answer for the unsure is "Queen's Park", since, despite being one of Scotland's less-than-stellar teams, their home ground, Hampden Park, is the national stadium, football stadium,[[note]]though it's not the country's largest stadium—that honour belongs to Murrayfield, the national rugby stadium[[/note]] and should instill enough patriotism in the attacker to allow you to escape to safer ground, or at least change the subject. Although present in other parts of Scotland such as Edinburgh and Dundee, nowhere else is the conflict so aggravated. It's also (far more prominently and scarily) present in Northern and even the Republic of Ireland.


*** For anyone confused and wondering, Scotland's ''first'' national drink is of course '''Whisky''' of which there are [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_distilleries_in_Scotland huge amounts of types, brands, varieties, labels, and distilleries]][[note]]this is due to something of a renaissance in micro-brewing in the last decade or so. Some of these small operations will only brew one label on a very limited run before closing again, or change varieties and brewing methods with each casking[[/note]]. Tasting them all and debating which is best is the work of a lifetime, so is debating exactly how many there are and which type is which for that matter. One which definitely isn't, is [[SpellMyNameWithAnS whiskey with an "e"]], which is Irish.[[note]]And [[UsefulNotes/CuisinesInAmerica American]], while "whisky" (no "e") is also Canadian. The distinction makes sense: the American frontier distillers who developed American whiskey were historically Ulster Scots--like most distillers in 19th-century Ireland--while Canadian ones were Scots from Scotland. While the American and Canadian styles of whisk(e)y were adapted for new grains in the New World--maize and rye (particularly rye in Canada)--the similarities between Irish and American whiskey and Scottish and Canadian whisky, respectively, remain clear to the attentive drinker. Not to say that any one of these is better than Scotch...[[/note]] Getting that wrong can also be a debate that will last a lifetime, ([[ViolentGlaswegian but also less than half an hour]]) if uttered in the wrong place.

to:

*** For anyone confused and wondering, Scotland's ''first'' national drink is of course '''Whisky''' of which there are [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_distilleries_in_Scotland huge amounts of types, brands, varieties, labels, and distilleries]][[note]]this is due to something of a renaissance in micro-brewing craft distilling in the last decade or so. Some of these small operations will only brew produce one label on a very limited run before closing again, or change varieties and brewing production methods with each casking[[/note]]. Tasting them all and debating which is best is the work of a lifetime, so is debating exactly how many there are and which type is which for that matter. One which definitely isn't, is [[SpellMyNameWithAnS whiskey with an "e"]], which is Irish.[[note]]And [[UsefulNotes/CuisinesInAmerica American]], while "whisky" (no "e") is also Canadian. The distinction makes sense: the American frontier distillers who developed American whiskey were historically Ulster Scots--like most distillers in 19th-century Ireland--while Canadian ones were Scots from Scotland. While the American and Canadian styles of whisk(e)y were adapted for new grains in the New World--maize and rye (particularly rye in Canada)--the similarities between Irish and American whiskey and Scottish and Canadian whisky, respectively, remain clear to the attentive drinker. Not to say that any one of these is better than Scotch...[[/note]] Getting that wrong can also be a debate that will last a lifetime, ([[ViolentGlaswegian but also less than half an hour]]) if uttered in the wrong place.


* ''{{DarthWiki/TheGingerverse}}'': Hava Goodtime is mostly Scottish, along with several other nationalities (Greek, Kazakh, Hungarian and French). Also, in the spinoff series called Aurora Borealis and Company, there is a boy from Edinburgh, [[DidNotGetTheGirl [=McGlashin=]]], who is in love with [[BeautyIsBad Younghee Byeol]], and Cassie [=MacScott=], one of Aurora's friends.


* '''Irn Bru''': Pronounced "Iron Brew". Scotland's ''other'' national drink. Radioactive orange in color; alleged to have energy-giving properties, and to be made from girders. Believed to be a good cure for hangovers, which may explain its popularity. In fact, Scotland is one of three countries where Coke is not the biggest-selling soft drink, with Irn Bru being the most popular soft drink by a considerable margin.[[note]]For those interested, the other countries are Greece, which still carries a grudge against UsefulNotes/{{Atlanta}} in the States (where Coca-Cola is headquartered) over "stealing" the Centennial UsefulNotes/{{Olympic|Games}}s from Athens; and Peru, where the top soft drink is Inca Kola (which is now part-owned by Coca-Cola). There's also a significant subnational semi-exception in South Australia, where Farmer's Union iced coffee outsells Coca-Cola, as well, but since the iced coffee isn't fizzy, it's unclear whether this "counts".[[/note]]
** Scotland's ''other'' other national drink is '''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Kola Red Kola]]'''[[note]] There are two varieties, Curries's or Barr's. We strongly advise you not get involved in a debate over which is better[[/note]] which is pretty much the same as Irn Bru, only instead of radioactive orange it is radioactive red. Pretty much anything you hear about Bru can be applied to Red Kola, with all the same caveats. Red Kola is most popular in Ayrshire and the surrounding, for the obvious reason that that is where Curries used to make the stuff before being bought out. Also available in a boiled sweet form which is called Red Kola Kubes.

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* '''Irn Bru''': '''Irn-Bru''': Pronounced "Iron Brew". Scotland's ''other'' national drink. Radioactive orange in color; alleged to have energy-giving properties, and to be made from girders. Believed to be a good cure for hangovers, which may explain its popularity. In fact, Scotland is one of three countries where Coke is not the biggest-selling soft drink, with Irn Bru Irn-Bru being the most popular soft drink by a considerable margin.[[note]]For those interested, the other countries are Greece, which still carries a grudge against UsefulNotes/{{Atlanta}} in the States (where Coca-Cola is headquartered) over "stealing" the Centennial UsefulNotes/{{Olympic|Games}}s from Athens; and Peru, where the top soft drink is Inca Kola (which is now part-owned by Coca-Cola). There's also a significant subnational semi-exception in South Australia, where Farmer's Union iced coffee outsells Coca-Cola, as well, but since the iced coffee isn't fizzy, it's unclear whether this "counts".[[/note]]
** Scotland's ''other'' other national drink is '''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Kola Red Kola]]'''[[note]] There are two varieties, Curries's or Barr's. We strongly advise you not get involved in a debate over which is better[[/note]] which is pretty much the same as Irn Bru, Irn-Bru, only instead of radioactive orange it is radioactive red. Pretty much anything you hear about Bru can be applied to Red Kola, with all the same caveats. Red Kola is most popular in Ayrshire and the surrounding, for the obvious reason that that is where Curries used to make the stuff before being bought out. Also available in a boiled sweet form which is called Red Kola Kubes.


** Demonstrating how traditional and international food can be deliciously merged: The Spicy Haggis Panini is a delicious sandwich, and Haggis Pakora is widely available in take-away restaurants around Glasgow. Haggis can basically be used wherever minced meat is used. It really works well in tomato-based dishes like Bolognese, Lasagne and Chili con carne.

to:

** Demonstrating how traditional and international food can be deliciously merged: The Spicy Haggis Panini is a delicious sandwich, and Haggis Pakora is widely available in take-away restaurants around Glasgow. Haggis can basically be used wherever minced meat is used. It really works well in tomato-based dishes like Bolognese, Lasagne and Chili Chilli con carne.


** Demonstrating how traditional and international food can be deliciously merged: The Spicy Haggis Panini is a delicious sandwich, and Haggis Pakora is widely available in take-away restaurants around Glasgow. Haggis can basically be used wherever minced meat is used. It really works well in tomato-based dishes like Bolognese, Lasagne and Chilli-con-carne.
* '''Irn Bru''': Pronounced "Iron Brew". Scotland's ''other'' national drink. Radioactive orange in color; alleged to have energy-giving properties, and to be made from girders. Believed to be a good cure for hangovers, which may explain its popularity. In fact, Scotland is one of three countries where Coke is not the biggest-selling soft drink, with Irn Bru being the most popular soft drink by a considerable margin.[[note]]For those interested, the other countries are Greece, which still carries a grudge against Atlanta, GA in the 'States (where Coca-Cola is headquartered) over "stealing" the Centennial Olympics from Athens; and Peru, where the top soft drink is Inca Cola. There's also a significant subnational semi-exception in South Australia, where Farmer's Union iced coffee outsells Coca-Cola, as well, but since the iced coffee isn't fizzy, it's unclear whether this "counts".[[/note]]
** Scotland's ''other'' other national drink is '''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Kola Red Kola]]'''[[note]] There are two varieties, Curries's or Barr's. We strongly advise you not get involved in a debate over which is better[[/note]] which is pretty much the same as Irn Bru only instead of radioactive orange it is radioactive red. Pretty much anything you hear about Bru can be applied to Red Kola, with all the same caveats. Red Kola is most popular in Ayrshire and the surrounding, for the obvious reason that that is where Curries used to make the stuff before being bought out. Also available in a boiled sweet form which is called Red Kola Kubes.
*** For anyone confused and wondering, Scotland's ''first'' national drink is of course '''Whisky''' of which there are [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_distilleries_in_Scotland huge amounts of types, brands, varieties, labels, and distilleries]][[note]]this is due to something of a renaissance in micro-brewing in the last decade or so. Some of these small operations will only brew one label on a very limited run before closing again, or change varieties and brewing methods with each casking[[/note]]. Tasting them all and debating which is best is the work of a lifetime, so is debating exactly how many there are and which type is which for that matter. One which definitely isn't, is [[SpellMyNameWithAnS whiskey with an "e"]], which is Irish.[[note]]And [[UsefulNotes/CuisinesInAmerica American]], while "whisky" (no "e") is also Canadian. The distinction makes sense: the American frontier distillers who developed American whiskey were historically Ulster Scots--like most distillers in 19th-century Ireland--while Canadian ones were Scots from Scotland. While the American and Canadian styles of whisk(e)y were adapted for new grains in the New World--maize and rye (particularly rye in Canada)--the similarities between Irish and American whiskey and Scottish and Canadian whisky, respectively, remain clear to the attentive drinker. Not to say that any one of these is better than Scotch...[[/note]] Getting that wrong can also be a debate that will last a lifetime, ([[ViolentGlaswegian but also less than half an hour]]) if uttered in the wrong place.
* '''Deep-fried Mars Bars''': Are actually real. They originated as a novelty item somewhere in some corner of darkest Scotland - although its true origins are shrouded in the mists of time[[note]]and alcohol[[/note]] - and have since spread to become a novelty item everywhere else: a kind of national joke and conspiracy, but if a tourist asks for one, he's getting one. (Note that [[SeparatedByACommonLanguage what is marketed as a Mars bar]] in the [=UK=] more closely resembles the American Milky Way bar than the American Mars bar, which has since been rebranded as Snickers w/ Almonds.) Aberdeen, Edinburgh, UsefulNotes/{{Glasgow}} and Dundee all claim to have invented it.

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** Demonstrating how traditional and international food can be deliciously merged: The Spicy Haggis Panini is a delicious sandwich, and Haggis Pakora is widely available in take-away restaurants around Glasgow. Haggis can basically be used wherever minced meat is used. It really works well in tomato-based dishes like Bolognese, Lasagne and Chilli-con-carne.
Chili con carne.
* '''Irn Bru''': Pronounced "Iron Brew". Scotland's ''other'' national drink. Radioactive orange in color; alleged to have energy-giving properties, and to be made from girders. Believed to be a good cure for hangovers, which may explain its popularity. In fact, Scotland is one of three countries where Coke is not the biggest-selling soft drink, with Irn Bru being the most popular soft drink by a considerable margin.[[note]]For those interested, the other countries are Greece, which still carries a grudge against Atlanta, GA UsefulNotes/{{Atlanta}} in the 'States States (where Coca-Cola is headquartered) over "stealing" the Centennial Olympics UsefulNotes/{{Olympic|Games}}s from Athens; and Peru, where the top soft drink is Inca Cola.Kola (which is now part-owned by Coca-Cola). There's also a significant subnational semi-exception in South Australia, where Farmer's Union iced coffee outsells Coca-Cola, as well, but since the iced coffee isn't fizzy, it's unclear whether this "counts".[[/note]]
** Scotland's ''other'' other national drink is '''[[http://en.'''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Kola Red Kola]]'''[[note]] There are two varieties, Curries's or Barr's. We strongly advise you not get involved in a debate over which is better[[/note]] which is pretty much the same as Irn Bru Bru, only instead of radioactive orange it is radioactive red. Pretty much anything you hear about Bru can be applied to Red Kola, with all the same caveats. Red Kola is most popular in Ayrshire and the surrounding, for the obvious reason that that is where Curries used to make the stuff before being bought out. Also available in a boiled sweet form which is called Red Kola Kubes.
*** For anyone confused and wondering, Scotland's ''first'' national drink is of course '''Whisky''' of which there are [[http://en.[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_distilleries_in_Scotland huge amounts of types, brands, varieties, labels, and distilleries]][[note]]this is due to something of a renaissance in micro-brewing in the last decade or so. Some of these small operations will only brew one label on a very limited run before closing again, or change varieties and brewing methods with each casking[[/note]]. Tasting them all and debating which is best is the work of a lifetime, so is debating exactly how many there are and which type is which for that matter. One which definitely isn't, is [[SpellMyNameWithAnS whiskey with an "e"]], which is Irish.[[note]]And [[UsefulNotes/CuisinesInAmerica American]], while "whisky" (no "e") is also Canadian. The distinction makes sense: the American frontier distillers who developed American whiskey were historically Ulster Scots--like most distillers in 19th-century Ireland--while Canadian ones were Scots from Scotland. While the American and Canadian styles of whisk(e)y were adapted for new grains in the New World--maize and rye (particularly rye in Canada)--the similarities between Irish and American whiskey and Scottish and Canadian whisky, respectively, remain clear to the attentive drinker. Not to say that any one of these is better than Scotch...[[/note]] Getting that wrong can also be a debate that will last a lifetime, ([[ViolentGlaswegian but also less than half an hour]]) if uttered in the wrong place.
* '''Deep-fried Mars Bars''': Are actually real. They originated as a novelty item somewhere in some corner of darkest Scotland - although its true origins are shrouded in the mists of time[[note]]and alcohol[[/note]] - and have since spread to become a novelty item everywhere else: a kind of national joke and conspiracy, but if a tourist asks for one, he's getting one. (Note that [[SeparatedByACommonLanguage what is marketed as a Mars bar]] in the [=UK=] UK more closely resembles the American Milky Way bar than the American Mars bar, which has since been rebranded as Snickers w/ Almonds.) Aberdeen, Edinburgh, UsefulNotes/{{Glasgow}} and Dundee all claim to have invented it.



* The '''Scotch Egg''', a hard-boiled egg that has been de-shelled, wrapped in sausage meat, rolled in breadcrumbs, and--[[RunningGag yes]]--deep-fried. Contrary to popular belief, the Scotch Egg was actually invented in Victorian London, and the etymology is unconnected to Scotland.[[note]]The Scotch Egg is associated in British popular culture with a certain kind of stolid, schlubby masculinity, being the favourite food of the acccountant Keith in ''Series/TheOfficeUK''. This is perhaps because they're usually sold in supermarkets and eaten cold, in which condition they taste boring but reassuring. Heaten up or served fresh, they are crispier and tastier. Reheating them also has the effect of causing the sausage meat to lose some of its fat, making them ''marginally'' less bad for you.[[/note]]

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* The '''Scotch Egg''', a hard-boiled egg that has been de-shelled, wrapped in sausage meat, rolled in breadcrumbs, and--[[RunningGag yes]]--deep-fried. Contrary to popular belief, the Scotch Egg was actually invented in Victorian London, and the etymology is unconnected to Scotland.[[note]]The Scotch Egg is associated in British popular culture with a certain kind of stolid, schlubby masculinity, being the favourite food of the acccountant accountant Keith in ''Series/TheOfficeUK''. This is perhaps because they're usually sold in supermarkets and eaten cold, in which condition they taste boring but reassuring. Heaten up or served fresh, they are crispier and tastier. Reheating them also has the effect of causing the sausage meat to lose some of its fat, making them ''marginally'' less bad for you.[[/note]]



*** As with Whisky (above) there are a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_breweries_in_Scotland number of microbreweries making specialist beers]]. Once again, sampling them all would be the work of a lifetime.

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*** As with Whisky (above) there are a [[http://en.[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_breweries_in_Scotland number of microbreweries making specialist beers]]. Once again, sampling them all would be the work of a lifetime.



*** In Edinburgh, the local Caledonian Brewery (The Caley) is king of the beer market. Their most famous beers are Deuchar's [=IPA=], [=McEwan's =]Export, and 80/-. All of these are fine drinks in their own right, and Edinburghers tend to get...evangelical...about how excellent they are.

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*** In Edinburgh, the local Caledonian Brewery (The Caley) is king of the beer market. Their most famous beers are Deuchar's [=IPA=], IPA, [=McEwan's =]Export, and 80/-. All of these are fine drinks in their own right, and Edinburghers tend to get...evangelical...about how excellent they are.



* '''Square Sausage''': Sausage. [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin Shaped like a square]]. Also called a Lorne sausage. Can be eaten as breakfast, lunch or dinner; in the former cases, often combined with a roll.[[note]]Square sausage is what happens when heterosexual male Presbyterians decide that there is something unmanly about putting a juicy, sausage-shaped object into their mouths, and devise a means of shaping sausage so that it both [[DoesThisRemindYouOfAnything doesn't remind them of anything]] and loses its strength-sapping, effeminate moisture as quickly and efficiently as possible. A properly cooked slice of square sausage is crispy on the outside, chewy on the inside, and tastes of fat, salt, pepper and nothing else.[[/note]] Can be sold in either refrigerated or frozen form; the latter has twice been mistaken for [[StickyBomb SemTex]] at English airport security, the second occasion being with the star of police drama {{Series/Taggart}}. Needless to say, this was funny as hell.

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* '''Square Sausage''': Sausage. [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin Shaped like a square]]. Also called a Lorne sausage. Can be eaten as breakfast, lunch or dinner; in the former cases, often combined with a roll.[[note]]Square sausage is what happens when heterosexual male Presbyterians decide that there is something unmanly about putting a juicy, sausage-shaped object into their mouths, and devise a means of shaping sausage so that it both [[DoesThisRemindYouOfAnything doesn't remind them of anything]] and loses its strength-sapping, effeminate moisture as quickly and efficiently as possible. A properly cooked slice of square sausage is crispy on the outside, chewy on the inside, and tastes of fat, salt, pepper and nothing else.[[/note]] Can be sold in either refrigerated or frozen form; the latter has twice been mistaken for [[StickyBomb SemTex]] Semtex]] at English airport security, the second occasion being with the star of police drama {{Series/Taggart}}. Needless to say, this was funny as hell.



The Scottish legal system has historically been different from [[UsefulNotes/TheCommonLaw that of England]], and the separate legal system was guaranteed by the 1707 treaty, and diverged a bit more with devolution (but not much, since the main change is that the same separate Scottish law is now mostly made at Holyrood, rather than Westminster: it's still the same law). This leads to various quirks in Scottish law, such as the fact that to this day there is no statute against fraud. Another interesting quirk is that in Scotland, there are three court verdicts: Proven, Not Proven (otherwise known as "not guilty and don't do it again" or the "bastard verdict"), and Not Guilty. Owing to the prevalence of Anglo-American media, very few people in Scotland know this. The Scottish Education system is also different, see UsefulNotes/BritishEducationSystem.

The Act of Union also guaranteed a separate Established (though not state) Church. The Church of Scotland is Presbyterian, the Free Church of Scotland (sometimes known as the "Wee Frees") has no established status but a religious monopoly in most of the Western Isles and is even more Presbyterian (they take "T' S-habbath" like Orthodox Jews). Then again there's the Free Church (Continuing), the Associated Presbyterian Church and the Free Presbyterian Church (the "Wee Wee Frees"), all of which broke off from one and other over the past three centuries, which is all a bit [[Film/MontyPythonsLifeOfBrian People's Front]] [[WeAreStrugglingTogether of Judea]]. The Queen, official head of the Church of England (Episcopalian), is but a lay member of the Church of Scotland (albeit one who is the Church's designated "Protector") and somehow converts to a new religion every time she crosses the border. Incidentally, many members of the Royal Family lean towards the Church of Scotland rather than the Church of England; the Queen herself for one (possibly on account of her Scottish mother), and Queen Victoria was much the same.

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The Scottish legal system has historically been different from [[UsefulNotes/TheCommonLaw that of England]], and the separate legal system was guaranteed by the 1707 treaty, and diverged a bit more with devolution (but not much, since the main change is that the same separate Scottish law is now mostly made at Holyrood, rather than Westminster: it's still the same law). This leads to various quirks in Scottish law, such as the fact that to this day there is no statute against fraud. Another interesting quirk is that in Scotland, there are three court verdicts: Proven, Not Proven (otherwise known as "not guilty and don't do it again" or the "bastard verdict"), and Not Guilty. Owing to the prevalence of Anglo-American media, very few people in Scotland know this. The Scottish Education system is also different, different; see UsefulNotes/BritishEducationSystem.

The Act of Union also guaranteed a separate Established (though not state) Church. The Church of Scotland is Presbyterian, Presbyterian; the Free Church of Scotland (sometimes known as the "Wee Frees") has no established status but a religious monopoly in most of the Western Isles and is even more Presbyterian (they take "T' S-habbath" like Orthodox Jews). Then again there's the Free Church (Continuing), the Associated Presbyterian Church and the Free Presbyterian Church (the "Wee Wee Frees"), all of which broke off from one and other over the past three centuries, which is all a bit [[Film/MontyPythonsLifeOfBrian People's Front]] [[WeAreStrugglingTogether of Judea]]. The Queen, official head of the Church of England (Episcopalian), is but a lay member of the Church of Scotland (albeit one who is the Church's designated "Protector") and somehow converts to a new religion every time she crosses the border. Incidentally, many members of the Royal Family lean towards the Church of Scotland rather than the Church of England; the Queen herself for one (possibly on account of her Scottish mother), and Queen Victoria UsefulNotes/QueenVictoria was much the same.



Oh, and the Scots will take the piss out of just about anything. When England or America get hit by a Hurricane, they will give it a formal name. In Scotland? It will get named ''"Hurricane Bawbag"''. [[note]]'Bawbag' being Scots English for 'scrotum'.[[/note]] No. Really, [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane_Bawbag We're not joking here.]]

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Oh, and the Scots will take the piss out of just about anything. When England or America get hit by a Hurricane, they will give it a formal name. In Scotland? It will get named ''"Hurricane Bawbag"''. [[note]]'Bawbag' being Scots English for 'scrotum'.[[/note]] No. Really, [[http://en.[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane_Bawbag We're not joking here.]]


The Clan system along the English border was slightly different from that in the Highlands, forged from constant warfare with England, and which lasted even after (roughly) amiable relations were established during the reign of [[UsefulNotes/ElizabethI Elizabeth of England]] and [[UsefulNotes/TheHouseOfStuart James VI of Scotland]] (of course, how nasty can you get with your most acceptable likely heir?).[[note]]Yes, Elizabeth killed James' mother, UsefulNotes/MaryOfScotland, but that was politically necessary simply because she's Roman Catholic, which no doubt raised not a few eyebrows among noblemen suspicious of Rome's encroachment. It was NothingPersonal, and everyone understood that nobody took any pleasure in the business. Frankly, many Scots were almost relieved to be rid of Mary; the very populous Lowlands were pretty much entirely Protestant, and as upset they might have been at the killing of their sovereign, they appreciated the opportunity to raise a good Protestant King.[[/note]] When James succeeded his second-degree aunt, placing the kingdoms under the same ruler for the first time, the Border clans were ethnically cleansed. After that they tended to be resettled in areas where highly ferocious people could be out of sight of Westminster, but not out from indigenous peoples whom the Crown also found inconvenient. In Ireland they formed much of the ancestry of the Ulstermen. In North America they became the "Scots-Irish", settling in the Appalachians and further West, thus presaging the famous anti-gub'mint orneriness of these regions. The Highland Clans took longer to subdue. They tended to take the side of the House of Stuart in the various civil wars and were almost eliminated culturally after the Battle of Culloden in 1745. They were saved by two quirks of history. One was that it was realised that Highlanders made for useful soldiers and were as apt to serve the Crown as to rebel against it. The other was the Romantic literary movement, notably as represented by Sir UsefulNotes/WalterScott. During this time ethnic exoticism became seen as colorful instead of dangerous, and the clans became fashionable in the ruling classes of Great Britain. Many of the customs we associate with the Clans in fact date from this period. For instance, the Tartans, or clan heraldry on the kilts, were in fact not standardized until this period. In another way, however, this was a bad time for the Highlands, as it was the time of the notorious Clearances in which landholders were evicting tenants for the sake of changing agricultural products; the largest landowners were of course their own chiefs who found that in a now pacified Scotland there was more status to be had from wealth than the number of followers (to be fair a few chiefs actually beggared themselves trying to protect their clans from economic conditions). Some of the evicted tenants survived by migration to North America (particularly Canada) and other places; others survived from the pay for [[UsefulNotes/BritsWithBattleships soldiering]] and related work across UsefulNotes/TheBritishEmpire.

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The Clan system along the English border was slightly different from that in the Highlands, forged from constant warfare with England, and which lasted even after (roughly) amiable relations were established during the reign of [[UsefulNotes/ElizabethI Elizabeth of England]] and [[UsefulNotes/TheHouseOfStuart James VI of Scotland]] (of course, how nasty can you get with your most acceptable likely heir?).[[note]]Yes, Elizabeth killed James' mother, UsefulNotes/MaryOfScotland, but that was politically necessary simply because she's Roman Catholic, which no doubt raised not a few eyebrows among noblemen suspicious of Rome's encroachment. It was NothingPersonal, and everyone understood that nobody took any pleasure in the business. Frankly, many Scots were almost relieved to be rid of Mary; the very populous Lowlands were pretty much entirely Protestant, and as upset they might have been at the killing of their sovereign, they appreciated the opportunity to raise a good Protestant King.[[/note]] When James succeeded his second-degree aunt, placing the kingdoms under the same ruler for the first time, the Border clans were ethnically cleansed. After that they tended to be resettled in areas where highly ferocious people could be out of sight of Westminster, but not out from indigenous peoples whom the Crown also found inconvenient. In Ireland they formed much of the ancestry of the Ulstermen. In North America they became the "Scots-Irish", settling in the Appalachians and further West, thus presaging the famous anti-gub'mint orneriness of these regions. The Highland Clans took longer to subdue. They tended to take the side of the House of Stuart in the various civil wars and were almost eliminated culturally after the Battle of Culloden in 1745. They were saved by two quirks of history. One was that it was realised that Highlanders made for useful soldiers and were as apt to serve the Crown as to rebel against it. The other was the Romantic literary movement, notably as represented by Sir UsefulNotes/WalterScott.Creator/WalterScott. During this time ethnic exoticism became seen as colorful instead of dangerous, and the clans became fashionable in the ruling classes of Great Britain. Many of the customs we associate with the Clans in fact date from this period. For instance, the Tartans, or clan heraldry on the kilts, were in fact not standardized until this period. In another way, however, this was a bad time for the Highlands, as it was the time of the notorious Clearances in which landholders were evicting tenants for the sake of changing agricultural products; the largest landowners were of course their own chiefs who found that in a now pacified Scotland there was more status to be had from wealth than the number of followers (to be fair a few chiefs actually beggared themselves trying to protect their clans from economic conditions). Some of the evicted tenants survived by migration to North America (particularly Canada) and other places; others survived from the pay for [[UsefulNotes/BritsWithBattleships soldiering]] and related work across UsefulNotes/TheBritishEmpire.


Scotland is the country on the north of the British Isles. Historically an independent state, it was formally merged with England into Great Britain by a treaty in 1707. Its capital is Edinburgh (appointed as such in 1999, though it had been one for centuries prior to the 1707 treaty), while its largest city is the industrial center of UsefulNotes/{{Glasgow}}. [[BerserkButton Do not call a Scot "English"]] (ditto for UsefulNotes/{{W|ales}}elsh, [[UsefulNotes/NorthernIreland Northern Irish]], and UsefulNotes/{{Ir|eland}}ish people). It is correct to say that the Scottish are British, though, as we'll see below, there's a political debate ongoing over this.

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Scotland is the country on the north of the British Isles. Historically an independent state, it was formally merged with England into Great Britain by a treaty in 1707. Its capital is Edinburgh (appointed as such in 1999, though it had been one for centuries prior to the 1707 treaty), while its largest city is the industrial center of UsefulNotes/{{Glasgow}}. [[BerserkButton Do not call a Scot "English"]] (ditto for UsefulNotes/{{W|ales}}elsh, [[UsefulNotes/NorthernIreland Northern Irish]], UsefulNotes/{{W|ales}}elsh and UsefulNotes/{{Ir|eland}}ish people). It is correct to say that the Scottish are British, though, as we'll see below, there's a political debate ongoing over this.

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** ''Film/{{Skyfall}}''

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