Follow TV Tropes

Following

History UsefulNotes / ChineseNames

Go To



More recently, [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_Sun_Yat-sen Sun Yat-Sen]] is generally known in Chinese as Sun Zhongshan instead of his 'official' name used in family records. Yat-Sen itself is a romanization of the [[UsefulNotes/ChineseDialectsAndAccents Cantonese pronunciation]] of the name his teacher gave him when he first went to school, while "Zhongshan" was a pseudonym adopted while in exile in Japan, where he took the surname Nakayama (read as ''Zhongshan'' in Chinese) [[LineOfSightName from a sign on a palace near Hibiya Park in Tokyo]]. (His ''legal'' name is Sun Wen). On the other hand, Chiang Kai-shek is another name that passed into English via Cantonese-- but that's not his legal name either; his legal name is Zhongzheng, adopted relatively late in his life; Kai-shek (Jieshi in Mandarin) is his style name. Gets even more confusing when Chiang Kai-Shek was born in Ningbo, Zhejiang province and so would have actually had his names read with the Wu dialect.

to:

More recently, [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_Sun_Yat-sen Sun Yat-Sen]] is generally known in Chinese as Sun Zhongshan instead of his 'official' name used in family records. Yat-Sen itself is a romanization of the [[UsefulNotes/ChineseDialectsAndAccents Cantonese pronunciation]] of the name his teacher gave him when he first went to school, while "Zhongshan" was a pseudonym adopted while in exile in Japan, where he took the surname Nakayama (read as ''Zhongshan'' in Chinese) [[LineOfSightName from a sign on a palace near Hibiya Park in Tokyo]]. (His ''legal'' name ("ming") is Sun Wen). On the other hand, Chiang Kai-shek "Chiang Kai-shek" is another name that passed into English via Cantonese-- but that's not his legal name ("ming") either; his legal name is Zhongzheng, "Zhongzheng", adopted relatively late in his life; Kai-shek (Jieshi "Kai-shek" ("Jieshi" in Mandarin) is his style name. Gets It gets even more confusing when Chiang Kai-Shek was born in Ningbo, Zhejiang province and so would have actually had his names read with the Wu dialect.


The most common surnames tend to be vary by region, with different names being more common in different provinces or countries. The most common Taiwanese surnames are Chen, Lin, and Huang. Historically, the Chinese used to have ''two'' surnames: a '''clan name''' (姓, ''xing'') and a '''lineage name''' (氏, ''shi''). In ancient China up to about the Zhou Dynasty, only men can use their lineage name as their surname; women have to use the clan name. E.g. famous poet Qu Yuan's clan name is Mi (芈); Qu (屈) is his lineage name. Over time, this distinction is blurred and eventually erased. Another thing to note for pre-Qin Chinese names is that famous personalities are sometimes addressed by putting their '''courtesy/style name''' (字; "zi") first, followed by their '''given name''' (名; "ming"), leaving out their "xing" and "shi" completely. For example, Creator/{{Confucius}}'s father is referred to as Shuliang He (叔梁紇) in records; "Shuliang" is his "zi", while "He" is his "ming". [[note]]For Qu Yuan, Yuan is his "zi"; his "ming" is "Ping" (平)[[/note]] By tradition, the child is given their ''zi'' at their coming-of-age ceremony. For gents, this is the ''guan'' ceremony, usually held at the age of 20 or slightly earlier; ladies have their ''ji'' ceremony at the age of 15. [[note]]As traditional Chinese do not cut their hair, their hair is tied into buns and secured. ''Guan'' is the hat-like object used by men to decorate their hair buns, while ''ji'' is the long hair-pin used by women for the same purpose.[[/note]]

to:

The most common surnames tend to be vary by region, with different names being more common in different provinces or countries. The most common Taiwanese surnames are Chen, Lin, and Huang. Historically, the Chinese used to have ''two'' surnames: a '''clan name''' (姓, ''xing'') and a '''lineage name''' (氏, ''shi''). In ancient China up to about the Zhou Dynasty, only men can use their lineage name as their surname; women have to use the clan name. E.g. famous poet Qu Yuan's clan name is Mi (芈); Qu (屈) is his lineage name. Over time, this distinction is blurred and eventually erased. Another thing to note for pre-Qin Chinese names is that famous personalities are sometimes addressed by putting their '''courtesy/style name''' (字; "zi") first, followed by their '''given name''' (名; "ming"), leaving out their "xing" and "shi" completely. For example, Creator/{{Confucius}}'s father is referred to as Shuliang He (叔梁紇) in records; "Shuliang" is his "zi", while "He" is his "ming". [[note]]For Qu Yuan, Yuan "Yuan" is his "zi"; his "ming" is "Ping" (平)[[/note]] By tradition, the child is given their ''zi'' at their coming-of-age ceremony. For gents, this is the ''guan'' ceremony, usually held at the age of 20 or slightly earlier; ladies have their ''ji'' ceremony at the age of 15. [[note]]As traditional Chinese do not cut their hair, their hair is tied into buns and secured. ''Guan'' is the hat-like object used by men to decorate their hair buns, while ''ji'' is the long hair-pin used by women for the same purpose.[[/note]]


The most common surnames tend to be vary by region, with different names being more common in different provinces or countries. The most common Taiwanese surnames are Chen, Lin, and Huang. Historically, the Chinese used to have ''two'' surnames: a '''clan name''' (姓, ''xing'') and a '''lineage name''' (氏, ''shi''). In ancient China up to about the Zhou Dynasty, only men can use their lineage name as their surname; women have to use the clan name. E.g. famous poet Qu Yuan's clan name is Mi (芈); Qu (屈) is his lineage name. Over time, this distinction is blurred and eventually erased. Another thing to note for pre-Qin Chinese names is that famous personalities are sometimes addressed by putting their '''courtesy/style name''' (字; "zi") first, followed by their '''given name''' (名; "ming"), leaving out their "xing" and "shi" completely. For example, Creator/{{Confucius}}'s father is referred to as Shuliang He (叔梁紇) in records; "Shuliang" is his "zi", while "He" is his "ming". By tradition, the child is given their ''zi'' at their coming-of-age ceremony. For gents, this is the ''guan'' ceremony, usually held at the age of 20 or slightly earlier; ladies have their ''ji'' ceremony at the age of 15. [[note]]As traditional Chinese do not cut their hair, their hair is tied into buns and secured. ''Guan'' is the hat-like object used by men to decorate their hair buns, while ''ji'' is the long hair-pin used by women for the same purpose.[[/note]]

to:

The most common surnames tend to be vary by region, with different names being more common in different provinces or countries. The most common Taiwanese surnames are Chen, Lin, and Huang. Historically, the Chinese used to have ''two'' surnames: a '''clan name''' (姓, ''xing'') and a '''lineage name''' (氏, ''shi''). In ancient China up to about the Zhou Dynasty, only men can use their lineage name as their surname; women have to use the clan name. E.g. famous poet Qu Yuan's clan name is Mi (芈); Qu (屈) is his lineage name. Over time, this distinction is blurred and eventually erased. Another thing to note for pre-Qin Chinese names is that famous personalities are sometimes addressed by putting their '''courtesy/style name''' (字; "zi") first, followed by their '''given name''' (名; "ming"), leaving out their "xing" and "shi" completely. For example, Creator/{{Confucius}}'s father is referred to as Shuliang He (叔梁紇) in records; "Shuliang" is his "zi", while "He" is his "ming". [[note]]For Qu Yuan, Yuan is his "zi"; his "ming" is "Ping" (平)[[/note]] By tradition, the child is given their ''zi'' at their coming-of-age ceremony. For gents, this is the ''guan'' ceremony, usually held at the age of 20 or slightly earlier; ladies have their ''ji'' ceremony at the age of 15. [[note]]As traditional Chinese do not cut their hair, their hair is tied into buns and secured. ''Guan'' is the hat-like object used by men to decorate their hair buns, while ''ji'' is the long hair-pin used by women for the same purpose.[[/note]]


Almost all famous historical figures you come across will have at least two or three names. Taking up '''art names''' ("hao", 号) were popular for public use while reserving their real names for intimates. In ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms'' (and in history), Zhuge Liang's art name is "Wolong" or "Fulong" ("Sleeping/Lying Dragon"). Each of them would have the "ming", and then have a "zi", used during more intimate occasions, and probably at least one "art name" (as mentioned above). This results in IHaveManyNames, and they're usually used in the place of the given name (example: "Zhuge Kongming" [[note]]Kongming being his style name[[/note]] and "Zhao Zilong"). It should also be noted that back in those days, calling someone by their "ming" (except if the person is referring to themselves in the third person) is considered extremely rude, and only reserved for use by one's parents, superiors, or anyone whom the person is ''very'' comfortable with; peers and friends addressed each other by their "zi". [[note]]Many media even in Chinese get this part wrong. To use ''VideoGame/DynastyWarriors'' as an example, Xiahou Dun calling Cao Cao "Mengde" should be the norm rather than the exception. Scenes where enemies called each other by their "ming" or leaders doing the same to their subordinates are AccidentallyCorrectWriting.[[/note]] To give another example, the Northern Song art polymath Su Shi ("Shi" being his "ming") is also known as "Su Dongpo" from his "hao" ''Dongpo Jushi'' (东坡居士, ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Householder_(Buddhism) Householder]] of the Eastern Slope''); his "zi" is "Zizhan".

to:

Almost all famous historical figures you come across will have at least two or three names. Taking up '''art names''' ("hao", 号) were popular for public use while reserving their real names for intimates. In ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms'' (and in history), Zhuge Liang's art name is "Wolong" or "Fulong" ("Sleeping/Lying Dragon"). Each of them would have the "ming", and then have a "zi", used during more intimate occasions, and probably at least one "art name" (as mentioned above). This results in IHaveManyNames, and they're usually used in the place of the given name (example: "Zhuge Kongming" [[note]]Kongming being his style name[[/note]] and "Zhao Zilong"). It should also be noted that back in those days, calling someone by their "ming" (except if the person is referring to themselves in the third person) is considered extremely rude, and only reserved for use by one's parents, superiors, or anyone whom the person is ''very'' comfortable with; peers and friends addressed each other by their "zi"."zi", while people addressed their superiors by their "hao". [[note]]Many media even in Chinese get this part wrong. To use ''VideoGame/DynastyWarriors'' as an example, Xiahou Dun calling Cao Cao "Mengde" should be the norm rather than the exception. Scenes where enemies called each other by their "ming" or leaders doing the same to their subordinates are AccidentallyCorrectWriting.[[/note]] To give another example, the Northern Song art polymath Su Shi ("Shi" being his "ming") is also known as "Su Dongpo" from his "hao" ''Dongpo Jushi'' (东坡居士, ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Householder_(Buddhism) Householder]] of the Eastern Slope''); his "zi" is "Zizhan".


The most common surnames tend to be vary by region, with different names being more common in different provinces or countries. The most common Taiwanese surnames are Chen, Lin, and Huang. Historically, the Chinese used to have ''two'' surnames: a '''clan name''' (姓, ''xing'') and a '''lineage name''' (氏, ''shi''). In ancient China up to about the Zhou Dynasty, only men can use their lineage name as their surname; women have to use the clan name. E.g. famous poet Qu Yuan's clan name is Mi (芈); Qu (屈) is his lineage name. Over time, this distinction is blurred and eventually erased. Another thing to note for pre-Qin Chinese names is that famous personalities are sometimes addressed by putting their '''courtesy/style name''' (字; "zi") first, followed by their '''given name''' (名; "ming"), leaving out their "xing" and "shi" completely. For example, Confucius's father is referred to as Shuliang He (叔梁紇) in records; "Shuliang" is his "zi", while "He" is his "ming". By tradition, the child is given their ''zi'' at their coming-of-age ceremony. For gents, this is the ''guan'' ceremony, usually held at the age of 20 or slightly earlier; ladies have their ''ji'' ceremony at the age of 15. [[note]]As traditional Chinese do not cut their hair, their hair is tied into buns and secured. ''Guan'' is the hat-like object used by men to decorate their hair buns, while ''ji'' is the long hair-pin used by women for the same purpose.[[/note]]

to:

The most common surnames tend to be vary by region, with different names being more common in different provinces or countries. The most common Taiwanese surnames are Chen, Lin, and Huang. Historically, the Chinese used to have ''two'' surnames: a '''clan name''' (姓, ''xing'') and a '''lineage name''' (氏, ''shi''). In ancient China up to about the Zhou Dynasty, only men can use their lineage name as their surname; women have to use the clan name. E.g. famous poet Qu Yuan's clan name is Mi (芈); Qu (屈) is his lineage name. Over time, this distinction is blurred and eventually erased. Another thing to note for pre-Qin Chinese names is that famous personalities are sometimes addressed by putting their '''courtesy/style name''' (字; "zi") first, followed by their '''given name''' (名; "ming"), leaving out their "xing" and "shi" completely. For example, Confucius's Creator/{{Confucius}}'s father is referred to as Shuliang He (叔梁紇) in records; "Shuliang" is his "zi", while "He" is his "ming". By tradition, the child is given their ''zi'' at their coming-of-age ceremony. For gents, this is the ''guan'' ceremony, usually held at the age of 20 or slightly earlier; ladies have their ''ji'' ceremony at the age of 15. [[note]]As traditional Chinese do not cut their hair, their hair is tied into buns and secured. ''Guan'' is the hat-like object used by men to decorate their hair buns, while ''ji'' is the long hair-pin used by women for the same purpose.[[/note]]


The most common surnames tend to be vary by region, with different names being more common in different provinces or countries. The most common Taiwanese surnames are Chen, Lin, and Huang. Historically, the Chinese used to have ''two'' surnames: a '''clan name''' (姓, ''xing'') and a '''lineage name''' (氏, ''shi''). In ancient China up to about the Zhou Dynasty, only men can use their lineage name as their surname; women have to use the clan name. E.g. famous poet Qu Yuan's clan name is Mi (芈); Qu (屈) is his lineage name. Over time, this distinction is blurred and eventually erased. Another thing to note for pre-Qin Chinese names is that famous personalities are sometimes addressed by putting their '''courtesy/style name''' (字; "zi") first, followed by their '''given name''' (名; "ming"), leaving out their "xing" and "shi" completely. For example, Confucius's father is referred to as Shuliang He (叔梁紇) in records; "Shuliang" is his "zi", while "He" is his "ming". By tradition, the child is given their ''zi'' at their coming-of-age ceremony. For gents, this is the ''guan'' ceremony, usually held at the age of 20 or slightly earlier; ladies have their ''ji'' ceremony at the age of 15. [[note]]As traditional Chinese do not cut their hair, their hair is tied into buns and secured. ''Guan'' is the hat-like object used by men to decorate their hair buns, while ''ji'' is the long hair bun used by women for the same purpose.[[/note]]

to:

The most common surnames tend to be vary by region, with different names being more common in different provinces or countries. The most common Taiwanese surnames are Chen, Lin, and Huang. Historically, the Chinese used to have ''two'' surnames: a '''clan name''' (姓, ''xing'') and a '''lineage name''' (氏, ''shi''). In ancient China up to about the Zhou Dynasty, only men can use their lineage name as their surname; women have to use the clan name. E.g. famous poet Qu Yuan's clan name is Mi (芈); Qu (屈) is his lineage name. Over time, this distinction is blurred and eventually erased. Another thing to note for pre-Qin Chinese names is that famous personalities are sometimes addressed by putting their '''courtesy/style name''' (字; "zi") first, followed by their '''given name''' (名; "ming"), leaving out their "xing" and "shi" completely. For example, Confucius's father is referred to as Shuliang He (叔梁紇) in records; "Shuliang" is his "zi", while "He" is his "ming". By tradition, the child is given their ''zi'' at their coming-of-age ceremony. For gents, this is the ''guan'' ceremony, usually held at the age of 20 or slightly earlier; ladies have their ''ji'' ceremony at the age of 15. [[note]]As traditional Chinese do not cut their hair, their hair is tied into buns and secured. ''Guan'' is the hat-like object used by men to decorate their hair buns, while ''ji'' is the long hair bun hair-pin used by women for the same purpose.[[/note]]


The most common surnames tend to be vary by region, with different names being more common in different provinces or countries. The most common Taiwanese surnames are Chen, Lin, and Huang. Historically, the Chinese used to have ''two'' surnames: a '''clan name''' (姓, ''xing'') and a '''lineage name''' (氏, ''shi''). In ancient China up to about the Zhou Dynasty, only men can use their lineage name as their surname; women have to use the clan name. E.g. famous poet Qu Yuan's clan name is Mi (芈); Qu (屈) is his lineage name. Over time, this distinction is blurred and eventually erased. Another thing to note for pre-Qin Chinese names is that famous personalities are sometimes addressed by putting their '''courtesy/style name''' (字; "zi") first, followed by their '''given name''' (名; "ming"), leaving out their "xing" and "shi" completely. For example, Confucius's father is referred to as Shuliang He (叔梁紇) in records; "Shuliang" is his "zi", while "He" is his "ming".

to:

The most common surnames tend to be vary by region, with different names being more common in different provinces or countries. The most common Taiwanese surnames are Chen, Lin, and Huang. Historically, the Chinese used to have ''two'' surnames: a '''clan name''' (姓, ''xing'') and a '''lineage name''' (氏, ''shi''). In ancient China up to about the Zhou Dynasty, only men can use their lineage name as their surname; women have to use the clan name. E.g. famous poet Qu Yuan's clan name is Mi (芈); Qu (屈) is his lineage name. Over time, this distinction is blurred and eventually erased. Another thing to note for pre-Qin Chinese names is that famous personalities are sometimes addressed by putting their '''courtesy/style name''' (字; "zi") first, followed by their '''given name''' (名; "ming"), leaving out their "xing" and "shi" completely. For example, Confucius's father is referred to as Shuliang He (叔梁紇) in records; "Shuliang" is his "zi", while "He" is his "ming".
"ming". By tradition, the child is given their ''zi'' at their coming-of-age ceremony. For gents, this is the ''guan'' ceremony, usually held at the age of 20 or slightly earlier; ladies have their ''ji'' ceremony at the age of 15. [[note]]As traditional Chinese do not cut their hair, their hair is tied into buns and secured. ''Guan'' is the hat-like object used by men to decorate their hair buns, while ''ji'' is the long hair bun used by women for the same purpose.[[/note]]


Almost all famous historical figures you come across will have at least two or three names. Taking up '''art names''' ("hao", 号) were popular for public use while reserving their real names for intimates. In ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms'' (and in history), Zhuge Liang's art name is "Wolong" or "Fulong" ("Sleeping/Lying Dragon"). Each of them would have the "ming", and then have a "zi", used during more intimate occasions, and probably at least one "art name" (as mentioned above). This results in IHaveManyNames, and they're usually used in the place of the given name (example: "Zhuge Kongming" [[note]]Kongming being his style name[[/note]] and "Zhao Zilong"). It should also be noted that back in those days, calling someone by their "ming" is considered extremely rude, and only reserved for use by one's parents or superiors (or anyone whom the person is ''very'' comfortable with); peers and friends addressed each other by their "zi". [[note]]Many media even in Chinese get this part wrong. To use ''VideoGame/DynastyWarriors'' as an example, Xiahou Dun calling Cao Cao "Mengde" should be the norm rather than the exception. Scenes where enemies called each other by their "ming" or leaders doing the same to their subordinates are AccidentallyCorrectWriting.[[/note]] To give another example, the Northern Song art polymath Su Shi ("Shi" being his "ming") is also known as "Su Dongpo" from his "hao" ''Dongpo Jushi'' (东坡居士, ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Householder_(Buddhism) Householder]] of the Eastern Slope''); his "zi" is "Zizhan".

to:

Almost all famous historical figures you come across will have at least two or three names. Taking up '''art names''' ("hao", 号) were popular for public use while reserving their real names for intimates. In ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms'' (and in history), Zhuge Liang's art name is "Wolong" or "Fulong" ("Sleeping/Lying Dragon"). Each of them would have the "ming", and then have a "zi", used during more intimate occasions, and probably at least one "art name" (as mentioned above). This results in IHaveManyNames, and they're usually used in the place of the given name (example: "Zhuge Kongming" [[note]]Kongming being his style name[[/note]] and "Zhao Zilong"). It should also be noted that back in those days, calling someone by their "ming" (except if the person is referring to themselves in the third person) is considered extremely rude, and only reserved for use by one's parents parents, superiors, or superiors (or anyone whom the person is ''very'' comfortable with); with; peers and friends addressed each other by their "zi". [[note]]Many media even in Chinese get this part wrong. To use ''VideoGame/DynastyWarriors'' as an example, Xiahou Dun calling Cao Cao "Mengde" should be the norm rather than the exception. Scenes where enemies called each other by their "ming" or leaders doing the same to their subordinates are AccidentallyCorrectWriting.[[/note]] To give another example, the Northern Song art polymath Su Shi ("Shi" being his "ming") is also known as "Su Dongpo" from his "hao" ''Dongpo Jushi'' (东坡居士, ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Householder_(Buddhism) Householder]] of the Eastern Slope''); his "zi" is "Zizhan".


Almost all famous historical figures you come across will have at least two or three names. Taking up '''art names''' ("hao", 号) were popular for public use while reserving their real names for intimates. In ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms'' (and in history), Zhuge Liang's art name is "Wolong" or "Fulong" ("Sleeping/Lying Dragon"). Each of them would have the '''given name''' ("ming"; 名), and then have a "zi" (字), which is their '''courtesy/style name''', used during more intimate occasions, and probably at least one "art name" (as mentioned above). This results in IHaveManyNames, and they're usually used in the place of the given name (example: "Zhuge Kongming" [[note]]Kongming being his style name[[/note]] and "Zhao Zilong"). It should also be noted that back in those days, calling someone by their "ming" is considered extremely rude, and only reserved for use by one's parents or superiors (or anyone whom the person is ''very'' comfortable with); peers and friends addressed each other by their "zi". [[note]]Many media even in Chinese get this part wrong. To use ''VideoGame/DynastyWarriors'' as an example, Xiahou Dun calling Cao Cao "Mengde" should be the norm rather than the exception. Scenes where enemies called each other by their "ming" or leaders doing the same to their subordinates are AccidentallyCorrectWriting.[[/note]] To give another example, the Northern Song art polymath Su Shi ("Shi" being his "ming") is also known as "Su Dongpo" from his "hao" ''Dongpo Jushi'' (东坡居士, ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Householder_(Buddhism) Householder]] of the Eastern Slope''); his "zi" is "Zizhan".

to:

Almost all famous historical figures you come across will have at least two or three names. Taking up '''art names''' ("hao", 号) were popular for public use while reserving their real names for intimates. In ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms'' (and in history), Zhuge Liang's art name is "Wolong" or "Fulong" ("Sleeping/Lying Dragon"). Each of them would have the '''given name''' ("ming"; 名), "ming", and then have a "zi" (字), which is their '''courtesy/style name''', "zi", used during more intimate occasions, and probably at least one "art name" (as mentioned above). This results in IHaveManyNames, and they're usually used in the place of the given name (example: "Zhuge Kongming" [[note]]Kongming being his style name[[/note]] and "Zhao Zilong"). It should also be noted that back in those days, calling someone by their "ming" is considered extremely rude, and only reserved for use by one's parents or superiors (or anyone whom the person is ''very'' comfortable with); peers and friends addressed each other by their "zi". [[note]]Many media even in Chinese get this part wrong. To use ''VideoGame/DynastyWarriors'' as an example, Xiahou Dun calling Cao Cao "Mengde" should be the norm rather than the exception. Scenes where enemies called each other by their "ming" or leaders doing the same to their subordinates are AccidentallyCorrectWriting.[[/note]] To give another example, the Northern Song art polymath Su Shi ("Shi" being his "ming") is also known as "Su Dongpo" from his "hao" ''Dongpo Jushi'' (东坡居士, ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Householder_(Buddhism) Householder]] of the Eastern Slope''); his "zi" is "Zizhan".


The most common surnames tend to be vary by region, with different names being more common in different provinces or countries. The most common Taiwanese surnames are Chen, Lin, and Huang. Historically, the Chinese used to have ''two'' surnames: a '''clan name''' (姓, ''xing'') and a '''lineage name''' (氏, ''shi''). In ancient China up to about the Zhou Dynasty, only men can use their lineage name as their surname; women have to use the clan name. E.g. famous poet Qu Yuan's clan name is Mi (芈); Qu (屈) is his lineage name. Over time, this distinction is blurred and eventually erased.

to:

The most common surnames tend to be vary by region, with different names being more common in different provinces or countries. The most common Taiwanese surnames are Chen, Lin, and Huang. Historically, the Chinese used to have ''two'' surnames: a '''clan name''' (姓, ''xing'') and a '''lineage name''' (氏, ''shi''). In ancient China up to about the Zhou Dynasty, only men can use their lineage name as their surname; women have to use the clan name. E.g. famous poet Qu Yuan's clan name is Mi (芈); Qu (屈) is his lineage name. Over time, this distinction is blurred and eventually erased.
erased. Another thing to note for pre-Qin Chinese names is that famous personalities are sometimes addressed by putting their '''courtesy/style name''' (字; "zi") first, followed by their '''given name''' (名; "ming"), leaving out their "xing" and "shi" completely. For example, Confucius's father is referred to as Shuliang He (叔梁紇) in records; "Shuliang" is his "zi", while "He" is his "ming".

Almost all famous historical figures you come across will have at least two or three names. Taking up '''art names''' ("hao", 号) were popular for public use while reserving their real names for intimates. In ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms'' (and in history), Zhuge Liang's art name is "Wolong" or "Fulong" ("Sleeping/Lying Dragon"). Each of them would have the '''given name''' ("ming"; 名), and then have a "zi" (字), which is their '''courtesy/style name''', used during more intimate occasions, and probably at least one "art name" (as mentioned above). This results in IHaveManyNames, and they're usually used in the place of the given name (example: "Zhuge Kongming" [[note]]Kongming being his style name[[/note]] and "Zhao Zilong"). It should also be noted that back in those days, calling someone by their "ming" is considered extremely rude, and only reserved for use by one's parents or superiors (or anyone whom the person is ''very'' comfortable with); peers and friends addressed each other by their "zi". [[note]]Many media even in Chinese get this part wrong. To use ''VideoGame/DynastyWarriors'' as an example, Xiahou Dun calling Cao Cao "Mengde" should be the norm rather than the exception. Scenes where enemies called each other by their "ming" or leaders doing the same to their subordinates are AccidentallyCorrectWriting.[[/note]] To give another example, the Northern Song art polymath Su Shi ("Shi" being his "ming") is also known as "Su Dongpo" from his "hao" ''Dongpo Jushi'' (东坡居士, ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Householder_(Buddhism) Householder]] of the Eastern Slope''); his "zi" is "Zizhan".

For emperors, empresses and officials, there is an additional '''posthumous name''' (谥号, "shi hao"). A posthumous name is meant to encapsulate the deeds and reputation of the emperor/empress/official. Emperors of the Han and Sui Dynasties were primarily known by their posthumous names; Liu Che's posthumous name was "Emperor Wu of Han" (汉武帝, "Han Wudi"), while Yang Jian's was "Emperor Wen of Sui" (隋文帝, "Sui Wendi"). However, as later dynasties became more pompous and lengthened their emperors' /empresses' posthumous names to ridiculous levels (Nurhaci's posthumous name is more than 20 characters long), their emperors became known by their '''temple names''' (庙号, "miao hao"). Note that emperors commonly known by their posthumous names also have temple names (The temple name of each monarch was recorded on their respective ancestral tablet placed within the grand temple built for ancestor worship.). In the examples above, Liu Che's temple name was "Shizong" (世宗), while Yang Jian's was "Gaozu" (高祖). As a general rule of thumb, if the name used has "di" (帝) in it, chances are it's the posthumous name; if the name has "zu" (祖) or "zong"(宗) in it, it's likely to be the temple name. In addition, Ming and Qing emperors are also known by their era names (年号, "nian hao") as each emperor from the two dynasties used only one era name for their entire reign; the exception was Ming Yingzong Zhu Qizhen, who had two separate reigns (with era names "Zhengtong" and "Tianshun") and so is primarily known by his temple name.




Almost all famous historical figures you come across will have at least two or three names. Taking up '''art names''' ("hao", 号) were popular for public use while reserving their real names for intimates. In ''Literature/RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms'' (and in history), Zhuge Liang's art name is "Wolong" or "Fulong" ("Sleeping/Lying Dragon"). Each of them would have the '''given name''' ("ming"; 名), and then have a "zi" (字), which is their '''courtesy/style name''', used during more intimate occasions, and probably at least one "art name" (as mentioned above). This results in IHaveManyNames, and they're usually used in the place of the given name (example: "Zhuge Kongming" [[note]]Kongming being his style name[[/note]] and "Zhao Zilong"). It should also be noted that back in those days, calling someone by their "ming" is considered extremely rude, and only reserved for use by one's parents or superiors (or anyone whom the person is ''very'' comfortable with); peers and friends addressed each other by their "zi". [[note]]Many media even in Chinese get this part wrong. To use ''VideoGame/DynastyWarriors'' as an example, Xiahou Dun calling Cao Cao "Mengde" should be the norm rather than the exception. Scenes where enemies called each other by their "ming" or leaders doing the same to their subordinates are AccidentallyCorrectWriting.[[/note]] To give another example, the Northern Song art polymath Su Shi ("Shi" being his "ming") is also known as "Su Dongpo" from his "hao" ''Dongpo Jushi'' (东坡居士, ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Householder_(Buddhism) Householder]] of the Eastern Slope''); his "zi" is "Zizhan".

For emperors, empresses and officials, there is an additional '''posthumous name''' (谥号, "shi hao"). A posthumous name is meant to encapsulate the deeds and reputation of the emperor/empress/official. Emperors of the Han and Sui Dynasties were primarily known by their posthumous names; Liu Che's posthumous name was "Emperor Wu of Han" (汉武帝, "Han Wudi"), while Yang Jian's was "Emperor Wen of Sui" (隋文帝, "Sui Wendi"). However, as later dynasties became more pompous and lengthened their emperors' /empresses' posthumous names to ridiculous levels (Nurhaci's posthumous name is more than 20 characters long), their emperors became known by their '''temple names''' (庙号, "miao hao"). Note that emperors commonly known by their posthumous names also have temple names (The temple name of each monarch was recorded on their respective ancestral tablet placed within the grand temple built for ancestor worship.). In the examples above, Liu Che's temple name was "Shizong" (世宗), while Yang Jian's was "Gaozu" (高祖). As a general rule of thumb, if the name used has "di" (帝) in it, chances are it's the posthumous name; if the name has "zu" (祖) or "zong"(宗) in it, it's likely to be the temple name. In addition, Ming and Qing emperors are also known by their era names (年号, "nian hao") as each emperor from the two dynasties used only one era name for their entire reign; the exception was Ming Yingzong Zhu Qizhen, who had two separate reigns (with era names "Zhengtong" and "Tianshun") and so is primarily known by his temple name.


Generally speaking, any character(s) can be used for a given name, though families avoid repeating names or naming children after famous people. For most of the Imperial era, it was criminal to use the names, or the homophones of the names, of the current Emperor and ''all'' previous emperors of the same dynasty. In practice, names with bad sounds or unpropitious strokes and complicated or obscure characters are also avoided. While the given names can be just one or two random characters strung together, most parents tend to work in some auspicious meaning/symbolism. Those born during the Cultural Revolution, for example, tend to have given names with the character for "red", "people", "revolution", "army", "steel" and such revolutionary socialist concepts worked in somehow.

to:

Generally speaking, any character(s) can be used for a given name, though families avoid repeating names or naming children after famous people. For most of the Imperial era, it was criminal to use the names, or the homophones of the names, of the current Emperor and ''all'' previous emperors of the same dynasty.dynasty (violating the "[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naming_taboo naming taboo]]"). In practice, names with bad sounds or unpropitious strokes and complicated or obscure characters are also avoided. While the given names can be just one or two random characters strung together, most parents tend to work in some auspicious meaning/symbolism. Those born during the Cultural Revolution, for example, tend to have given names with the character for "red", "people", "revolution", "army", "steel" and such revolutionary socialist concepts worked in somehow.


For emperors, empresses and officials, there is an additional '''posthumous name''' (谥号, "shi hao"). A posthumous name is meant to encapsulate the deeds and reputation of the emperor/empress/official. Emperors of the Han and Sui Dynasties were primarily known by their posthumous names; Liu Che's posthumous name was "Emperor Wu of Han" (汉武帝, "Han Wudi"), while Yang Jian's was "Emperor Wen of Sui" (隋文帝, "Sui Wendi"). However, as later dynasties became more pompous and lengthened their emperors' /empresses' posthumous names to ridiculous levels (Nurhaci's posthumous name is more than 20 characters long), their emperors became known by their '''temple names''' (庙号, "miao hao"). Note that emperors commonly known by their posthumous names also have temple names (The temple name of each monarch was recorded on their respective ancestral tablet placed within the grand temple built for ancestor worship.). In the examples above, Liu Che's temple name was "Shizong" (世宗), while Yang Jian's was "Gaozu" (高祖). As a general rule of thumb, if the name used has "di" (帝) in it, chances are it's the posthumous name; if the name has "zu" (祖) or "zong"(宗) in it, it's likely to be the temple name. In addition, Ming and Qing emperors are also known by their era names (年号) as each emperor from the two dynasties used only one era name for their entire reign; the exception was Ming Yingzong Zhu Qizhen, who had two separate reigns (with era names "Zhengtong" and "Tianshun") and so is primarily known by his temple name.

to:

For emperors, empresses and officials, there is an additional '''posthumous name''' (谥号, "shi hao"). A posthumous name is meant to encapsulate the deeds and reputation of the emperor/empress/official. Emperors of the Han and Sui Dynasties were primarily known by their posthumous names; Liu Che's posthumous name was "Emperor Wu of Han" (汉武帝, "Han Wudi"), while Yang Jian's was "Emperor Wen of Sui" (隋文帝, "Sui Wendi"). However, as later dynasties became more pompous and lengthened their emperors' /empresses' posthumous names to ridiculous levels (Nurhaci's posthumous name is more than 20 characters long), their emperors became known by their '''temple names''' (庙号, "miao hao"). Note that emperors commonly known by their posthumous names also have temple names (The temple name of each monarch was recorded on their respective ancestral tablet placed within the grand temple built for ancestor worship.). In the examples above, Liu Che's temple name was "Shizong" (世宗), while Yang Jian's was "Gaozu" (高祖). As a general rule of thumb, if the name used has "di" (帝) in it, chances are it's the posthumous name; if the name has "zu" (祖) or "zong"(宗) in it, it's likely to be the temple name. In addition, Ming and Qing emperors are also known by their era names (年号) (年号, "nian hao") as each emperor from the two dynasties used only one era name for their entire reign; the exception was Ming Yingzong Zhu Qizhen, who had two separate reigns (with era names "Zhengtong" and "Tianshun") and so is primarily known by his temple name.

Added DiffLines:

For emperors, empresses and officials, there is an additional '''posthumous name''' (谥号, "shi hao"). A posthumous name is meant to encapsulate the deeds and reputation of the emperor/empress/official. Emperors of the Han and Sui Dynasties were primarily known by their posthumous names; Liu Che's posthumous name was "Emperor Wu of Han" (汉武帝, "Han Wudi"), while Yang Jian's was "Emperor Wen of Sui" (隋文帝, "Sui Wendi"). However, as later dynasties became more pompous and lengthened their emperors' /empresses' posthumous names to ridiculous levels (Nurhaci's posthumous name is more than 20 characters long), their emperors became known by their '''temple names''' (庙号, "miao hao"). Note that emperors commonly known by their posthumous names also have temple names (The temple name of each monarch was recorded on their respective ancestral tablet placed within the grand temple built for ancestor worship.). In the examples above, Liu Che's temple name was "Shizong" (世宗), while Yang Jian's was "Gaozu" (高祖). As a general rule of thumb, if the name used has "di" (帝) in it, chances are it's the posthumous name; if the name has "zu" (祖) or "zong"(宗) in it, it's likely to be the temple name. In addition, Ming and Qing emperors are also known by their era names (年号) as each emperor from the two dynasties used only one era name for their entire reign; the exception was Ming Yingzong Zhu Qizhen, who had two separate reigns (with era names "Zhengtong" and "Tianshun") and so is primarily known by his temple name.


In some families, all the children of a generation will share one character in their name. Even if a particular generation did not actually do so, they may still be referred to as the '__ Generation' for genealogical purposes or for determining precedence and protocol at reunions. There is also a '''genealogical name''' ("pu ming", 谱名), which traditionally is what extended relatives of the family would have known a person by. In many cases, the "pu ming" of many famous people are obscure: the "pu ming" of Sun Yat-sen, Deng Xiaoping and Jiang Jieshi are "Deming", "Xiansheng" and "Zhoutai" respectively.

to:

In some families, all the children of a generation will share one character in their name. Even if a particular generation did not actually do so, they may still be referred to as the '__ Generation' for genealogical purposes or for determining precedence and protocol at reunions. There is also a '''genealogical name''' ("pu ming", 谱名), which traditionally is what extended relatives of the family would have known a person by. In many cases, the "pu ming" of many even famous people are obscure: the "pu ming" of Sun Yat-sen, Deng Xiaoping and Jiang Jieshi are "Deming", "Xiansheng" and "Zhoutai" respectively.


More recently, [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_Sun_Yat-sen Sun Yat-Sen]] is generally known in Chinese as Sun Zhongshan instead of his 'official' name used in family records. Yat-Sen itself a romanization of the [[UsefulNotes/ChineseDialectsAndAccents Cantonese pronunciation]] of the name his teacher took when he first went to school, while "Zhongshan" was a pseudonym adopted while in exile in Japan, where he took the surname Nakayama (read as ''Zhongshan'' in Chinese) [[LineOfSightName from a sign on a palace near Hibiya Park in Tokyo]]. (His ''legal'' name is Sun Wen). On the other hand, Chiang Kai-shek is another name that passed into English via Cantonese-- but that's not his legal name either; his legal name is Zhongzheng, adopted relatively late in his life; Kai-shek (Jieshi in Mandarin) is his style name. Gets even more confusing when Chiang Kai-Shek was born in Ningbo, Zhejiang province and so would have actually had his names read with the Wu dialect.

to:

More recently, [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_Sun_Yat-sen Sun Yat-Sen]] is generally known in Chinese as Sun Zhongshan instead of his 'official' name used in family records. Yat-Sen itself is a romanization of the [[UsefulNotes/ChineseDialectsAndAccents Cantonese pronunciation]] of the name his teacher took gave him when he first went to school, while "Zhongshan" was a pseudonym adopted while in exile in Japan, where he took the surname Nakayama (read as ''Zhongshan'' in Chinese) [[LineOfSightName from a sign on a palace near Hibiya Park in Tokyo]]. (His ''legal'' name is Sun Wen). On the other hand, Chiang Kai-shek is another name that passed into English via Cantonese-- but that's not his legal name either; his legal name is Zhongzheng, adopted relatively late in his life; Kai-shek (Jieshi in Mandarin) is his style name. Gets even more confusing when Chiang Kai-Shek was born in Ningbo, Zhejiang province and so would have actually had his names read with the Wu dialect.

Showing 15 edit(s) of 48

Top