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'''Live-bearing?:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homalocephale Homalocephale]]''

to:

'''Live-bearing?:''' '''Live-Bearing?:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homalocephale Homalocephale]]''



'''The first pachycephalosaur?:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaverlandia Yaverlandia]]''

to:

'''The first pachycephalosaur?:''' First Pachycephalosaur?:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaverlandia Yaverlandia]]''


'''Domeheads and Flatheads'''

* Many pachycephalosaurs have received the suffix ''-cephale'', meaning head in Greek. ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goyocephale Goyocephale]]'' means "decorated head", was found in Mongolia and was flat-headed like a ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Homalocephale]]'' but with a pair of canine-like teeth; ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tylocephale Tylocephale]]'' means "swollen head", was also Mongolian and with the tallest dome among pachycephalosaurians; ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alaskacephale Alaskacephale]]'' [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin found in Alaska]] maybe was the closest relative of ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Pachycephalosaurus]]''. Some others end with ''-tholus'', meaning "dome": ex. North American ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki_Gravitholus Gravitholus]]'' ("heavy dome") & ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornatotholus Ornatotholus]]'' ("ornated dome", today synonimized with ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Stegoceras]]''), as well as ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphaerotholus Sphaerotholus]]'' ("ball-like dome"), once believed the North-american species of ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Prenocephale]]''.



'''The first pachycephalosaur?:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaverlandia Yaverlandia]]''

* Remember ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursSaurischianDinosaurs Majungatholus]]'' ("Majunga's dome"), that pachycephalosaur from Madagascar which revealed to be the horn of a ''giant theropod''? This was not an isolated case. ''Yaverlandia'' from Early Cretaceous England (Isle of Wight) was once mentioned as the “most ancient pachycephalosaur”: but its only remain, a tiny skull-dome with two small thickenings above (its complete scientific name, ''Yaverlandia bitholus'', means "Yaverland's double-dome") has been reclassified as a [[ScienceMarchesOn bird-like theropod]]. "Majungatholus", in turn, was believed the only pachycephalosaur living in the Southern Emisphere. Many things might deceptively resemble pachy domes and lead experts in error; the fact that pachycephalosaurs included some of the tiniest dinosaurs has also contributed to this. For example, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wannanosaurus Wannanosaurus]]'' from China was only two feet long (like a ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursSaurischianDinosaurs Microraptor]]'') with a flat head that made it looking like a miniature ''Homalocephale'', but, uniquely among known pachycephalosaurs, lacked any skull-protuberances: it is believed by some the actual most basal known pachycephalosaur.

to:

'''The first pachycephalosaur?:''' '''Excellent Skull:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaverlandia Yaverlandia]]''

org/wiki/Prenocephale Prenocephale]]''

* Remember ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursSaurischianDinosaurs Majungatholus]]'' ("Majunga's dome"), that pachycephalosaur Pachycephalosaurs are very rare things. Few species have been described so far, almost always from Madagascar which revealed to be the horn of a ''giant theropod''? This was not an isolated case. ''Yaverlandia'' Late Cretaceous, [[note]] The incomplete ''Ferganocephale'' from Early Cretaceous England (Isle Kyrgyzstan is Middle Jurassic, but probably is not a pachycephalosaurian.[[/note]] and they are either North American, or Asian. While the North American ones are more spectacular (''Pachycephalosaurus''), or more abundant (''Stegoceras''), the Asian ones are nonetheless very interesting; the two most classic ones were both discovered in the 1970s in Mongolia. Their names make a sort of Wight) pun if pronounced together: ''Prenocephale'' and ''Homalocephale''. ''Prenocephale prenes'' aptly means “prominent head”; was once mentioned as the “most ancient pachycephalosaur”: very similar to ''Stegoceras validum'', size and period included, but had a shorter snout, different tubercles, and a higher dome. Like most boneheaded dinosaurs, only skull material is known, but its only remain, a tiny skull-dome with two small thickenings above (its complete scientific name, ''Yaverlandia bitholus'', means "Yaverland's double-dome") has been reclassified as a [[ScienceMarchesOn bird-like theropod]]. "Majungatholus", in turn, was believed the only pachycephalosaur living in the Southern Emisphere. Many things might deceptively resemble pachy domes and lead experts in error; the fact first skull is so well preserved that pachycephalosaurs included some of ''even osseous canals'' for the tiniest dinosaurs has passage of blood-vessels are distinguishable! Some alleged ''Prenocephale'' remains were also contributed found in North-America, but they actually don't pertain to this. For example, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wannanosaurus Wannanosaurus]]'' from China was only two feet long (like a ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursSaurischianDinosaurs Microraptor]]'') with a flat head that made it looking like a miniature ''Homalocephale'', but, uniquely among known pachycephalosaurs, lacked any skull-protuberances: it is believed by some the actual most basal known pachycephalosaur.
it.



'''Sesquipedalian:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micropachycephalosaurus Micropachycephalosaurus]]''

* Still another piece of bone found in China in the 1970s has been attributed to another virtually-unknown pachycephalosaur from Late Cretaceous, which could get nonetheless a mention in the Guinness Book Of Records… as “the longest dinosaur name”: ''Micropachycephalosaurus''. [[note]]It’s unlikely that someone will break this record with an even longer new dinosaur name… at least we hope![[/note]] This sesquipedalian name was made combining the particle ''"micro"'' with ''"Pachycephalosaurus"'', meaning “small thick-headed lizard”. Indeed, it was actually one of the smallest dinos that ever lived, maybe only 50 cm/1.5 ft long, like an ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeBirdlikeTheropods Anchiornis]]'' or an ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeBirdlikeTheropods Epidexipteryx]]''. But [[ScienceMarchesOn research made in the 2000s]] has shown it not to be a true pachycephalosaur, but more likely a very primitive late-surviving ceratopsian.

to:

'''Sesquipedalian:''' '''Live-bearing?:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micropachycephalosaurus Micropachycephalosaurus]]''

org/wiki/Homalocephale Homalocephale]]''

* Still another piece of bone found Once, Pachycephalosaurians used to be divided in China in two main families, the 1970s has been attributed Pachycephalosauridae (those with domed heads) and Homalocephalidae (the ones with flat heads). A third less-known family, Chaoyangsauridae, is now known to another virtually-unknown pachycephalosaur from Late Cretaceous, which could get nonetheless a mention in belong to the Guinness Book Of Records… as “the longest dinosaur name”: ''Micropachycephalosaurus''. [[note]]It’s unlikely that someone will break [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeCeratopsidPredecessors basal ceratopsian]] lineage. Today this record with an even longer new dinosaur name… at least we hope![[/note]] This sesquipedalian name was made combining distinction is not recognized anymore: the particle ''"micro"'' with ''"Pachycephalosaurus"'', meaning “small thick-headed lizard”. Indeed, it was flat-heaed kinds are actually identical to the bulge-headed ones except for the shape of their skull, and now one single family of pachycephalosaurs is recognized, Pachycephalosauridae. The traditionally most-known "flathead" among the smallest dinos pachies is ''Homalocephale calathocercos''. ''Homalocephale'' was similar in size to ''Prenocephale'', but is known from several pieces of its skeleton as well other than the skull. The name ''Homalocephale'' means ''flat head'', and with reason: it has indeed [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin a flat head]], making it very unpachycephalosaur-looking. Actually its skull structure was clearly pachycephalosaurian, with slighty thickened skull-roof and bony tubercles very similar to those of ''Prenocephale''. The last detail led in 2010 the hypothesis that ever lived, maybe only 50 cm/1.5 ft long, like an ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeBirdlikeTheropods Anchiornis]]'' or an ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeBirdlikeTheropods Epidexipteryx]]''. But ''Homalocephale'' [[ScienceMarchesOn research made in was just the 2000s]] has shown it not juvenile form]] of the latter, with a not-yet developed dome. The unusual wideness of the ''Homalocephale'' pelvis led also speculation about a possible viviparity (aka giving birth to be a true pachycephalosaur, but more likely a very primitive late-surviving ceratopsian.
''live'' offspring). There is no proof of this, as well as in every other non-avian dinosaur: remember that modern dinosaurs (birds) and their closest relatives (crocs and turtles) are ''all egg-laying'' animals, while live-bearers among the modern Amniotes are known only from therian mammals and some lizards/snakes.


Added DiffLines:

'''Domeheads and Flatheads'''

* Many pachycephalosaurs have received the suffix ''-cephale'', meaning head in Greek. ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goyocephale Goyocephale]]'' means "decorated head", was found in Mongolia and was flat-headed like a ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Homalocephale]]'' but with a pair of canine-like teeth; ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tylocephale Tylocephale]]'' means "swollen head", was also Mongolian and with the tallest dome among pachycephalosaurians; ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alaskacephale Alaskacephale]]'' [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin found in Alaska]] maybe was the closest relative of ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Pachycephalosaurus]]''. Some others end with ''-tholus'', meaning "dome": ex. North American ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki_Gravitholus Gravitholus]]'' ("heavy dome") & ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornatotholus Ornatotholus]]'' ("ornated dome", today synonimized with ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Stegoceras]]''), as well as ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphaerotholus Sphaerotholus]]'' ("ball-like dome"), once believed the North-american species of ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Prenocephale]]''.

----

'''The first pachycephalosaur?:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaverlandia Yaverlandia]]''

* Remember ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursSaurischianDinosaurs Majungatholus]]'' ("Majunga's dome"), that pachycephalosaur from Madagascar which revealed to be the horn of a ''giant theropod''? This was not an isolated case. ''Yaverlandia'' from Early Cretaceous England (Isle of Wight) was once mentioned as the “most ancient pachycephalosaur”: but its only remain, a tiny skull-dome with two small thickenings above (its complete scientific name, ''Yaverlandia bitholus'', means "Yaverland's double-dome") has been reclassified as a [[ScienceMarchesOn bird-like theropod]]. "Majungatholus", in turn, was believed the only pachycephalosaur living in the Southern Emisphere. Many things might deceptively resemble pachy domes and lead experts in error; the fact that pachycephalosaurs included some of the tiniest dinosaurs has also contributed to this. For example, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wannanosaurus Wannanosaurus]]'' from China was only two feet long (like a ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursSaurischianDinosaurs Microraptor]]'') with a flat head that made it looking like a miniature ''Homalocephale'', but, uniquely among known pachycephalosaurs, lacked any skull-protuberances: it is believed by some the actual most basal known pachycephalosaur.

----

'''Sesquipedalian:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micropachycephalosaurus Micropachycephalosaurus]]''

* Still another piece of bone found in China in the 1970s has been attributed to another virtually-unknown pachycephalosaur from Late Cretaceous, which could get nonetheless a mention in the Guinness Book Of Records… as “the longest dinosaur name”: ''Micropachycephalosaurus''. [[note]]It’s unlikely that someone will break this record with an even longer new dinosaur name… at least we hope![[/note]] This sesquipedalian name was made combining the particle ''"micro"'' with ''"Pachycephalosaurus"'', meaning “small thick-headed lizard”. Indeed, it was actually one of the smallest dinos that ever lived, maybe only 50 cm/1.5 ft long, like an ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeBirdlikeTheropods Anchiornis]]'' or an ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeBirdlikeTheropods Epidexipteryx]]''. But [[ScienceMarchesOn research made in the 2000s]] has shown it not to be a true pachycephalosaur, but more likely a very primitive late-surviving ceratopsian.

----


* Still another piece of bone found in China in the 1970s has been attributed to another virtually-unknown pachycephalosaur from Late Cretaceous, which could get nonetheless a mention in the Guinness Book Of Records… as “the longest dinosaur name”: ''Micropachycephalosaurus''. [[note]]It’s unlikely that someone will break this record with an even longer new dinosaur name… at least we hope[[/note]] This sesquipedalian name was made combining the particle ''"micro"'' with ''"Pachycephalosaurus"'', meaning “small thick-headed lizard”. Indeed, it was actually one of the smallest dinos that ever lived, maybe only 50 cm/1.5 ft long, like an ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeBirdlikeTheropods Anchiornis]]'' or an ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeBirdlikeTheropods Epidexipteryx]]''. But [[ScienceMarchesOn research made in the 2000s]] has shown it not to be a true pachycephalosaur, but more likely a very primitive late-surviving ceratopsian.

to:

* Still another piece of bone found in China in the 1970s has been attributed to another virtually-unknown pachycephalosaur from Late Cretaceous, which could get nonetheless a mention in the Guinness Book Of Records… as “the longest dinosaur name”: ''Micropachycephalosaurus''. [[note]]It’s unlikely that someone will break this record with an even longer new dinosaur name… at least we hope[[/note]] hope![[/note]] This sesquipedalian name was made combining the particle ''"micro"'' with ''"Pachycephalosaurus"'', meaning “small thick-headed lizard”. Indeed, it was actually one of the smallest dinos that ever lived, maybe only 50 cm/1.5 ft long, like an ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeBirdlikeTheropods Anchiornis]]'' or an ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeBirdlikeTheropods Epidexipteryx]]''. But [[ScienceMarchesOn research made in the 2000s]] has shown it not to be a true pachycephalosaur, but more likely a very primitive late-surviving ceratopsian.


* Remember ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Majungatholus Majungatholus]]'' ("Majunga's dome"), that pachycephalosaur from Madagascar which revealed to be the horn of a ''giant theropod''? This was not an isolated case. ''Yaverlandia'' from Early Cretaceous England (Isle of Wight) was once mentioned as the “most ancient pachycephalosaur”: but its only remain, a tiny skull-dome with two small thickenings above, [[note]]Its complete scientific name, ''Yaverlandia bitholus'', means "Yaverland's double-dome".[[/note]] has been reclassified as a [[ScienceMarchesOn bird-like theropod]]. "Majungatholus", in turn, was believed the only pachycephalosaur living in the Southern Emisphere. Many things might deceptively resemble pachy domes and lead experts in error; the fact that pachycephalosaurs included some of the tiniest dinosaurs has also contributed to this. For example, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wannanosaurus Wannanosaurus]]'' from China was only two feet long (like a ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursSaurischianDinosaurs Microraptor]]'') with a flat head that made it looking like a miniature ''Homalocephale'', but, uniquely among known pachycephalosaurs, lacked any skull-protuberances: it is believed by some the actual most basal known pachycephalosaur.

to:

* Remember ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Majungatholus ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursSaurischianDinosaurs Majungatholus]]'' ("Majunga's dome"), that pachycephalosaur from Madagascar which revealed to be the horn of a ''giant theropod''? This was not an isolated case. ''Yaverlandia'' from Early Cretaceous England (Isle of Wight) was once mentioned as the “most ancient pachycephalosaur”: but its only remain, a tiny skull-dome with two small thickenings above, [[note]]Its above (its complete scientific name, ''Yaverlandia bitholus'', means "Yaverland's double-dome".[[/note]] double-dome") has been reclassified as a [[ScienceMarchesOn bird-like theropod]]. "Majungatholus", in turn, was believed the only pachycephalosaur living in the Southern Emisphere. Many things might deceptively resemble pachy domes and lead experts in error; the fact that pachycephalosaurs included some of the tiniest dinosaurs has also contributed to this. For example, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wannanosaurus Wannanosaurus]]'' from China was only two feet long (like a ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursSaurischianDinosaurs Microraptor]]'') with a flat head that made it looking like a miniature ''Homalocephale'', but, uniquely among known pachycephalosaurs, lacked any skull-protuberances: it is believed by some the actual most basal known pachycephalosaur.



* Still another piece of bone found in China in the 1970s has been attributed to another virtually-unknown pachycephalosaur from Late Cretaceous, which could get nonetheless a mention in the Guinness Book Of Records… as “the longest dinosaur name”: ''Micropachycephalosaurus''. [[note]]It’s unlikely that someone will break this record with an even longer new dinosaur name… at least we hope[[/note]] This sesquipedalian name was made combining the particle ''"micro"'' with ''"Pachycephalosaurus"'', meaning “small thick-headed lizard”. Indeed, it was actually one of the smallest dinos that ever lived, maybe only 50 cm/1.5 ft long, like an ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeBirdlikeTheropods Anchiornis]]''. But [[ScienceMarchesOn research made in the 2000s]] has shown it not to be a true pachycephalosaur, but more likely a very primitive late-surviving ceratopsian.

to:

* Still another piece of bone found in China in the 1970s has been attributed to another virtually-unknown pachycephalosaur from Late Cretaceous, which could get nonetheless a mention in the Guinness Book Of Records… as “the longest dinosaur name”: ''Micropachycephalosaurus''. [[note]]It’s unlikely that someone will break this record with an even longer new dinosaur name… at least we hope[[/note]] This sesquipedalian name was made combining the particle ''"micro"'' with ''"Pachycephalosaurus"'', meaning “small thick-headed lizard”. Indeed, it was actually one of the smallest dinos that ever lived, maybe only 50 cm/1.5 ft long, like an ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeBirdlikeTheropods Anchiornis]]''.Anchiornis]]'' or an ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeBirdlikeTheropods Epidexipteryx]]''. But [[ScienceMarchesOn research made in the 2000s]] has shown it not to be a true pachycephalosaur, but more likely a very primitive late-surviving ceratopsian.


* Many pachycephalosaurs have received the suffix ''-cephale'', meaning head in Greek: ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goyocephale Goyocephale]]'' ("decorated head", found in Mongolia and flat-headed like a ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Homalocephale]]'' but with a pair of canine-like teeth), ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tylocephale Tylocephale]]'' ("swollen head", also Mongolian and with the tallest dome among pachycephalosaurians), ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alaskacephale Alaskacephale]]'' ([[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin found in Alaska]], maybe the closest relative of ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Pachycephalosaurus]]''), etc. Some others end with ''-tholus'' (meaning "dome"): ex. North American ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki_Gravitholus Gravitholus]]'' ("heavy dome") & ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornatotholus Ornatotholus]]'' ("ornated dome", today synonimized with ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Stegoceras]]''), as well as ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphaerotholus Sphaerotholus]]'' ("ball-like dome"), once believed the North-american species of ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Prenocephale]]''.

to:

* Many pachycephalosaurs have received the suffix ''-cephale'', meaning head in Greek: Greek. ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goyocephale Goyocephale]]'' ("decorated means "decorated head", was found in Mongolia and was flat-headed like a ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Homalocephale]]'' but with a pair of canine-like teeth), teeth; ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tylocephale Tylocephale]]'' ("swollen means "swollen head", was also Mongolian and with the tallest dome among pachycephalosaurians), pachycephalosaurians; ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alaskacephale Alaskacephale]]'' ([[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin found in Alaska]], Alaska]] maybe was the closest relative of ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Pachycephalosaurus]]''), etc. Pachycephalosaurus]]''. Some others end with ''-tholus'' (meaning "dome"): ''-tholus'', meaning "dome": ex. North American ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki_Gravitholus Gravitholus]]'' ("heavy dome") & ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornatotholus Ornatotholus]]'' ("ornated dome", today synonimized with ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Stegoceras]]''), as well as ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphaerotholus Sphaerotholus]]'' ("ball-like dome"), once believed the North-american species of ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Prenocephale]]''.


This is the page of UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife with the least number of surely-valid animals listed. The others were once considered pachycephalosaurs, but aren't actually according to recent researches.

to:

This is the a page of UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife with the least a very low number of surely-valid animals listed. The others were once considered pachycephalosaurs, but aren't actually according to recent researches.
animals, because known pachycephalosaurs have always been very few, even less than the stegosaurs.


'''Domeheads and Flatheads:'''

to:

'''Domeheads and Flatheads:'''
Flatheads'''


This is the page of UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife with the least number of surely-valid animals listed, mostly in the first folder. The others were once considered pachycephalosaurs, but aren't actually according to recent researches.

to:

This is the page of UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife with the least number of surely-valid animals listed, mostly in the first folder.listed. The others were once considered pachycephalosaurs, but aren't actually according to recent researches.



[[folder:True Pachycephalosaurs]]

to:

[[folder:True [[folder:Non-Stock Pachycephalosaurs]]



[[/folder]]

[[folder:Former Pachycephalosaurs]]

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* Remember ''Majungatholus'' ("Majunga's dome"), that pachycephalosaur from Madagascar which revealed to be the horn of a ''giant theropod''? This was not an isolated case. ''Yaverlandia'' from Early Cretaceous England (Isle of Wight) was once mentioned as the “most ancient pachycephalosaur”: but its only remain, a tiny skull-dome with two small thickenings above, [[note]]Its complete scientific name, ''Yaverlandia bitholus'', means "Yaverland's double-dome".[[/note]] has been reclassified as a [[ScienceMarchesOn bird-like theropod]]. "Majungatholus", in turn, was believed the only pachycephalosaur living in the Southern Emisphere. Many things might deceptively resemble pachy domes and lead experts in error; the fact that pachycephalosaurs included some of the tiniest dinosaurs has also contributed to this. For example, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wannanosaurus Wannanosaurus]]'' from China was only two feet long (like a ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursSaurischianDinosaurs Microraptor]]'') with a flat head that made it looking like a miniature ''Homalocephale'', but, uniquely among known pachycephalosaurs, lacked any skull-protuberances: it is believed by some the actual most basal known pachycephalosaur.

to:

* Remember ''Majungatholus'' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Majungatholus Majungatholus]]'' ("Majunga's dome"), that pachycephalosaur from Madagascar which revealed to be the horn of a ''giant theropod''? This was not an isolated case. ''Yaverlandia'' from Early Cretaceous England (Isle of Wight) was once mentioned as the “most ancient pachycephalosaur”: but its only remain, a tiny skull-dome with two small thickenings above, [[note]]Its complete scientific name, ''Yaverlandia bitholus'', means "Yaverland's double-dome".[[/note]] has been reclassified as a [[ScienceMarchesOn bird-like theropod]]. "Majungatholus", in turn, was believed the only pachycephalosaur living in the Southern Emisphere. Many things might deceptively resemble pachy domes and lead experts in error; the fact that pachycephalosaurs included some of the tiniest dinosaurs has also contributed to this. For example, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wannanosaurus Wannanosaurus]]'' from China was only two feet long (like a ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursSaurischianDinosaurs Microraptor]]'') with a flat head that made it looking like a miniature ''Homalocephale'', but, uniquely among known pachycephalosaurs, lacked any skull-protuberances: it is believed by some the actual most basal known pachycephalosaur.


This is the page of UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife with the least number of surely-valid animals listed, all in the first folder. The examples of the second folder were once considered pachycephalosaurs, but aren't actually according to recent researches.

to:

This is the page of UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife with the least number of surely-valid animals listed, all mostly in the first folder. The examples of the second folder others were once considered pachycephalosaurs, but aren't actually according to recent researches.



* Many pachycephalosaurs have received the suffix ''-cephale'', meaning head in Greek: ''Goyocephale'' ("decorated head", found in Mongolia and flat-headed like a ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Homalocephale]]'' but with a pair of canine-like teeth), ''Tylocephale'' ("swollen head", also Mongolian and with the tallest dome among pachycephalosaurians), ''Alaskacephale'' ([[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin found in Alaska]], maybe the closest relative of ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Pachycephalosaurus]]''), etc. Some others end with ''-tholus'' (meaning "dome"): ex. North American ''Gravitholus'' ("heavy dome") & ''Ornatotholus'' ("ornated dome", today synonimized with ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Stegoceras]]''), as well as ''Sphaerotholus'' ("ball-like dome"), once believed the North-american species of ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Prenocephale]]''.

to:

* Many pachycephalosaurs have received the suffix ''-cephale'', meaning head in Greek: ''Goyocephale'' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goyocephale Goyocephale]]'' ("decorated head", found in Mongolia and flat-headed like a ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Homalocephale]]'' but with a pair of canine-like teeth), ''Tylocephale'' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tylocephale Tylocephale]]'' ("swollen head", also Mongolian and with the tallest dome among pachycephalosaurians), ''Alaskacephale'' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alaskacephale Alaskacephale]]'' ([[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin found in Alaska]], maybe the closest relative of ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Pachycephalosaurus]]''), etc. Some others end with ''-tholus'' (meaning "dome"): ex. North American ''Gravitholus'' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki_Gravitholus Gravitholus]]'' ("heavy dome") & ''Ornatotholus'' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornatotholus Ornatotholus]]'' ("ornated dome", today synonimized with ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Stegoceras]]''), as well as ''Sphaerotholus'' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphaerotholus Sphaerotholus]]'' ("ball-like dome"), once believed the North-american species of ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Prenocephale]]''.


This is the page of UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife with the least number of surely-valid animals listed at the top of each paragraph (merely ''one''): ''Prenocephale''. Other examples are either possible juveniles of other pachys (''Homalocephale''), or were once considered pachycephalosaurs but aren't actually. The ones named in this intro have been the most common non-stock pachycephalosaurs in media.

to:

This is the page of UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife with the least number of surely-valid animals listed at listed, all in the top of each paragraph (merely ''one''): ''Prenocephale''. Other first folder. The examples are either possible juveniles of other pachys (''Homalocephale''), or the second folder were once considered pachycephalosaurs pachycephalosaurs, but aren't actually. The ones named in this intro have been the most common non-stock pachycephalosaurs in media.
actually according to recent researches.



'''A very well-preserved domehead in Asia:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prenocephale Prenocephale]]''

* Pachycephalosaurs are very rare things. Few species have been described so far, almost always from the Late Cretaceous, [[note]] The incomplete ''Ferganocephale'' from Kyrgyzstan is Middle Jurassic, but probably is not a pachycephalosaurian.[[/note]] and they are either North American, or Asian. While the North American ones are more spectacular (''Pachycephalosaurus''), or more abundant (''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Stegoceras]]''), the Asian ones are nonetheless very interesting; the two most classic ones were both discovered in the 1970s in Mongolia. Their names make a sort of pun if pronounced together: ''Prenocephale'' and ''Homalocephale''. ''Prenocephale prenes'' aptly means “prominent head”; was very similar to ''Stegoceras validum'', size and period included, but had a shorter snout, different tubercles, and a higher dome. Like most boneheaded dinosaurs, only skull material is known, but its first skull is so well preserved that ''even osseous canals'' for the passage of blood-vessels are distinguishable! Some alleged ''Prenocephale'' remains were also found in North-America, but they actually don't pertain to it.

to:

'''A very well-preserved domehead in Asia:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prenocephale Prenocephale]]''

'''Domeheads and Flatheads:'''

* Pachycephalosaurs are very rare things. Few species Many pachycephalosaurs have been described so far, almost always from received the Late Cretaceous, [[note]] The incomplete ''Ferganocephale'' from Kyrgyzstan is Middle Jurassic, suffix ''-cephale'', meaning head in Greek: ''Goyocephale'' ("decorated head", found in Mongolia and flat-headed like a ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Homalocephale]]'' but probably is not with a pachycephalosaurian.[[/note]] pair of canine-like teeth), ''Tylocephale'' ("swollen head", also Mongolian and they are either North American, or Asian. While with the tallest dome among pachycephalosaurians), ''Alaskacephale'' ([[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin found in Alaska]], maybe the closest relative of ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Pachycephalosaurus]]''), etc. Some others end with ''-tholus'' (meaning "dome"): ex. North American ones are more spectacular (''Pachycephalosaurus''), or more abundant (''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs ''Gravitholus'' ("heavy dome") & ''Ornatotholus'' ("ornated dome", today synonimized with ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Stegoceras]]''), the Asian ones are nonetheless very interesting; the two most classic ones were both discovered in the 1970s in Mongolia. Their names make a sort of pun if pronounced together: ''Prenocephale'' and ''Homalocephale''. ''Prenocephale prenes'' aptly means “prominent head”; was very similar to ''Stegoceras validum'', size and period included, but had a shorter snout, different tubercles, and a higher dome. Like most boneheaded dinosaurs, only skull material is known, but its first skull is so as well preserved that ''even osseous canals'' for as ''Sphaerotholus'' ("ball-like dome"), once believed the passage North-american species of blood-vessels are distinguishable! Some alleged ''Prenocephale'' remains were also found in North-America, but they actually don't pertain to it.
''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Prenocephale]]''.

----

[[/folder]]

[[folder:Former Pachycephalosaurs]]



'''Flat-headed bonehead:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homalocephale Homalocephale]]''

* Once, Pachycephalosaurians used to be divided in two main families, the Pachycephalosauridae (those with domed heads) and Homalocephalidae (the ones with flat heads).[[note]]A third less-known family, Chaoyangsauridae, is now known to belong to the [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeCeratopsidPredecessors basal ceratopsian]] lineage.[[/note]] Today this distinction is not recognized anymore: the flat-heaed kinds are actually identical to the bulge-headed ones except for the shape of their skull, and now one single family of pachycephalosaurs is recognized, Pachycephalosauridae. The traditionally most-known "flathead" among the pachies is ''Homalocephale calathocercos''. ''Homalocephale'' was similar in size to ''Prenocephale'', but is known from several pieces of its skeleton as well other than the skull. The name ''Homalocephale'' means ''flat head'', and with reason: it has indeed [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin a flat head]], making it very unpachycephalosaur-looking. Actually its skull structure was clearly pachycephalosaurian, with slighty thickened skull-roof and bony tubercles very similar to those of ''Prenocephale''. The last detail led in 2010 the hypothesis that ''Homalocephale'' [[ScienceMarchesOn was just the juvenile form]] of the latter, with a not-yet developed dome. The unusual wideness of the ''Homalocephale'' pelvis led also speculation about a possible viviparity (aka giving birth to ''live'' offspring). There is no proof of this, as well as in every other non-avian dinosaur: remember that modern dinosaurs (birds) and their closest relatives (crocs and turtles) are ''all egg-laying'' animals, while live-bearers among the modern Amniotes are known only from therian mammals and some lizards/snakes. Many other pachycephalosaurs have received the suffix ''-cephale'' (meaning head in Greek): ''Goyocephale'' ("decorated head", found in Mongolia and flat-headed like a ''Homalocephale'' but with a pair of canine-like teeth), ''Tylocephale'' ("swollen head", also Mongolian and with the tallest dome among pachycephalosaurians), ''Alaskacephale'' ([[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin found in Alaska]], maybe the closest relative of ''Pachycephalosaurus''), etc. Some others end with ''-tholus'' (meaning "dome"): ex. North American ''Gravitholus'' ("heavy dome") & ''Ornatotholus'' ("ornated dome", today synonimized with ''Stegoceras''), as well as ''Sphaerotholus'' ("ball-like dome"), once believed the North-american species of ''Prenocephale''.

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[[/folder]]

[[folder:Former Pachycephalosaurs]]

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[[folder:True pachycephalosaurs]]

to:

[[folder:True pachycephalosaurs]]
Pachycephalosaurs]]



[[folder:Former pachycephalosaurs]]

to:

[[folder:Former pachycephalosaurs]]
Pachycephalosaurs]]


* Remember ''Majungatholus'' ("Majunga's dome"), that pachycephalosaur from Madagascar which revealed to be the horn of a ''giant theropod''? This was not an isolated case. ''Yaverlandia'' from Early Cretaceous England (Isle of Wight) was once mentioned as the “most ancient pachycephalosaur”: but its only remain, a tiny skull-dome with two small thickenings above, [[note]]Its complete scientific name, ''Yaverlandia bitholus'', means "Yaverland's double-dome".[[/note]] has been reclassified as a [[ScienceMarchesOn bird-like theropod]]. "Majungatholus", in turn, was believed the only pachycephalosaur living in the Southern Emisphere. Many things might deceptively resemble pachy domes and lead experts in error; the fact that pachycephalosaurs included some of the tiniest dinosaurs has also contributed to this. For example, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wannanosaurus Wannanosaurus]]'' from China was only two feet long (like a ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursTrueDinosaurs Microraptor]]'') with a flat head that made it looking like a miniature ''Homalocephale'', but, uniquely among known pachycephalosaurs, lacked any skull-protuberances: it is believed by some the actual most basal known pachycephalosaur.

to:

* Remember ''Majungatholus'' ("Majunga's dome"), that pachycephalosaur from Madagascar which revealed to be the horn of a ''giant theropod''? This was not an isolated case. ''Yaverlandia'' from Early Cretaceous England (Isle of Wight) was once mentioned as the “most ancient pachycephalosaur”: but its only remain, a tiny skull-dome with two small thickenings above, [[note]]Its complete scientific name, ''Yaverlandia bitholus'', means "Yaverland's double-dome".[[/note]] has been reclassified as a [[ScienceMarchesOn bird-like theropod]]. "Majungatholus", in turn, was believed the only pachycephalosaur living in the Southern Emisphere. Many things might deceptively resemble pachy domes and lead experts in error; the fact that pachycephalosaurs included some of the tiniest dinosaurs has also contributed to this. For example, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wannanosaurus Wannanosaurus]]'' from China was only two feet long (like a ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursTrueDinosaurs ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursSaurischianDinosaurs Microraptor]]'') with a flat head that made it looking like a miniature ''Homalocephale'', but, uniquely among known pachycephalosaurs, lacked any skull-protuberances: it is believed by some the actual most basal known pachycephalosaur.


* Pachycephalosaurs are very rare things. Few species have been described so far, almost always from the Late Cretaceous, [[note]] The incomplete ''Ferganocephale'' from Kyrgyzstan is Middle Jurassic, but probably is not a pachycephalosaurian.[[/note]] and they are either North American, or Asian. While the North American ones are more spectacular (''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischiansDinosaurs Pachycephalosaurus]]''), or more abundant (''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Stegoceras]]''), the Asian ones are nonetheless very interesting; the two most classic ones were both discovered in the 1970s in Mongolia. Their names make a sort of pun if pronounced together: ''Prenocephale'' and ''Homalocephale''. ''Prenocephale prenes'' aptly means “prominent head”; was very similar to ''Stegoceras validum'', size and period included, but had a shorter snout, different tubercles, and a higher dome. Like most boneheaded dinosaurs, only skull material is known, but its first skull is so well preserved that ''even osseous canals'' for the passage of blood-vessels are distinguishable! Some alleged ''Prenocephale'' remains were also found in North-America, but they actually don't pertain to it.

to:

* Pachycephalosaurs are very rare things. Few species have been described so far, almost always from the Late Cretaceous, [[note]] The incomplete ''Ferganocephale'' from Kyrgyzstan is Middle Jurassic, but probably is not a pachycephalosaurian.[[/note]] and they are either North American, or Asian. While the North American ones are more spectacular (''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischiansDinosaurs Pachycephalosaurus]]''), (''Pachycephalosaurus''), or more abundant (''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Stegoceras]]''), the Asian ones are nonetheless very interesting; the two most classic ones were both discovered in the 1970s in Mongolia. Their names make a sort of pun if pronounced together: ''Prenocephale'' and ''Homalocephale''. ''Prenocephale prenes'' aptly means “prominent head”; was very similar to ''Stegoceras validum'', size and period included, but had a shorter snout, different tubercles, and a higher dome. Like most boneheaded dinosaurs, only skull material is known, but its first skull is so well preserved that ''even osseous canals'' for the passage of blood-vessels are distinguishable! Some alleged ''Prenocephale'' remains were also found in North-America, but they actually don't pertain to it.


This is the page of UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife with the least number of surely-valid animals listed at the top of each paragraph (merely ''one''): ''Prenocephale''. Most of the other examples linked with Wiki/TheOtherWiki are either possible juveniles of other pachys (''Homalocephale''), or were once considered pachycephalosaurs but aren't actually. The ones named in this intro have been the most common non-stock pachycephalosaurs in media.

to:

This is the page of UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLife with the least number of surely-valid animals listed at the top of each paragraph (merely ''one''): ''Prenocephale''. Most of the other Other examples linked with Wiki/TheOtherWiki are either possible juveniles of other pachys (''Homalocephale''), or were once considered pachycephalosaurs but aren't actually. The ones named in this intro have been the most common non-stock pachycephalosaurs in media.



* Pachycephalosaurs are very rare things. Few species have been described so far, almost always from the Late Cretaceous, [[note]] The incomplete ''Ferganocephale'' from Kyrgyzstan is Middle Jurassic, but probably is not a pachycephalosaurian.[[/note]] and they are either North American, or Asian. While the North American ones are more spectacular (''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursTrueDinosaurs Pachycephalosaurus]]''), or more abundant (''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursTrueDinosaurs Stegoceras]]''), the Asian ones are nonetheless very interesting; the two most classic ones were both discovered in the 1970s in Mongolia. Their names make a sort of pun if pronounced together: ''Prenocephale'' and ''Homalocephale''. ''Prenocephale prenes'' aptly means “prominent head”; was very similar to ''Stegoceras validum'', size and period included, but had a shorter snout, different tubercles, and a higher dome. Like most boneheaded dinosaurs, only skull material is known, but its first skull is so well preserved that ''even osseous canals'' for the passage of blood-vessels are distinguishable! Some alleged ''Prenocephale'' remains were also found in North-America, but they actually don't pertain to it.

to:

* Pachycephalosaurs are very rare things. Few species have been described so far, almost always from the Late Cretaceous, [[note]] The incomplete ''Ferganocephale'' from Kyrgyzstan is Middle Jurassic, but probably is not a pachycephalosaurian.[[/note]] and they are either North American, or Asian. While the North American ones are more spectacular (''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursTrueDinosaurs (''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischiansDinosaurs Pachycephalosaurus]]''), or more abundant (''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursTrueDinosaurs (''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursOrnithischianDinosaurs Stegoceras]]''), the Asian ones are nonetheless very interesting; the two most classic ones were both discovered in the 1970s in Mongolia. Their names make a sort of pun if pronounced together: ''Prenocephale'' and ''Homalocephale''. ''Prenocephale prenes'' aptly means “prominent head”; was very similar to ''Stegoceras validum'', size and period included, but had a shorter snout, different tubercles, and a higher dome. Like most boneheaded dinosaurs, only skull material is known, but its first skull is so well preserved that ''even osseous canals'' for the passage of blood-vessels are distinguishable! Some alleged ''Prenocephale'' remains were also found in North-America, but they actually don't pertain to it.


* Once, Pachycephalosaurians used to be divided in two main families, the Pachycephalosauridae (those with domed heads) and Homalocephalidae (the ones with flat heads).[[note]]A third less-known family, Chaoyangsauridae, is now known to belong to the [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeCeratopsidPredecessors basal ceratopsian]] lineage.[[/note]] Today this distinction is not recognized anymore: the flat-heaed kinds are actually identical to the bulge-headed ones except for the shape of their skull, and now one single family of pachycephalosaurs is recognized, Pachycephalosauridae. The traditionally most-known "flathead" among the pachies is ''Homalocephale calathocercos''. ''Homalocephale'' was similar in size to ''Prenocephale'', but is known from several pieces of its skeleton as well other than the skull. The name ''Homalocephale'' means ''flat head'', and with reason: it has indeed [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin a flat head]], making it very unpachycephalosaur-looking. Actually its skull structure was clearly pachycephalosaurian, with slighty thickened skull-roof and bony tubercles very similar to those of ''Prenocephale''. The last detail led in 2010 the hypothesis that ''Homalocephale'' [[ScienceMarchesOn was just the juvenile form]] of the latter, with a not-yet developed dome. The unusual wideness of the ''Homalocephale'' pelvis led also speculation about a possible viviparity (aka giving birth to ''live'' offspring). There is no proof of this, as well as in every other non-avian dinosaur: remember that modern dinosaurs (birds) and their closest relatives (crocs and turtles) are ''all egg-laying'' animals, while live-bearers among the modern Amniotes are known only from therian mammals and some lizards/snakes.

to:

* Once, Pachycephalosaurians used to be divided in two main families, the Pachycephalosauridae (those with domed heads) and Homalocephalidae (the ones with flat heads).[[note]]A third less-known family, Chaoyangsauridae, is now known to belong to the [[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeCeratopsidPredecessors basal ceratopsian]] lineage.[[/note]] Today this distinction is not recognized anymore: the flat-heaed kinds are actually identical to the bulge-headed ones except for the shape of their skull, and now one single family of pachycephalosaurs is recognized, Pachycephalosauridae. The traditionally most-known "flathead" among the pachies is ''Homalocephale calathocercos''. ''Homalocephale'' was similar in size to ''Prenocephale'', but is known from several pieces of its skeleton as well other than the skull. The name ''Homalocephale'' means ''flat head'', and with reason: it has indeed [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin a flat head]], making it very unpachycephalosaur-looking. Actually its skull structure was clearly pachycephalosaurian, with slighty thickened skull-roof and bony tubercles very similar to those of ''Prenocephale''. The last detail led in 2010 the hypothesis that ''Homalocephale'' [[ScienceMarchesOn was just the juvenile form]] of the latter, with a not-yet developed dome. The unusual wideness of the ''Homalocephale'' pelvis led also speculation about a possible viviparity (aka giving birth to ''live'' offspring). There is no proof of this, as well as in every other non-avian dinosaur: remember that modern dinosaurs (birds) and their closest relatives (crocs and turtles) are ''all egg-laying'' animals, while live-bearers among the modern Amniotes are known only from therian mammals and some lizards/snakes.
lizards/snakes. Many other pachycephalosaurs have received the suffix ''-cephale'' (meaning head in Greek): ''Goyocephale'' ("decorated head", found in Mongolia and flat-headed like a ''Homalocephale'' but with a pair of canine-like teeth), ''Tylocephale'' ("swollen head", also Mongolian and with the tallest dome among pachycephalosaurians), ''Alaskacephale'' ([[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin found in Alaska]], maybe the closest relative of ''Pachycephalosaurus''), etc. Some others end with ''-tholus'' (meaning "dome"): ex. North American ''Gravitholus'' ("heavy dome") & ''Ornatotholus'' ("ornated dome", today synonimized with ''Stegoceras''), as well as ''Sphaerotholus'' ("ball-like dome"), once believed the North-american species of ''Prenocephale''.

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