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On Christmas Day, 1991, with no country left to rule, Gorbachev announced his resignation as President. The hammer and sickle was lowered from the Kremlin and the Soviet Union was officially finished. The [[UsefulNotes/TheNewRussia Russian Federation]] had begun, with Yeltsin's first act to declare Russia to be the successor state to the USSR, thus allowing it to assume the USSR's place on the UN Security Council and other global responsibilities.

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On Christmas Day, 1991, with no country left to rule, Gorbachev announced his resignation as President. The hammer and sickle was lowered from the Kremlin Kremlin, the Supreme Soviet voted itself out of existence, and the Soviet Union was officially finished. The [[UsefulNotes/TheNewRussia Russian Federation]] had begun, with Yeltsin's first act to declare Russia to be the successor state to the USSR, thus allowing it to assume the USSR's place on the UN Security Council and other global responsibilities.


This also led to a Civil War, in which the Allied powers, including the Americans joined in. It was mainly "Red" versus "White" and very nasty, with massacres everywhere; the one that shows up most often in fiction is the murder of the entire Romanov royal family, although that was an event of minor importance at the time. The civil war was hardly two-sided, as the nation was filled with dozens of small nationalist factions fighting for independence and a confusing rainbow of smaller armies such as the Blacks (anarchists), Blues (peasants rebelling against the Reds), and Greens (desperate peasants fighting everybody just for survival). If you want a glimpse of what happened at the time, ''Literature/DoctorZhivago'' is best at describing the whole situation. Western powers like the US, Britain and France sent some troops to help the Whites (because they were fighting against communism, and [[EnemyMine the enemy of my enemy is my friend]]). This mostly served to make the Whites look like puppets of foreign capitalists and imperialists, which didn't help with their street cred. Thanks to Trotsky and the state seizing control of the entire Soviet economy to feed the Red Army (which became highly organised and disciplined --the commissars shooting people certainly helped), the Bolsheviks won. The Whites were [[WeAREStrugglingTogether disunited]], rather disorganised, and had difficulty mobilizing people to fight for their unclear vision, being forced to rely on Cossacks as soldiers who themselves wanted independence from Russia, Red or White - not to mention that they had no idea what to do with Russia if they won, since they were a wide alliance of anti-communist forces (ranging from non-Bolshevik socialists over moderate liberals to ultra-nationalists who [[ThoseWackyNazis wanted to kill lots of Jews]]).

The price was very high. Fifteen million Russians were dead, mostly via disease, famine and massacres (including White pogroms against the Jewish population). Another million, White supporters and much of the skilled class of Russia, left the country permanently to appear in many a GenteelInterbellumSetting work of fiction. What was left of Imperial Russia's attempts at industrialization lay in shambles and agricultural production wasn't much better off either. As part of the whole "worker-socialist state" thing, all remaining traces and links to the old monarchy were purged as well.

On 29 December 1922, a new union of republics (Russia with Belarus, the Communist Ukrainian government, and the states of Central Asia) was created. Its name in Russian was Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik. The rest of the world could come to know of it as the USSR, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or otherwise the Soviet Union. To help get things going, the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars UsefulNotes/VladimirLenin implemented the New Economic Policy (NEP). This kept industry and manufacturing (or what was left of it after the war) under state ownership, but allowed some private ownership of agricultural land, and encouraged farmers to sell surpluses. This increased agricultural production greatly, but there were also problems with consumer goods prices and something called "the Scissors Crisis", owing to the dilapidated state of Russia's industry.

In March 1923, Lenin suffered his third stroke and was left bedridden and speechless for the short remainder of his life. In 1924, he died and was buried in Red Square. Well, not buried. He was built his own creepy dark mausoleum, where his embalmed dead body is still visible to the public.

to:

This also led to a Civil War, in which the Allied powers, including the Americans joined in. It was mainly "Red" versus "White" and very nasty, with massacres everywhere; the one that shows up most often in fiction is the murder of the entire Romanov royal family, although that was an event of minor importance at the time. The civil war was hardly two-sided, as the nation was filled with dozens of small nationalist factions fighting for independence and a confusing rainbow of smaller armies such as the Blacks (anarchists), Blues (peasants rebelling against the Reds), and Greens (desperate peasants fighting everybody just for survival). If you want a glimpse of what happened at the time, ''Literature/DoctorZhivago'' is best at describing the whole situation. Western powers like the US, Britain and France sent some troops to help the Whites (because they were fighting against communism, and [[EnemyMine the enemy of my enemy is my friend]]). This mostly served to make the Whites look like puppets of foreign capitalists and imperialists, which didn't help with their street cred. Thanks to Trotsky and the state seizing control of the entire Soviet economy to feed the Red Army (which became highly organised and disciplined --the commissars shooting people certainly helped), the Bolsheviks won.ended up the ultimate victors. The Whites were [[WeAREStrugglingTogether disunited]], rather disorganised, and had difficulty mobilizing people to fight for their unclear vision, being forced to rely on Cossacks as soldiers who themselves wanted independence from Russia, Red or White - not to mention that they had no idea what to do with Russia if they won, since they were a wide alliance of anti-communist forces (ranging from non-Bolshevik socialists over moderate liberals to ultra-nationalists who [[ThoseWackyNazis wanted to kill lots of Jews]]).

The price was very high. Fifteen million Russians were dead, mostly via disease, famine and massacres (including White pogroms against the Jewish population). Another million, million White supporters and supporters, including much of the skilled class of Russia, left the country permanently to appear in many a GenteelInterbellumSetting work of fiction. What was left of Imperial Russia's attempts at industrialization lay in shambles and agricultural production wasn't much better off either. As part of the whole "worker-socialist state" thing, all remaining traces and links to the old monarchy were purged as well.

On 29 December 1922, a new union of republics (Russia with Belarus, the Communist Ukrainian government, and the states of Central Asia) was created. Its name in Russian was Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik. The rest of the world could come to know of it as the USSR, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Republics, or otherwise the Soviet Union.Union, for short. To help get things going, the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars UsefulNotes/VladimirLenin implemented the New Economic Policy (NEP). This kept industry and manufacturing (or what was left of it after the war) under state ownership, but allowed some private ownership of agricultural land, and encouraged farmers to sell surpluses. This increased agricultural production greatly, but there were also problems with consumer goods prices and something called "the Scissors Crisis", owing to the dilapidated state of Russia's industry.

In March 1923, Lenin suffered his third stroke and stroke. He was left bedridden and speechless for the short remainder of his life. In 1924, life, which ended the next year, in 1924. After his death, he died and was buried in Red Square. Well, not buried. He was built his own creepy dark mausoleum, where his embalmed dead body is still visible to the public.


A collection of people were now running the Soviet Union. One of the first things they did was to stop the purges and then purge Beria, who was frankly starting to annoy them. They also sent in the tanks to East Germany.

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A collection of people were now running the Soviet Union. Union, among them notably: Nikita Khrushchev (and Georgy Zhukov with whom he had a solid relationship, so he called the latter back to Moscow; Zhukov had been shuffled away on a shitty assignment in the Urals by Stalin, as gratitude for his genius leadership in the Great War). One of the first things they did was to stop the purges and then purge purges, with the exception of Beria, who was frankly starting purged because he had a history of trying to annoy them. topple Zhukov and was a major threat to the new regime. [[AssholeVictim Beria had formerly been the head of the NKVD, and personally orchestrated the Katyn Massacre, many Gulags, and various extensive purges. He was also publicly known to be a sexual predator with a psychopathic track record; he hunted the streets for young women, ordering his bodyguards to abduct them to his office where he would use and kill them]]. [[BreadEggsMilkSquick He also flattered Stalin a lot]].

They also sent in the tanks to East Germany.


The big argument among the Commies was between "World Revolution" (promote revolution in other countries, particularly the more industrialized countries, because socialism and communism cannot be built in a single agricultural country like the 1920s USSR) or "Socialism in one country" (build up the USSR and put Soviet interests first, because socialism and communism ''can'' be built in a single agricultural country and thus be a model for other revolutionaries). Stalin took the latter stance, Trotsky the former.

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The big argument among the Commies was between "World Revolution" (promote revolution in other countries, particularly the more industrialized countries, because socialism it was believed and communism cannot be built in a single agricultural country like Russia at the 1920s USSR) time) or "Socialism in one country" (build up the USSR and put Soviet interests first, because socialism and communism ''can'' be built in a single agricultural country and thus be a model for other revolutionaries). Stalin took the latter stance, Trotsky the former.


This also led to a Civil War, in which the Allied powers, including the Americans joined in. It was mainly "Red" versus "White" and very nasty, with massacres everywhere; the one that shows up most often in fiction is the murder of the entire Romanov royal family, although that was an event of minor importance at the time. The civil war was hardly two-sided, as the nation was filled with dozens of small nationalist factions fighting for independence and a confusing rainbow of smaller armies such as the Blacks (anarchists), Blues (peasants rebelling against the Reds), and Greens (desperate peasants fighting everybody just for survival). If you want a glimpse of what happened at the time, ''Literature/DoctorZhivago'' is best at describing the whole situation. Western powers like the US, Britain and France sent some troops to help the Whites (because they were fighting against communism, and [[EnemyMine the enemy of my enemy is my friend]]). This mostly served to make the Whites look like puppets of foreign capitalists and imperialists, which didn't help with their street cred. Thanks to Trotsky and the state seizing control of the entire Soviet economy to feed the Red Army (which became highly organised and disciplined --the commissars shooting people certainly helped), the Bolsheviks won. The Whites were [[WeAREStrugglingTogether disunited]], rather disorganised, and lacking an industrial base - not to mention that they had no idea what to do with Russia if they won, since they were a wide alliance of anti-communist forces (ranging from non-Bolshevik socialists over moderate liberals to ultra-nationalists who [[ThoseWackyNazis wanted to kill lots of Jews]]).

to:

This also led to a Civil War, in which the Allied powers, including the Americans joined in. It was mainly "Red" versus "White" and very nasty, with massacres everywhere; the one that shows up most often in fiction is the murder of the entire Romanov royal family, although that was an event of minor importance at the time. The civil war was hardly two-sided, as the nation was filled with dozens of small nationalist factions fighting for independence and a confusing rainbow of smaller armies such as the Blacks (anarchists), Blues (peasants rebelling against the Reds), and Greens (desperate peasants fighting everybody just for survival). If you want a glimpse of what happened at the time, ''Literature/DoctorZhivago'' is best at describing the whole situation. Western powers like the US, Britain and France sent some troops to help the Whites (because they were fighting against communism, and [[EnemyMine the enemy of my enemy is my friend]]). This mostly served to make the Whites look like puppets of foreign capitalists and imperialists, which didn't help with their street cred. Thanks to Trotsky and the state seizing control of the entire Soviet economy to feed the Red Army (which became highly organised and disciplined --the commissars shooting people certainly helped), the Bolsheviks won. The Whites were [[WeAREStrugglingTogether disunited]], rather disorganised, and lacking an industrial base had difficulty mobilizing people to fight for their unclear vision, being forced to rely on Cossacks as soldiers who themselves wanted independence from Russia, Red or White - not to mention that they had no idea what to do with Russia if they won, since they were a wide alliance of anti-communist forces (ranging from non-Bolshevik socialists over moderate liberals to ultra-nationalists who [[ThoseWackyNazis wanted to kill lots of Jews]]).


-->--'''[[Main/RussianHumour Soviet joke]]'''

to:

-->--'''[[Main/RussianHumour -->--'''[[RussianHumour Soviet joke]]'''



[[folder:Secret Policeman's Rule - Yuri Andropov]]
Andropov had been head of the KGB. The only notable things in his two year rule were the KAL-007 incident, the US deployment of Pershing and Cruise Missiles and inviting [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samantha_Smith an American girl]] who wrote a letter to him to visit the USSR.

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[[folder:Secret Policeman's Rule [[folder:Welcome to Our New... He's Dead - Yuri Andropov]]
Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko]]
Yuri
Andropov had been head of the KGB. The only notable things in his two year rule were the KAL-007 incident, the US deployment of Pershing and Cruise Missiles and inviting [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samantha_Smith an American girl]] who wrote a letter to him to visit the USSR.




Ill at the start, Andropov's successor Konstantin Chernenko lasted just 13 months and did nothing to calm down the Cold War.

The streak of insta-dead senile leaders (caused by lack of rotation in Politburo) not only meant there were three transitions in less than three years, but also spawned its own set of jokes. No wonder the next Secretary was a refreshing change.



[[folder:Welcome to our new... He's dead - Konstantin Chernenko]]
Ill at the start, he lasted just 13 months and did nothing to calm down the Cold War.

The streak of insta-dead senile leaders (caused by lack of rotation in Politburo) spawned its own set of jokes. No wonder the next Secretary was a refreshing change.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Killing The Patient By Trying To Save It, Or Was He? - Mikhail Gorbachev]]

to:

[[folder:Welcome to our new... He's dead - Konstantin Chernenko]]
Ill at the start, he lasted just 13 months and did nothing to calm down the Cold War.

The streak of insta-dead senile leaders (caused by lack of rotation in Politburo) spawned its own set of jokes. No wonder the next Secretary was a refreshing change.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Killing The the Patient By Trying To to Save It, Or Was He? - Mikhail Gorbachev]]


UsefulNotes/LeonidBrezhnev took over. No more of that pancy liberal stuff. No more talk about Stalin, good or bad. The Prague Spring was crushed, the UsefulNotes/VietnamWar was covertly supported, Afghanistan was invaded and the economy went stagnant. He tried to set up his own cult of personality, awarding himself the Hero of the Soviet Union medal four times. It didn't work at all. The privilege of the upper echelons went silly (flying to Paris - the city in France - for a haircut for his daughter). He became increasingly ill, but no-one plotted against him.

Afghanistan deserves more mention. In order to prop up communist government there against American-supported rebels and a guy who'd couped the previous guy, was making himself unpopular via repression, the UsefulNotes/RedsWithRockets invaded, put a puppet government in place. Then the whole thing turned into a quagmire and will be discussed in the UsefulNotes/HistoryOfTheColdWar.

to:

UsefulNotes/LeonidBrezhnev took over. No more of that pancy liberal stuff. No more talk about Stalin, good or bad. The Prague Spring was crushed, the UsefulNotes/VietnamWar was covertly supported, Afghanistan was invaded invaded, and the economy went stagnant. He tried to set up his own cult of personality, awarding himself the Hero of the Soviet Union medal four times. It didn't work at all. The privilege of the upper echelons went silly (flying to Paris - the city in France - for a haircut for his daughter). He became increasingly ill, but no-one plotted against him.

Afghanistan deserves more mention. In order to prop up a communist government there against American-supported rebels and a guy who'd couped the previous guy, who was making himself unpopular via repression, the UsefulNotes/RedsWithRockets invaded, invaded and put a puppet government in place. Then the whole thing turned into a quagmire and will be discussed in the UsefulNotes/HistoryOfTheColdWar.


"Restructuring". The Soviet economy was liberalised, allowing private (and even foreign) investment and in 1990, you could get a Big Mac in Moscow. However, this caused prices to rocket and the economy to deteriorate (the Russian economy still hasn't fully recovered). The USSR's living standards went even lower. This made people annoyed.

to:

"Restructuring". The Soviet economy was liberalised, liberalized, allowing private (and even foreign) investment and in 1990, you could get a Big Mac in Moscow. However, this caused prices to rocket skyrocket and the tottering economy to deteriorate (the Russian economy still hasn't fully recovered).recovered to this day). The USSR's living standards went even lower. This made people annoyed.



(Although Chernobyl was in the Ukrainian SSR, the wind blew most of the fallout north into the Byelorussian SSR. Belarus still has a lot of problems as a result)

to:

(Although Chernobyl was in the Ukrainian SSR, the wind blew most of the fallout north into the Byelorussian SSR. Belarus still has a lot of problems as a result)
result.)



On Christmas Day, 1991, with no country left to rule, Gorbachev announced his resignation as President. The hammer and sickle was lowered from the Kremlin and the Soviet Union was finished. The [[UsefulNotes/TheNewRussia Russian Federation]] had begun, with Yeltsin's first act to declare Russia to be the successor state to the USSR, thus allowing it to assume the USSR's place on the UN Security Council and other global responsibilities.

to:

On Christmas Day, 1991, with no country left to rule, Gorbachev announced his resignation as President. The hammer and sickle was lowered from the Kremlin and the Soviet Union was officially finished. The [[UsefulNotes/TheNewRussia Russian Federation]] had begun, with Yeltsin's first act to declare Russia to be the successor state to the USSR, thus allowing it to assume the USSR's place on the UN Security Council and other global responsibilities.


The history of the Cuban Missile Crisis is located in HistoryOfTheColdWar (not yet finished), but needless to say that the results were humiliating for Nikita because he was perceived to have got nothing out of it. Ironically, he did get something out of it: The Americans agreed to remove their missiles from Turkey. But part of the agreement was that they wouldn't tell anyone about it.

to:

The history of the Cuban Missile Crisis is located in HistoryOfTheColdWar UsefulNotes/HistoryOfTheColdWar (not yet finished), but needless to say that the results were humiliating for Nikita because he was perceived to have got nothing out of it. Ironically, he did get something out of it: The Americans agreed to remove their missiles from Turkey. But part of the agreement was that they wouldn't tell anyone about it.



Afghanistan deserves more mention. In order to prop up communist government there against American-supported rebels and a guy who'd couped the previous guy, was making himself unpopular via repression, the UsefulNotes/RedsWithRockets invaded, put a puppet government in place. Then the whole thing turned into a quagmire and will be discussed in the HistoryOfTheColdWar.

to:

Afghanistan deserves more mention. In order to prop up communist government there against American-supported rebels and a guy who'd couped the previous guy, was making himself unpopular via repression, the UsefulNotes/RedsWithRockets invaded, put a puppet government in place. Then the whole thing turned into a quagmire and will be discussed in the HistoryOfTheColdWar.
UsefulNotes/HistoryOfTheColdWar.


It was the Wehrmacht's last gasp -- all it could really do from then on was try slow down the Soviets as it retreated from Russia and back to the Third Reich. As the Soviet offensives began in mid-143, the Germans found that at first they could at least manage organized retreats even if they couldn't outright stop the Russians. But as the Germans grew progressively weaker and the Soviets progressively stronger, the ability to even retreat successfully fell away from the Wehrmacht. By the summer of 1944, the situation was completely inverted from that of 1941: it was the Germans who would lose multiple armies to each massive Soviet blow.

to:

It was the Wehrmacht's last gasp -- all it could really do from then on was try slow down the Soviets as it retreated from Russia and back to the Third Reich. As the Soviet offensives began in mid-143, mid-1943, the Germans found that at first they could at least manage organized retreats even if they couldn't outright stop the Russians. But as the Germans grew progressively weaker and the Soviets progressively stronger, the ability to even retreat successfully fell away from the Wehrmacht. By the summer of 1944, the situation was completely inverted from that of 1941: it was the Germans who would lose multiple armies to each massive Soviet blow.


It was the Wehrmacht's last gasp -- all it could really do from then on was try slow down the Soviets as it retreated from Russia and back to the Third Reich. As the Soviet offensives began in mid-143, the Germans found that at first they could at least manage organized retreats even if they couldn't outright stop the Russians. But as the Germans grew progressively weaker and the Soviets progressively stronger, the ability to even retreat successfully fell away from the Wehrmacht. By the summer of 1944, the situation was completely inverted from that of 1941: it was the Germans who would lose multiple armies to each Soviet massive blow.

to:

It was the Wehrmacht's last gasp -- all it could really do from then on was try slow down the Soviets as it retreated from Russia and back to the Third Reich. As the Soviet offensives began in mid-143, the Germans found that at first they could at least manage organized retreats even if they couldn't outright stop the Russians. But as the Germans grew progressively weaker and the Soviets progressively stronger, the ability to even retreat successfully fell away from the Wehrmacht. By the summer of 1944, the situation was completely inverted from that of 1941: it was the Germans who would lose multiple armies to each Soviet massive Soviet blow.


It was the Wehrmacht's last gasp -- all it could really do from then on was try slow down the Soviets as it retreated from Russia and back to the Third Reich.

to:

It was the Wehrmacht's last gasp -- all it could really do from then on was try slow down the Soviets as it retreated from Russia and back to the Third Reich.
Reich. As the Soviet offensives began in mid-143, the Germans found that at first they could at least manage organized retreats even if they couldn't outright stop the Russians. But as the Germans grew progressively weaker and the Soviets progressively stronger, the ability to even retreat successfully fell away from the Wehrmacht. By the summer of 1944, the situation was completely inverted from that of 1941: it was the Germans who would lose multiple armies to each Soviet massive blow.


On Christmas Day, 1991, with no country left to rule, Gorbachev announced his resignation as President. The hammer and sickle was lowered from the Kremlin and the Soviet Union was finished. The [[TheNewRussia Russian Federation]] had begun, with Yeltsin's first act to declare Russia to be the successor state to the USSR, thus allowing it to assume the USSR's place on the UN Security Council and other global responsibilities.

to:

On Christmas Day, 1991, with no country left to rule, Gorbachev announced his resignation as President. The hammer and sickle was lowered from the Kremlin and the Soviet Union was finished. The [[TheNewRussia [[UsefulNotes/TheNewRussia Russian Federation]] had begun, with Yeltsin's first act to declare Russia to be the successor state to the USSR, thus allowing it to assume the USSR's place on the UN Security Council and other global responsibilities.


Setting up the BerlinWall did not improve Nikita's reputation in the West.

to:

Setting up the BerlinWall UsefulNotes/BerlinWall did not improve Nikita's reputation in the West.


Seeing a bunch of unused farm land in Kazakhstan, with ''Film/{{Borat}}'' nowhere in sight, Nikita decided to move a load of ethnic Russians there and develop the land. This was pretty stupid and pretty disastrous, with the science behind it dodgier than a [[OnlyFoolsAndHorses Del Boy]] product. The removal of the plants led to nothing holding the topsoil down. A dust bowl resulted in much of the area becoming unsuitable to grow anything.

to:

Seeing a bunch of unused farm land in Kazakhstan, with ''Film/{{Borat}}'' nowhere in sight, Nikita decided to move a load of ethnic Russians there and develop the land. This was pretty stupid and pretty disastrous, with the science behind it dodgier than a [[OnlyFoolsAndHorses [[Series/OnlyFoolsAndHorses Del Boy]] product. The removal of the plants led to nothing holding the topsoil down. A dust bowl resulted in much of the area becoming unsuitable to grow anything.

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