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Finally, we come to the newest release: Mojave. Whereas macOS High Sierra was a relatively minor update, Mojave is a much more substantial release. It brings new apps like News, Home, Stocks, and Voice Memos (all ports from iPad). It also adds a much-requested system-wide Dark Mode. Perhaps the biggest update, however, is the support of UIKit apps on macOS, letting developers port iOS apps to macOS without having to completely rework the app.

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Finally, we come to the newest release: Mojave. Whereas macOS High Sierra was a relatively minor update, Mojave is a much more substantial release. It brings new apps like News, Home, Stocks, and Voice Memos (all ports from iPad). It also adds a much-requested system-wide Dark Mode. Perhaps the biggest update, however, is the support of UIKit [=UIKit=] apps on macOS, letting developers port iOS apps to macOS without having to completely rework the app.


Also, as of macOS Mojave, several features are depreciated, most notably OpenGL, OpenCL, and 32-bit apps.

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Also, as of macOS Mojave, several features are depreciated, most notably OpenGL, OpenCL, [=OpenGL=], [=OpenCL=], and 32-bit apps.


Finally, our newest release: High Sierra. After several years of weed jokes at WWDC, Apple seemed to bite the bullet and make the actual OS name a weed joke. Thanks, crack research team. This release brought many much-needed improvements, such as: better H.265 video encoding, Metal 2, native developer VR support, professional editing in the Photos app, and iCloud-iMessage syncing. Perhaps the biggest change, however, was the switch over to Apple File System, after almost 20 years on HFS+.

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Finally, our newest release: Then in 2017, High Sierra. After several years of weed jokes at WWDC, Apple seemed to bite the bullet and make the actual OS name a weed joke. Thanks, crack research team. This release brought many much-needed improvements, such as: better H.265 video encoding, Metal 2, native developer VR support, professional editing in the Photos app, and iCloud-iMessage syncing. Perhaps the biggest change, however, was the switch over to Apple File System, after almost 20 years on HFS+.HFS+.

Finally, we come to the newest release: Mojave. Whereas macOS High Sierra was a relatively minor update, Mojave is a much more substantial release. It brings new apps like News, Home, Stocks, and Voice Memos (all ports from iPad). It also adds a much-requested system-wide Dark Mode. Perhaps the biggest update, however, is the support of UIKit apps on macOS, letting developers port iOS apps to macOS without having to completely rework the app.

Also, as of macOS Mojave, several features are depreciated, most notably OpenGL, OpenCL, and 32-bit apps.


Finally, our newest release: High Sierra. After several years of weed jokes at WWDC, Apple seemed to bite the bullet and make the actual OS name a weed joke. Thanks, crack research team. This release will bring many much-needed improvements, such as: better H.265 video encoding, Metal 2, native developer VR support, professional editing in the Photos app, and iCloud-iMessage syncing. Perhaps the biggest change, however, was the switch over to Apple File System, after almost 20 years on HFS+.

to:

Finally, our newest release: High Sierra. After several years of weed jokes at WWDC, Apple seemed to bite the bullet and make the actual OS name a weed joke. Thanks, crack research team. This release will bring brought many much-needed improvements, such as: better H.265 video encoding, Metal 2, native developer VR support, professional editing in the Photos app, and iCloud-iMessage syncing. Perhaps the biggest change, however, was the switch over to Apple File System, after almost 20 years on HFS+.


Mavericks, 10.9, is the first major update to the Mac OS available for free, to all compatible Macs running the latest version of Snow Leopard to Mountain Lion[[note]]if you had an older OS, you would have to purchase Snow Leopard from Apple Customer support.[[/note]]. Making a bootable thumb drive was made easier due to the inclusion of a command-line utility included in the installer.

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Mavericks, OS X 10.9, is the first major update to the Mac OS available for free, to all compatible Macs running the latest version of Snow Leopard to Mountain Lion[[note]]if you had an older OS, you would have to purchase Snow Leopard from Apple Customer support.[[/note]]. It killed off the big cat naming scheme, instead opting for naming the new OS versions after famous spots in California. Making a bootable thumb drive was made easier due to the inclusion of a command-line utility included in the installer.installer.

The next release, Yosemite, completely changed the overall design of the OS, switching out the old candy-style, Aqua design for the new hotness, a flat design introduced in iOS 7. It also introduced Handoff, letting iOS and OS X communicate seamlessly.

El Capitan, O SX 10.11, was a smaller release, appropriately named after a rock formation in Yosemite national park. It made Safari snappier, Spotlight more useful, and Notes more... noteworthy? The biggest change was the addition of Split View, letting users arrange apps side-by-side like tabs.

Next up: Sierra. This release changed the name of the OS itself: instead of "OS X", it went with the simpler "macOS". This release brings the Mac closer to iOS, and not it's not just the name: it introduced iOS' virtual assistant Siri to the Mac, it let users pay for things online with Apple Pay, and your Apple Watch can now seamlessly unlock your Mac.

Finally, our newest release: High Sierra. After several years of weed jokes at WWDC, Apple seemed to bite the bullet and make the actual OS name a weed joke. Thanks, crack research team. This release will bring many much-needed improvements, such as: better H.265 video encoding, Metal 2, native developer VR support, professional editing in the Photos app, and iCloud-iMessage syncing. Perhaps the biggest change, however, was the switch over to Apple File System, after almost 20 years on HFS+.


The UsefulNotes/AppleMacintosh System Software (known as Mac OS after version 7.5) is the software that makes a Mac a Mac, more or less. Its common user-visible parts are the ''Finder'', a file management shell; the ''Desktop'', a metaphor for a real desktop managed by the Finder; the ''Apple menu'', a parking spot for small mini-applications called ''desk accessories'' (arguably succeeded by the Konfabulator-like ''Dashboard'' under OS X) and, starting with System 7, shortcuts to anything you like (mostly handed over to the ''Dock'' in OS X); and the ''Control Panel'' ("System Preferences" in OS X), where various system settings are managed.

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The UsefulNotes/AppleMacintosh System Software (known as Mac OS after version 7.5) 5, followed by the UsefulNotes/{{UNIX}}-based incarnation being named Mac OS X, then OS X, then [=macOS=]) is the software that makes a Mac a Mac, more or less. Its common user-visible parts are the ''Finder'', a file management shell; the ''Desktop'', a metaphor for a real desktop managed by the Finder; the ''Apple menu'', a parking spot for small mini-applications called ''desk accessories'' (arguably succeeded by the Konfabulator-like ''Dashboard'' under OS X) [=macOS=]) and, starting with System 7, shortcuts to anything you like (mostly handed over to the ''Dock'' in OS X); [=macOS=]); and the ''Control Panel'' ("System Preferences" in OS X), [=macOS=]), where various system settings are managed.



Work on [=NeXTStep=]'s renovation continued briskly, and in 1999, the first version of what would become the new Mac OS was released as ''Mac OS X Server 1.0'', better known to fans by the codename ''Rhapsody''. Rhapsody was something of a shock to veteran Mac users, combining bits of the Mac OS 8.0 interface with the far different [=NeXTStep=] 4.0 GUI. There was also no way to port classic Mac applications to Rhapsody at the time, forcing Apple to develop a subset of the old Mac [=APIs=] called "Carbon" that would allow properly made programs to work on both Mac OS 8/9 and Mac OS X. Carbon was announced in early 1998, and shipped along with the first releases of the OS X development tools in 1999. Along with carbon was Classic, an emulator for running Mac OS 9 inside OS X (which, by the way, [[ItIsPronouncedTroPay is pronounced "oh ess ten" and not "oh ess ecks"]]; the X is a Roman numeral).

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Work on [=NeXTStep=]'s renovation continued briskly, and in 1999, the first version of what would become the new Mac OS was released as ''Mac OS X Server 1.0'', better known to fans by the codename ''Rhapsody''. Rhapsody was something of a shock to veteran Mac users, combining bits of the Mac OS 8.0 interface with the far different [=NeXTStep=] 4.0 GUI. There was also no way to port classic Mac applications to Rhapsody at the time, forcing Apple to develop a subset of the old Mac [=APIs=] called "Carbon" that would allow properly made programs to work on both Mac OS 8/9 and Mac OS X. Carbon was announced in early 1998, and shipped along with the first releases of the Mac OS X development tools in 1999. Along with carbon was Classic, an emulator for running Mac OS 9 inside Mac OS X (which, by the way, [[ItIsPronouncedTroPay is pronounced "oh ess ten" and not "oh ess ecks"]]; the X is a Roman numeral).



Finally, by late 2001, OS X was usable to the point where it was able to replace most of the old Mac OS's functionality with the release of OS X 10.1. This prompted Apple to [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cl7xQ8i3fc0 perform a mock funeral ceremony]] for OS 9 at the 2002 Worldwide Developers Conference, thus officially dropping support for it and casting OS X as the future. 10.1 still had some rough edges and was a bit slow, but it was quite usable for the time. Application support was still a problem, as many long-time Apple developers were still in the process of porting to Carbon then, and vast swathes of OS X were still unfinished or being rewritten until OS X gelled with the arrival of 10.3.

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Finally, by late 2001, Mac OS X was usable to the point where it was able to replace most of the old Mac OS's functionality with the release of Mac OS X 10.1. This prompted Apple to [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cl7xQ8i3fc0 perform a mock funeral ceremony]] for OS 9 at the 2002 Worldwide Developers Conference, thus officially dropping support for it and casting Mac OS X as the future. 10.1 still had some rough edges and was a bit slow, but it was quite usable for the time. Application support was still a problem, as many long-time Apple developers were still in the process of porting to Carbon then, and vast swathes of Mac OS X were still unfinished or being rewritten until Mac OS X gelled with the arrival of 10.3.



This was met with some concern from some longtime Mac users, especially after years of Apple advertising touting the RISC-based PPC [=CPUs=] over the "snail-like" 80x86 family, but by then times had changed, and most of the standard PC's warts had long since been wallpapered over (by fusing the CISC x86 instruction set with a simple RISC architecture inside the "CRISC" CPU) or had been filled in by new UsefulNotes/{{API}}s such as ACPI. Moreover, Apple's own machines had slowly been absorbing technologies from mainstream [=PCs=], such as PCI, ATA, and USB, since the mid 1990s. Finally, OS X's UNIX base made it so that changes on the underlying hardware would not severely impact the user experience, though processor-specific code (usually for math-related things like Photoshop filters) would need to be tweaked or rewritten. Much like the old Mac OS did during the 68k-to-PPC transition, OS X supported "fat binaries", with code for more than one processor type inside [[note]]This was, in fact, a technology when [=NeXTStep=] transitioned to other architectures itself (PA-RISC, SPARC, i386)[[/note]]. Apple labeled applications using this trick as "Universal binaries," and added options in their developer tools to build for both x86 and [=PowerPC=] at the same time. An Intel version of OS X 10.4 was first offered on new Macs immediately after the transition; 10.5 was the first and only standalone [=PowerPC=]/Intel version of the OS available in stores. Mac OS 10.5 was also granted a license by the Open Group, certifying full compliance with the Single UNIX Specification, which means that Mac OS is now officially a version of UsefulNotes/{{UNIX}}. In 2009, Apple announced that [=PowerPC=] processors would not be supported for 10.6, making the break final.

Things were somewhat harder on developers, though; quite a bit of older Mac OS code had been written with outside or outdated tools (such as Macintosh tools like Think, [=CodeWarrior=], and Apple's MPW or PB; or non-Mac tools like Microsoft Visual Studio) for the Carbon API. The most common, easiest way to write 80x86 programs for OS X is with Apple's Xcode IDE -- this is part of what held up Universal releases of popular apps like Adobe Creative Suite and Microsoft Office until 2007-2008. The impact was not significant on developers that had already moved to Xcode, and applications built there were some of the first to go Universal.

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This was met with some concern from some longtime Mac users, especially after years of Apple advertising touting the RISC-based PPC [=CPUs=] over the "snail-like" 80x86 family, but by then times had changed, and most of the standard PC's warts had long since been wallpapered over (by fusing the CISC x86 instruction set with a simple RISC architecture inside the "CRISC" CPU) or had been filled in by new UsefulNotes/{{API}}s such as ACPI. Moreover, Apple's own machines had slowly been absorbing technologies from mainstream [=PCs=], such as PCI, ATA, and USB, since the mid 1990s. Finally, Mac OS X's UNIX base made it so that changes on the underlying hardware would not severely impact the user experience, though processor-specific code (usually for math-related things like Photoshop filters) would need to be tweaked or rewritten. Much like the old Mac OS did during the 68k-to-PPC transition, Mac OS X supported "fat binaries", with code for more than one processor type inside [[note]]This was, in fact, a technology when [=NeXTStep=] transitioned to other architectures itself (PA-RISC, SPARC, i386)[[/note]]. Apple labeled applications using this trick as "Universal binaries," and added options in their developer tools to build for both x86 and [=PowerPC=] at the same time. An Intel version of Mac OS X 10.4 was first offered on new Macs immediately after the transition; 10.5 was the first and only standalone [=PowerPC=]/Intel version of the OS available in stores. Mac OS X 10.5 was also granted a license by the Open Group, certifying full compliance with the Single UNIX Specification, which means that Mac OS is now officially a version of UsefulNotes/{{UNIX}}. In 2009, Apple announced that [=PowerPC=] processors would not be supported for 10.6, making the break final.

Things were somewhat harder on developers, though; quite a bit of older Mac OS code had been written with outside or outdated tools (such as Macintosh tools like Think, [=CodeWarrior=], and Apple's MPW or PB; or non-Mac tools like Microsoft Visual Studio) for the Carbon API. The most common, easiest way to write 80x86 programs for OS X [=macOS=] is with Apple's Xcode IDE -- this is part of what held up Universal releases of popular apps like Adobe Creative Suite and Microsoft Office until 2007-2008. The impact was not significant on developers that had already moved to Xcode, and applications built there were some of the first to go Universal.


1999 also saw the release of Mac OS 9.0. 9.0 also added better text handling (including, finally, 255-character file name and Unicode support), the Disc Burning subsystem, and more. It would be the last major version of an OS that, by this time, had remained practically unchanged at its core for well over a decade.

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1999 also saw the release of Mac OS 9.0. 9.0 also added better text handling (including, finally, 255-character file name and Unicode support), the Disc Burning subsystem, and more. It would be the last major version of an OS that, by this time, had remained practically unchanged at its core for well over a decade.
decade and a half.


10.7 dropped support for [=PowerPC=] emulation, making the installation smaller, but leaving many older apps in the dust. Because of this, 10.6 is still going strong. 10.7 also made the 64-bit kernel the default on supported hardware, while also requiring a 64-bit processor. 10.8 continued the trend of dropping older hardware by making it only have the 64-bit kernel, most likely due to the fact that due to the re-write of the graphics driver implementation also meant the same Macs wouldn't have accelerated graphics.

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10.7 dropped support for [=PowerPC=] emulation, making the installation smaller, but leaving many older apps in the dust. Because of this, 10.6 is still going strong. 10.7 also made the 64-bit kernel the default on supported hardware, while also requiring a 64-bit processor. 10.8 continued the trend of dropping older hardware by making it only have the 64-bit kernel, most likely due to the fact that due to the re-write of the graphics driver implementation also meant the same Macs wouldn't have accelerated graphics.
graphics, and the switch from 32-bit EFI firmware interface to a 64-bit UEFI firmware meant the drivers couldn't be used with machines that only supported the older firmware.


Despite the high hopes for CHRP, it never gained popularity outside of Apple itself and a few machines made by IBM and Motorola as AIX workstations. The industry was already crowded with ideas that were supposed to replace the IBMPersonalComputer, and the PC market was still waiting for the years-late release of what would eventually become Windows 95. That left the Mac OS-only cloning business, which was popular, but ended up cannibalizing Apple's existing customers instead of recruiting switchers from other platforms as Apple had hoped.

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Despite the high hopes for CHRP, it never gained popularity outside of Apple itself and a few machines made by IBM and Motorola as AIX workstations. The industry was already crowded with ideas that were supposed to replace the IBMPersonalComputer, UsefulNotes/IBMPersonalComputer, and the PC market was still waiting for the years-late release of what would eventually become Windows 95. That left the Mac OS-only cloning business, which was popular, but ended up cannibalizing Apple's existing customers instead of recruiting switchers from other platforms as Apple had hoped.


The first Macs had the majority of their OS stuffed into 64 kilobytes of [[ReadOnlyMemory ROM]], a huge amount for the time, to help conserve the machines' tiny 128 kilobytes of system [[UsefulNotes/RandomAccessMemory RAM]]. [[UsefulNotes/MagneticDisk Floppy disks]] were the only media supported, folders weren't actually implemented (the original Macintosh File System faked them using some OS trickery), and only one application could run at a time.[[note]]Technically, there could be more applications running together, but the tiny amount of memory meant that only very few specially designed ones called "Desktop Accessories" were allowed to. When the memory increased (on the Mac II and later) Andy Herzfeld hacked together a so-called Multi Finder shell that allowed limited multitasking.[[/note]] It ran on Motorola's powerful 32-bit[[note]]Internally only. Externally it has a 24-bit address bus, allowing it to address 16 Megabytes of [[UsefulNotes/RandomAccessMemory RAM]], and only 16-bit data bus, which kinda limited its performance.[[/note]] [[UsefulNotes/CentralProcessingUnit 68000 CPU]], but between the extremely limited RAM and the 16-bit-wide data bus, it was not very fast. [[RuleOfCool They sure looked cool, though.]] The later 512k upgrade made things less painful.

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The first Macs had the majority of their OS stuffed into 64 kilobytes of [[ReadOnlyMemory [[UsefulNotes/ReadOnlyMemory ROM]], a huge amount for the time, to help conserve the machines' tiny 128 kilobytes of system [[UsefulNotes/RandomAccessMemory RAM]]. [[UsefulNotes/MagneticDisk Floppy disks]] were the only media supported, folders weren't actually implemented (the original Macintosh File System faked them using some OS trickery), and only one application could run at a time.[[note]]Technically, there could be more applications running together, but the tiny amount of memory meant that only very few specially designed ones called "Desktop Accessories" were allowed to. When the memory increased (on the Mac II and later) Andy Herzfeld hacked together a so-called Multi Finder shell that allowed limited multitasking.[[/note]] It ran on Motorola's powerful 32-bit[[note]]Internally only. Externally it has a 24-bit address bus, allowing it to address 16 Megabytes of [[UsefulNotes/RandomAccessMemory RAM]], and only 16-bit data bus, which kinda limited its performance.[[/note]] [[UsefulNotes/CentralProcessingUnit 68000 CPU]], but between the extremely limited RAM and the 16-bit-wide data bus, it was not very fast. [[RuleOfCool They sure looked cool, though.]] The later 512k upgrade made things less painful.


The first Macs had the majority of their OS stuffed into 64 kilobytes of [[ReadOnlyMemory ROM]], a huge amount for the time, to help conserve the machines' tiny 128 kilobytes of system [[UsefulNotes/RandomAccessMemory RAM]]. [[UsefulNotes/MagneticDisk Floppy disks]] were the only media supported, folders weren't actually implemented (the original Macintosh File System faked them using some OS trickery), and only one application could run at a time.[[note]]Technically, there could be more applications running together, but the tiny amount of memory meant that only very few specially designed ones called "Desktop Accessories" were allowed to. When the memory increased (on the Mac II and later) Andy Herzfeld hacked together a so-called Multi Finder shell that allowed limited multitasking.[[/note]] It ran on Motorola's powerful 32-bit[[note]]Internally only. Externally it has a 24-bit address bus, allowing it to address 16 Megabytes of {{RAM}}, and only 16-bit data bus, which kinda limited its performance.[[/note]] [[UsefulNotes/CentralProcessingUnit 68000 CPU]], but between the extremely limited RAM and the 16-bit-wide data bus, it was not very fast. [[RuleOfCool They sure looked cool, though.]] The later 512k upgrade made things less painful.

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The first Macs had the majority of their OS stuffed into 64 kilobytes of [[ReadOnlyMemory ROM]], a huge amount for the time, to help conserve the machines' tiny 128 kilobytes of system [[UsefulNotes/RandomAccessMemory RAM]]. [[UsefulNotes/MagneticDisk Floppy disks]] were the only media supported, folders weren't actually implemented (the original Macintosh File System faked them using some OS trickery), and only one application could run at a time.[[note]]Technically, there could be more applications running together, but the tiny amount of memory meant that only very few specially designed ones called "Desktop Accessories" were allowed to. When the memory increased (on the Mac II and later) Andy Herzfeld hacked together a so-called Multi Finder shell that allowed limited multitasking.[[/note]] It ran on Motorola's powerful 32-bit[[note]]Internally only. Externally it has a 24-bit address bus, allowing it to address 16 Megabytes of {{RAM}}, [[UsefulNotes/RandomAccessMemory RAM]], and only 16-bit data bus, which kinda limited its performance.[[/note]] [[UsefulNotes/CentralProcessingUnit 68000 CPU]], but between the extremely limited RAM and the 16-bit-wide data bus, it was not very fast. [[RuleOfCool They sure looked cool, though.]] The later 512k upgrade made things less painful.





The first Macs had the majority of their OS stuffed into 64 kilobytes of [[ReadOnlyMemory ROM]], a huge amount for the time, to help conserve the machines' tiny 128 kilobytes of system [[RandomAccessMemory RAM]]. [[UsefulNotes/MagneticDisk Floppy disks]] were the only media supported, folders weren't actually implemented (the original Macintosh File System faked them using some OS trickery), and only one application could run at a time.[[note]]Technically, there could be more applications running together, but the tiny amount of memory meant that only very few specially designed ones called "Desktop Accessories" were allowed to. When the memory increased (on the Mac II and later) Andy Herzfeld hacked together a so-called Multi Finder shell that allowed limited multitasking.[[/note]] It ran on Motorola's powerful 32-bit[[note]]Internally only. Externally it has a 24-bit address bus, allowing it to address 16 Megabytes of {{RAM}}, and only 16-bit data bus, which kinda limited its performance.[[/note]] [[UsefulNotes/CentralProcessingUnit 68000 CPU]], but between the extremely limited RAM and the 16-bit-wide data bus, it was not very fast. [[RuleOfCool They sure looked cool, though.]] The later 512k upgrade made things less painful.

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The first Macs had the majority of their OS stuffed into 64 kilobytes of [[ReadOnlyMemory ROM]], a huge amount for the time, to help conserve the machines' tiny 128 kilobytes of system [[RandomAccessMemory [[UsefulNotes/RandomAccessMemory RAM]]. [[UsefulNotes/MagneticDisk Floppy disks]] were the only media supported, folders weren't actually implemented (the original Macintosh File System faked them using some OS trickery), and only one application could run at a time.[[note]]Technically, there could be more applications running together, but the tiny amount of memory meant that only very few specially designed ones called "Desktop Accessories" were allowed to. When the memory increased (on the Mac II and later) Andy Herzfeld hacked together a so-called Multi Finder shell that allowed limited multitasking.[[/note]] It ran on Motorola's powerful 32-bit[[note]]Internally only. Externally it has a 24-bit address bus, allowing it to address 16 Megabytes of {{RAM}}, and only 16-bit data bus, which kinda limited its performance.[[/note]] [[UsefulNotes/CentralProcessingUnit 68000 CPU]], but between the extremely limited RAM and the 16-bit-wide data bus, it was not very fast. [[RuleOfCool They sure looked cool, though.]] The later 512k upgrade made things less painful.


Apple's comeback started in earnest in 1998, with the introduction of the Bondi Blue iMac sporting the brand-new Mac OS 8.5. The iMac brought other changes, including new [=ROMs=] that made supporting [=OSes=] other than the original Mac OS much easier. This setup, referred to by Apple developers as "New World" after the tech note that first described it ("The Macintosh ROM Enters a New World"), put the majority of the classic Mac OS ROM in a file on the hard drive and officially made it possible to boot non-Apple [=OSes=] without workarounds.

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Apple's comeback started in earnest in 1998, with the introduction of the Bondi Blue iMac sporting the brand-new Mac OS 8.5. The iMac brought other changes, including new [=ROMs=] moving to the ''[=OpenFirmware=]'' BIOS that made supporting [=OSes=] other than the original Mac OS much easier. This setup, referred to by Apple developers as "New World" after the tech note that first described it ("The Macintosh ROM Enters a New World"), put the majority of the classic Mac OS ROM in a file on the hard drive and officially made it possible to boot non-Apple [=OSes=] without workarounds.


The Power Macintosh also marked the beginning of another unusual chapter in Apple's history, that of the legal Macintosh clone. Almost immediately following the Power Mac's launch, Apple granted licenses for companies like Motorola and Radius to sell Mac clones, and it soon burgeoned into a substantial business. The [=PowerPC=] was received so warmly that many other companies ported their [=OSs=] to run on it, such as IBM ([=OS/2=], AIX); Sun (Solaris); Microsoft (Windows NT); and Commodore ([[{{Amiga}} AmigaOS]]). Along with this variety of operating systems, AIM intended to produce a Common Hardware Reference Platform (CHRP) which all [=PowerPC=] computers would comply with, so that any [=PowerPC=] computer could run any [=PowerPC=] operating system, including the Mac OS (similar schemes were underway by other RISC architectures, such as Digital Equipment's [=AlphaPC=] and MIPS' [=RISCPC=], both of which followed the Microsoft-championed "Advanced RISC Computer" specification).

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The Power Macintosh also marked the beginning of another unusual chapter in Apple's history, that of the legal Macintosh clone. Almost immediately following the Power Mac's launch, Apple granted licenses for companies like Motorola and Radius to sell Mac clones, and it soon burgeoned into a substantial business. The [=PowerPC=] was received so warmly that many other companies ported their [=OSs=] to run on it, such as IBM ([=OS/2=], AIX); Sun (Solaris); Microsoft (Windows NT); and Commodore ([[{{Amiga}} ([[UsefulNotes/{{Amiga}} AmigaOS]]). Along with this variety of operating systems, AIM intended to produce a Common Hardware Reference Platform (CHRP) which all [=PowerPC=] computers would comply with, so that any [=PowerPC=] computer could run any [=PowerPC=] operating system, including the Mac OS (similar schemes were underway by other RISC architectures, such as Digital Equipment's [=AlphaPC=] and MIPS' [=RISCPC=], both of which followed the Microsoft-championed "Advanced RISC Computer" specification).



Meanwhile, the Mac hardware was starting to outstrip the stopgap Mac OS's capabilities. Users complained about slow I/O, frequent crashes (due to a lack of memory protection), and a general lack of polish, especially in the face of Microsoft's blockbuster [[MicrosoftWindows Windows 95]] launch. Worse, the OS had several quirks in its design that dated to its early days; these design decisions, most of which were required by the first Mac's severely limited memory, made it extremely difficult to run a traditional Mac OS application in a multitasking environment without virtualization. The Copland engineers found this problem the hardest to solve, and it was probably the biggest contributor to Copland's eventual abandonment.

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Meanwhile, the Mac hardware was starting to outstrip the stopgap Mac OS's capabilities. Users complained about slow I/O, frequent crashes (due to a lack of memory protection), and a general lack of polish, especially in the face of Microsoft's blockbuster [[MicrosoftWindows [[UsefulNotes/MicrosoftWindows Windows 95]] launch. Worse, the OS had several quirks in its design that dated to its early days; these design decisions, most of which were required by the first Mac's severely limited memory, made it extremely difficult to run a traditional Mac OS application in a multitasking environment without virtualization. The Copland engineers found this problem the hardest to solve, and it was probably the biggest contributor to Copland's eventual abandonment.



At the 2005 WWDC, Apple dropped a bombshell on the Mac community: The Mac was moving to the 80x86 family of processors (specifically the Intel Pentium M and Core architectures), effectively making the Mac a PC clone. The main reason stated was that Apple could not get IBM and [[strike:Motorola]]Freescale to cooperate on developing a low-power version of the [=PowerPC=] G5 CPU, forcing Apple to continue using the aging G4 CPU instead in the highly popular [=PowerBook=] and [=iBook=] ranges. The G5 itself was infamously power-hungry, with many of the faster models requiring water cooling, and that meant more heat and more fan noise. This was especially irksome to Apple, as the earlier PPC G3 was one of the most efficient [=CPUs=] ever made, allowing Apple's laptops to easily hold the title of "World's Fastest" for years. Amusingly enough, Apple's abandonment of the PPC occurred just before the entire 7th generation of VideogameSystems unanimously switched to it, coinciding with enormous upgrades to the PPC architecture[[note]]In fact, early development kits for the {{XBox 360}} were Power Macintosh [=G5s=].[[/note]].

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At the 2005 WWDC, Apple dropped a bombshell on the Mac community: The Mac was moving to the 80x86 family of processors (specifically the Intel Pentium M and Core architectures), effectively making the Mac a PC clone. The main reason stated was that Apple could not get IBM and [[strike:Motorola]]Freescale to cooperate on developing a low-power version of the [=PowerPC=] G5 CPU, forcing Apple to continue using the aging G4 CPU instead in the highly popular [=PowerBook=] and [=iBook=] ranges. The G5 itself was infamously power-hungry, with many of the faster models requiring water cooling, and that meant more heat and more fan noise. This was especially irksome to Apple, as the earlier PPC G3 was one of the most efficient [=CPUs=] ever made, allowing Apple's laptops to easily hold the title of "World's Fastest" for years. Amusingly enough, Apple's abandonment of the PPC occurred just before the entire 7th generation of VideogameSystems unanimously switched to it, coinciding with enormous upgrades to the PPC architecture[[note]]In fact, early development kits for the {{XBox UsefulNotes/{{XBox 360}} were Power Macintosh [=G5s=].[[/note]].



Apple then did a bold move and announced that their next version of OS X, Lion, would be made available only on the Mac App Store[[note]]USB keys were available for purchase, but they were $70[[/note]]. Instead of booting off a DVD, you would download an installer. The price was lowered by $1, to $29. Mountain Lion continued the trend with its price being $20. Both versions could have an installer thumb drive made from the installer, but to do so would require some know-how or a utility. The installer would even create a small recovery partition (About 600 MB big), which could be used to repair the hard drive or reinstall the OS[[note]]reinstallation would require redownloading part of the installer[[/note]].

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Apple then did a bold move and announced that their next version of OS X, Lion, would be made available only on the Mac App Store[[note]]USB keys were available for purchase, but they were $70[[/note]]. Instead of booting off a DVD, you would download an installer. The price was lowered by $1, to $29. Mountain Lion continued the trend with its price being $20. Both versions could have an installer thumb drive made from the installer, but to do so would require some know-how or a utility. The installer would even create a small recovery partition (About 600 MB big), which could be used to repair the hard drive or reinstall the OS[[note]]reinstallation OS[[note]]re-installation would require redownloading re-downloading part of the installer[[/note]].


http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/180px-Mac_os.png

The AppleMacintosh System Software (known as Mac OS after version 7.5) is the software that makes a Mac a Mac, more or less. Its common user-visible parts are the ''Finder'', a file management shell; the ''Desktop'', a metaphor for a real desktop managed by the Finder; the ''Apple menu'', a parking spot for small mini-applications called ''desk accessories'' (arguably succeeded by the Konfabulator-like ''Dashboard'' under OS X) and, starting with System 7, shortcuts to anything you like (mostly handed over to the ''Dock'' in OS X); and the ''Control Panel'' ("System Preferences" in OS X), where various system settings are managed.

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http://static.[[quoteright:180:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/180px-Mac_os.png

png]]

The AppleMacintosh UsefulNotes/AppleMacintosh System Software (known as Mac OS after version 7.5) is the software that makes a Mac a Mac, more or less. Its common user-visible parts are the ''Finder'', a file management shell; the ''Desktop'', a metaphor for a real desktop managed by the Finder; the ''Apple menu'', a parking spot for small mini-applications called ''desk accessories'' (arguably succeeded by the Konfabulator-like ''Dashboard'' under OS X) and, starting with System 7, shortcuts to anything you like (mostly handed over to the ''Dock'' in OS X); and the ''Control Panel'' ("System Preferences" in OS X), where various system settings are managed.



The first Macs had the majority of their OS stuffed into 64 kilobytes of [[ReadOnlyMemory ROM]], a huge amount for the time, to help conserve the machines' tiny 128 kilobytes of system [[RandomAccessMemory RAM]]. [[MagneticDisk Floppy disks]] were the only media supported, folders weren't actually implemented (the original Macintosh File System faked them using some OS trickery), and only one application could run at a time.[[note]]Technically, there could be more applications running together, but the tiny amount of memory meant that only very few specially designed ones called "Desktop Accessories" were allowed to. When the memory increased (on the Mac II and later) Andy Herzfeld hacked together a so-called Multi Finder shell that allowed limited multitasking.[[/note]] It ran on Motorola's powerful 32-bit[[note]]Internally only. Externally it has a 24-bit address bus, allowing it to address 16 Megabytes of {{RAM}}, and only 16-bit data bus, which kinda limited its performance.[[/note]] [[UsefulNotes/CentralProcessingUnit 68000 CPU]], but between the extremely limited RAM and the 16-bit-wide data bus, it was not very fast. [[RuleOfCool They sure looked cool, though.]] The later 512k upgrade made things less painful.

to:

The first Macs had the majority of their OS stuffed into 64 kilobytes of [[ReadOnlyMemory ROM]], a huge amount for the time, to help conserve the machines' tiny 128 kilobytes of system [[RandomAccessMemory RAM]]. [[MagneticDisk [[UsefulNotes/MagneticDisk Floppy disks]] were the only media supported, folders weren't actually implemented (the original Macintosh File System faked them using some OS trickery), and only one application could run at a time.[[note]]Technically, there could be more applications running together, but the tiny amount of memory meant that only very few specially designed ones called "Desktop Accessories" were allowed to. When the memory increased (on the Mac II and later) Andy Herzfeld hacked together a so-called Multi Finder shell that allowed limited multitasking.[[/note]] It ran on Motorola's powerful 32-bit[[note]]Internally only. Externally it has a 24-bit address bus, allowing it to address 16 Megabytes of {{RAM}}, and only 16-bit data bus, which kinda limited its performance.[[/note]] [[UsefulNotes/CentralProcessingUnit 68000 CPU]], but between the extremely limited RAM and the 16-bit-wide data bus, it was not very fast. [[RuleOfCool They sure looked cool, though.]] The later 512k upgrade made things less painful.

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