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The Brazilian Military Regime - or, as it's known in Portuguese, ''Regime Militar Brasileiro'' or ''Ditadura Militar''[[labelnote:Translation]]"Military Dictatorship"[[/labelnote]] was the period of time which UsefulNotes/{{Brazil}} was governed by an authoritarian military dictatorship from April 1, 1964 to March 15, 1985. It was one of many others that took place all over in UsefulNotes/LatinAmerica during the UsefulNotes/ColdWar, as part of the US-backed [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Condor Operation Condor]], a campaign of political repression to hunt down Marxists, Communists, leftists or any enemies of the right-winged rulers of these countries and of the United States by toppling democratically-elected leaders to replace them with US-loyal puppet dictatorships. Brazil's dictatorship served as a role model to others in the continent that followed during TheSeventies, such as the UsefulNotes/NationalReorganizationProcess in Argentina. Much like its neighbor, this regime is often regarded as one of the darkest periods in Brazilian history, if not ''the'' darkest, characterized by stifling freedom of speech and press, political persecution, [[TheExile banishing]] of countless individuals, and numerous human rights violations, such as [[ColdBloodedTorture torture]], [[KangarooCourt arbitrary trials]], and [[NeverFoundTheBody disappearances]].

to:

The Brazilian Military Regime - or, as it's known in Portuguese, ''Regime Militar Brasileiro'' or ''Ditadura Militar''[[labelnote:Translation]]"Military Dictatorship"[[/labelnote]] was the period of time which UsefulNotes/{{Brazil}} was governed by an authoritarian military dictatorship from April 1, 1964 to March 15, 1985. It was one of many others that took place all over in UsefulNotes/LatinAmerica during the UsefulNotes/ColdWar, as part of the US-backed [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Condor Operation Condor]], a campaign of political repression to hunt down Marxists, Communists, leftists or any enemies of the right-winged right-wing rulers of these countries and of the United States by toppling democratically-elected leaders to replace them with US-loyal puppet dictatorships. Brazil's dictatorship served as a role model to others in the continent that followed during TheSeventies, such as the UsefulNotes/NationalReorganizationProcess in Argentina. Much like its neighbor, this regime is often regarded as one of the darkest periods in Brazilian history, if not ''the'' darkest, characterized by stifling freedom of speech and press, political persecution, [[TheExile banishing]] of countless individuals, and numerous human rights violations, such as [[ColdBloodedTorture torture]], [[KangarooCourt arbitrary trials]], and [[NeverFoundTheBody disappearances]].


A politician who capitalized on this sentiment is retired military officer UsefulNotes/JairBolsonaro, who ran for president on the 2018 Brazilian election. Bolsonaro has held extreme pro-dictatorship views since the 1990s, often calling for mass genocide against politicians and advocating for torture during interviews with him (to put things into perspective, that is just the ''least'' outrageous things he has said). But whereas he was always viewed as an extremist loon through [[TheNineties the 1990s]], [[TurnOfTheMillennium 2000s]] and the early 2010s, his ideas were ''widely'' embraced near the end of the decade, with him achieving '''46%''' of the valid votes in the first round alone.[[note]]For comparison, the candidate in second place achieved 26% and the third 12%. If you achieve 50.1% of valid votes in the first round, you automatically win without requiring a second round.[[/note]] Bolsonaro, alongside his running mate Hamilton Mourão (a retired general who also is a major supporter of the military dictatorship and torture advocate), has since been elected as the next president of Brazil, to the shock and worry of not just the Brazilian left, but also causing concerns among human rights activists, environmentalists and [=LGBTQ=] communities worldwide, as Bolsonaro has largely been appointing other military men for positions of high power and prestige, whom are vocal opponents of human rights and regularly challenge climate change as "a communist plot to destroy world borders".

Though Bolsonaro has relatively diminished his rhetoric's aggressiveness since his election and has promised he will govern following the democratic constitution committed to make an "government for everyone" and "upholding free speech", his promises are still met with skepticism from many on the left, who note how the president-elect continues appointing military officers with extreme far-right views. Time will tell whether the future president will fulfill his promises, or if a third military dictatorship awaits Brazil.

to:

A politician who capitalized on this sentiment is retired military officer UsefulNotes/JairBolsonaro, who ran for president on the 2018 Brazilian election. Bolsonaro has held extreme pro-dictatorship views since the 1990s, often calling for mass genocide against politicians and advocating for torture during interviews with him (to put things into perspective, that is just the ''least'' outrageous things he has said). But whereas he was always viewed as an extremist loon through [[TheNineties the 1990s]], [[TurnOfTheMillennium 2000s]] and the early 2010s, his ideas were ''widely'' embraced near the end of the decade, with him achieving '''46%''' of the valid votes in the first round alone.[[note]]For comparison, the candidate in second place achieved 26% and the third 12%. If you achieve 50.1% of valid votes in the first round, you automatically win without requiring a second round.[[/note]] Bolsonaro, alongside his running mate Hamilton Mourão (a retired general who also is a major supporter of the military dictatorship and torture advocate), has since been was elected as the next currently president of Brazil, to the shock and worry of not just the Brazilian left, but also causing concerns among human rights activists, environmentalists and [=LGBTQ=] communities worldwide, as Bolsonaro has largely been appointing other military men for positions of high power and prestige, whom are vocal opponents of human rights and regularly challenge climate change as "a communist plot to destroy world borders".

Though Bolsonaro has relatively diminished his rhetoric's aggressiveness since his election and has promised he will govern following the democratic constitution committed to make an "government for everyone" and "upholding free speech", his promises are still met with skepticism from many on the left, who note how the president-elect continues appointing military officers with extreme far-right views. Time will tell whether the future currently president will fulfill his promises, or if a third military dictatorship awaits Brazil.


However, on August 25, 1961, after having sent Goulart overseas for an impromptu diplomatic meeting with China, Quadros surprised many by unexpectedly resigning from his presidency, blaming "terrible occult forces". Many agree that Quadros had done so in an attempt to pull a self-coup much like [[UsefulNotes/GetulioVargas Getúlio Vargas]] had done decades ago, expecting the population and the military to overwhelmingly beg him to reassume presidency over their fears of Goulart's left-wing policies.[[note]]Either that, or [[OccamsRazor he was just drunk]].[[/note]] Needless to say, [[DidntThinkThisThrough that didn't happen]]. Instead, the government accepted his resignation, which created a serious political crisis as the military and Brazilian elites were convinced that Goulart's proposals to reduce adult illiteracy and implant basic land reforms that had long been done in ''the United States'' were [[InsaneTrollLogic communism incarnate]], and that he was single-handedly planning to turn Brazil into UsefulNotes/Cuba 2: ElectricBoogaloo. Paranoid as ever, the US government agreed with them.


to:

However, on August 25, 1961, after having sent Goulart overseas for an impromptu diplomatic meeting with China, Quadros surprised many by unexpectedly resigning from his presidency, blaming "terrible occult forces". Many agree that Quadros had done so in an attempt to pull a self-coup much like [[UsefulNotes/GetulioVargas Getúlio Vargas]] had done decades ago, expecting the population and the military to overwhelmingly beg him to reassume presidency over their fears of Goulart's left-wing policies.[[note]]Either that, or [[OccamsRazor he was just drunk]].[[/note]] Needless to say, [[DidntThinkThisThrough that didn't happen]]. Instead, the government accepted his resignation, which created a serious political crisis as the military and Brazilian elites were convinced that Goulart's proposals to reduce adult illiteracy and implant basic land reforms that had long been done in ''the United States'' were [[InsaneTrollLogic communism incarnate]], and that he was single-handedly planning to turn Brazil into UsefulNotes/Cuba Cuba 2: ElectricBoogaloo. Paranoid as ever, the US government agreed with them.



However, on August 25, 1961, after having sent Goulart overseas for an impromptu diplomatic meeting with China, Quadros surprised many by unexpectedly resigning from his presidency, blaming "terrible occult forces". Many agree that Quadros had done so in an attempt to pull a self-coup much like [[UsefulNotes/GetulioVargas Getúlio Vargas]] had done decades ago, expecting the population and the military to overwhelmingly beg him to reassume presidency over their fears of Goulart's left-wing policies.[[note]]Either that, or [[OccamsRazor he was just drunk]].[[/note]] Needless to say, [[DidntThinkThisThrough that didn't happen]]. Instead, the government accepted his resignation, which created a serious political crisis as the military and Brazilian elites were convinced that Goulart's proposals to reduce adult illiteracy and implant basic land reforms that had long been done in ''the United States'' were [[{{Demonization}} communism incarnate]], and that he was single-handedly planning to turn Brazil into Cuba 2: ElectricBoogaloo. The United States' government agreed with them.


to:

However, on August 25, 1961, after having sent Goulart overseas for an impromptu diplomatic meeting with China, Quadros surprised many by unexpectedly resigning from his presidency, blaming "terrible occult forces". Many agree that Quadros had done so in an attempt to pull a self-coup much like [[UsefulNotes/GetulioVargas Getúlio Vargas]] had done decades ago, expecting the population and the military to overwhelmingly beg him to reassume presidency over their fears of Goulart's left-wing policies.[[note]]Either that, or [[OccamsRazor he was just drunk]].[[/note]] Needless to say, [[DidntThinkThisThrough that didn't happen]]. Instead, the government accepted his resignation, which created a serious political crisis as the military and Brazilian elites were convinced that Goulart's proposals to reduce adult illiteracy and implant basic land reforms that had long been done in ''the United States'' were [[{{Demonization}} [[InsaneTrollLogic communism incarnate]], and that he was single-handedly planning to turn Brazil into Cuba UsefulNotes/Cuba 2: ElectricBoogaloo. The United States' Paranoid as ever, the US government agreed with them.



For much of the '60s, protests from urban areas took place all over the country, primarily among college students, Catholic Church members[[note]]Even though the Regime leaders were right-wing conservative Catholics themselves and had the initial support of the Church, [[TurbulentPriest several priests, nuns and bishops were targeted by the military]] for speaking out and the Church slowly turned against the dictatorship over time[[/note]], Marxists, workers, and anyone else who opposed the dictatorship. However, the military was ruthless in repressing all resistance without mercy. People were taken from their homes, never to be seen again, or were found dead under "accidental" circumstances or claimed they committed suicide (using a machine gun). Those who were not killed were made to suffer through intense torture, usually by hanging for hours in the painful ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pau_de_Arara Pau de Arara]]'' (macaw's perch) position, in agonizing muscle pain. The junta also quickly [[PropagandaMachine took control of the media]] to [[OrwellianEditor censor anything they deemed objectionable]]. One example of this would be the movie ''Film/FromRussiaWithLove'' whose title was changed in Brazil to ''[[CompletelyDifferentTitle Moscow vs. 007]]'' because the original title sounded too sympathetic to communism and it was changed to something more antagonistic.

to:

For much of the '60s, protests from urban areas took place all over the country, primarily among college students, Catholic Church members[[note]]Even though the Regime leaders were right-wing conservative Catholics themselves and had the initial support of the Church, [[TurbulentPriest several priests, nuns and bishops were targeted by the military]] for speaking out and the Church slowly turned against the dictatorship over time[[/note]], Marxists, workers, and anyone else who opposed the dictatorship. However, the military was ruthless in repressing all resistance without mercy. People were taken from their homes, never to be seen again, or were found dead under "accidental" circumstances or claimed they committed suicide (using in unlikely manners (like suicide by gunshot... using a machine gun).gun, or by hanging... even if their knees touched the ground). Those who were not killed were made to suffer through intense torture, usually by hanging for hours in the painful ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pau_de_Arara Pau de Arara]]'' (macaw's perch) position, in agonizing muscle pain. The junta also quickly [[PropagandaMachine took control of the media]] to [[OrwellianEditor censor anything they deemed objectionable]]. One example of this would be the movie ''Film/FromRussiaWithLove'' whose title was changed in Brazil to ''[[CompletelyDifferentTitle Moscow vs. 007]]'' because the original title sounded too sympathetic to communism and it was changed to something more antagonistic.


A politician who capitalized on this sentiment is retired military officer Jair Bolsonaro, who ran for president on the 2018 Brazilian election. Bolsonaro has held extreme pro-dictatorship views since the 1990s, often calling for mass genocide against politicians and advocating for torture during interviews with him (to put things into perspective, that is just the ''least'' outrageous things he has said). But whereas he was always viewed as an extremist loon through [[TheNineties the 1990s]], [[TurnOfTheMillennium 2000s]] and the early 2010s, his ideas were ''widely'' embraced near the end of the decade, with him achieving '''46%''' of the valid votes in the first round alone.[[note]]For comparison, the candidate in second place achieved 26% and the third 12%. If you achieve 50.1% of valid votes in the first round, you automatically win without requiring a second round.[[/note]] Bolsonaro, alongside his running mate Hamilton Mourão (a retired general who also is a major supporter of the military dictatorship and torture advocate), has since been elected as the next president of Brazil, to the shock and worry of not just the Brazilian left, but also causing concerns among human rights activists, environmentalists and [=LGBTQ=] communities worldwide, as Bolsonaro has largely been appointing other military men for positions of high power and prestige, whom are vocal opponents of human rights and regularly challenge climate change as "a communist plot to destroy world borders".

to:

A politician who capitalized on this sentiment is retired military officer Jair Bolsonaro, UsefulNotes/JairBolsonaro, who ran for president on the 2018 Brazilian election. Bolsonaro has held extreme pro-dictatorship views since the 1990s, often calling for mass genocide against politicians and advocating for torture during interviews with him (to put things into perspective, that is just the ''least'' outrageous things he has said). But whereas he was always viewed as an extremist loon through [[TheNineties the 1990s]], [[TurnOfTheMillennium 2000s]] and the early 2010s, his ideas were ''widely'' embraced near the end of the decade, with him achieving '''46%''' of the valid votes in the first round alone.[[note]]For comparison, the candidate in second place achieved 26% and the third 12%. If you achieve 50.1% of valid votes in the first round, you automatically win without requiring a second round.[[/note]] Bolsonaro, alongside his running mate Hamilton Mourão (a retired general who also is a major supporter of the military dictatorship and torture advocate), has since been elected as the next president of Brazil, to the shock and worry of not just the Brazilian left, but also causing concerns among human rights activists, environmentalists and [=LGBTQ=] communities worldwide, as Bolsonaro has largely been appointing other military men for positions of high power and prestige, whom are vocal opponents of human rights and regularly challenge climate change as "a communist plot to destroy world borders".


->''[[PatrioticFervor Those who do not live to serve Brazil, do not deserve to live in Brazil.]]''
->One of the Regime's slogans

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->''[[PatrioticFervor ->'' Those who do not live to serve Brazil, do not deserve to live in Brazil.]]''
->One
''
-->--One
of the Regime's slogans



In April 1st, 1964, after nearly three years of intense political tension, and subtle under-the-hood political manipulation of the situation from the United States, the Brazilian military led by [[TheGeneralissimo Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castello Branco]] [[MilitaryCoup threw a]] [[TheCoup coup]] that ousted Goulart from presidency. As Goulart fled to exile in neighbouring UsefulNotes/{{Uruguay}} (and died ten years later in Argentina), a military junta was established, adopting a hardline anticommunist, ultranationalistic stance that sought to reform the political-economic system that saw a new Constitution being made, all political parties being abolished, civilians and citizens being prevented from being elected and all elections being indirect. There were only two parties after the coup: the National Renewal Alliance, known as [[FunWithAcronyms ARENA]] (the Regime's party); and the Brazilian Democratic Movement, known as the [=MDB=] (the controlled opposition party) [[labelnote:trivia]]The [=MDB=] would live on after the regime ended, for a moment renaming itself as [=PMDB=] and "giving birth" to numerous other parties, before renaming itself back to the [=MDB=]. Left-wing pundits argue that, ironically, the [=MDB=] threw a coup of its own ''much'' later in 2016, against the Workers' Party to impeach president Dilma Rousseff on allegedly fabricated reasons[[/labelnote]]. This was done to avoid being seen as an autocratic dictatorship like the one implemented by Getúlio Vargas in the '30s and give the illusion Brazil was still an working democracy by allowing more than one party (even if the alternative held no power). However this did not change what it was: a authoritarian BananaRepublic established to the loud cheers of rich corporate owners and the middle class - and the panic of students, Marxists, poor workers, and left-leaning Brazilians.

to:

In April 1st, 1964, after nearly three years of intense political tension, and subtle under-the-hood political manipulation of the situation from the United States, the Brazilian military led by [[TheGeneralissimo Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castello Branco]] [[MilitaryCoup threw a]] [[TheCoup coup]] that ousted Goulart from presidency. As Goulart fled to exile in neighbouring UsefulNotes/{{Uruguay}} (and died ten years later in Argentina), a military junta was established, adopting a hardline anticommunist, ultranationalistic stance that sought to reform the political-economic system that saw a new Constitution being made, all political parties being abolished, civilians and citizens being prevented from being elected and all elections being indirect. There were only two parties after the coup: the National Renewal Alliance, known as [[FunWithAcronyms ARENA]] (the Regime's party); and the Brazilian Democratic Movement, known as the [=MDB=] (the controlled opposition party) [[labelnote:trivia]]The [=MDB=] would live on after the regime ended, for a moment renaming itself as [=PMDB=] and "giving birth" to numerous other parties, before renaming itself back to the [=MDB=]. Left-wing pundits argue that, ironically, the [=MDB=] threw a coup of its own ''much'' later in 2016, against the Workers' Party to impeach president Dilma Rousseff on allegedly fabricated reasons[[/labelnote]]. This was done to avoid being seen as an autocratic dictatorship like the one implemented by Getúlio Vargas in the '30s and give the illusion Brazil was still an a working democracy by allowing more than one party (even if the alternative held no power). However this did not change what it was: a authoritarian totalitarian BananaRepublic established to the loud cheers of rich corporate owners and the middle class - and the panic of students, Marxists, poor workers, and left-leaning Brazilians.


In April 1st, 1964, after nearly three years of intense political tension, and subtle under-the-hood political manipulation of the situation from the United States, the Brazilian military led by [[TheGeneralissimo Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castello Branco]] [[MilitaryCoup threw a]] [[TheCoup coup]] that ousted Goulart from presidency. As Goulart fled to exile in neighbouring UsefulNotes/{{Uruguay}} (and died ten years later in Argentina), a military junta was established, adopting a hardline anticommunist, ultranationalistic stance that sought to reform the political-economic system that saw a new Constitution being made, all political parties being abolished, civilians and citizens being prevented from being elected and all elections being indirect. There were only two parties after the coup: the National Renewal Alliance, known as [[FunWithAcronyms ARENA]] (the Regime's party); and the Brazilian Democratic Movement, known as the [=MDB=] (the controlled opposition party).[[labelnote:trivia]]The [=MDB=] would live on after the regime ended, for a moment renaming itself as [=PMDB=] and "giving birth" to numerous other parties, before renaming itself back to the [=MDB=]. Left-wing pundits argue that, ironically, the [=MDB=] threw a coup of its own ''much'' later in 2016, against the Workers' Party to impeach president Dilma Rousseff on allegedly fabricated reasons.[[/labelnote]] Brazil was officially established as a BananaRepublic, to the loud cheers of rich corporate owners and the middle class - and the panic of students, Marxists, poor workers, and left-leaning Brazilians.

to:

In April 1st, 1964, after nearly three years of intense political tension, and subtle under-the-hood political manipulation of the situation from the United States, the Brazilian military led by [[TheGeneralissimo Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castello Branco]] [[MilitaryCoup threw a]] [[TheCoup coup]] that ousted Goulart from presidency. As Goulart fled to exile in neighbouring UsefulNotes/{{Uruguay}} (and died ten years later in Argentina), a military junta was established, adopting a hardline anticommunist, ultranationalistic stance that sought to reform the political-economic system that saw a new Constitution being made, all political parties being abolished, civilians and citizens being prevented from being elected and all elections being indirect. There were only two parties after the coup: the National Renewal Alliance, known as [[FunWithAcronyms ARENA]] (the Regime's party); and the Brazilian Democratic Movement, known as the [=MDB=] (the controlled opposition party).party) [[labelnote:trivia]]The [=MDB=] would live on after the regime ended, for a moment renaming itself as [=PMDB=] and "giving birth" to numerous other parties, before renaming itself back to the [=MDB=]. Left-wing pundits argue that, ironically, the [=MDB=] threw a coup of its own ''much'' later in 2016, against the Workers' Party to impeach president Dilma Rousseff on allegedly fabricated reasons.[[/labelnote]] reasons[[/labelnote]]. This was done to avoid being seen as an autocratic dictatorship like the one implemented by Getúlio Vargas in the '30s and give the illusion Brazil was officially still an working democracy by allowing more than one party (even if the alternative held no power). However this did not change what it was: a authoritarian BananaRepublic established as a BananaRepublic, to the loud cheers of rich corporate owners and the middle class - and the panic of students, Marxists, poor workers, and left-leaning Brazilians.



Due to its fervently nationalistic nature, they used the media to force the people to love their country at any costs; the most well-known slogan used by the government was ''Brasil: Ame-o ou deixe-o'' (Brazil: Love it or leave it). It was very common for any artists, intellectuals and celebrities that were not in line with the Regime to be banished from Brazil in order to avoid being tortured, killed or disappeared. By the 70s, several other Latin American countries had also joined Brazil in becoming dictatorships, such as Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, Uruguay and Chile thanks to the aforementioned ''Operation Condor'', resulting in a death toll of 60,000 across the continent.


to:

Due to its fervently nationalistic nature, they used the media to force the people to love their country at any costs; the most well-known slogan used by the government was ''Brasil: Ame-o ou deixe-o'' (Brazil: Love it or leave it). It was very common for [[PersecutedIntellectuals any artists, intellectuals and celebrities that were not in line with the Regime to be banished from Brazil in order to avoid being tortured, killed or disappeared.disappeared]]. By the 70s, several other Latin American countries had also joined Brazil in becoming dictatorships, such as Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, Uruguay and Chile thanks to the aforementioned ''Operation Condor'', resulting in a death toll of 60,000 across the continent.



However, on August 25, 1961, after having sent Goulart overseas for an impromptu diplomatic meeting with China, Quadros surprised many by unexpectedly resigning from his presidency, blaming "terrible occult forces". Many agree that Quadros had done so in an attempt to pull a self-coup much like Getúlio Vargas had done decades ago, expecting the population and the military to overwhelmingly beg him to reassume presidency over their fears of Goulart's left-wing policies.[[note]]Either that, or [[OccamsRazor he was just drunk]].[[/note]] Needless to say, [[DidntThinkThisThrough that didn't happen]]. Instead, the government accepted his resignation, which created a serious political crisis as the military and Brazilian elites were convinced that Goulart's proposals to reduce adult illiteracy and implant basic land reforms that had long been done in ''the United States'' were [[{{Demonization}} communism incarnate]], and that he was single-handedly planning to turn Brazil into Cuba 2: ElectricBoogaloo. The United States' government agreed with them.


to:

However, on August 25, 1961, after having sent Goulart overseas for an impromptu diplomatic meeting with China, Quadros surprised many by unexpectedly resigning from his presidency, blaming "terrible occult forces". Many agree that Quadros had done so in an attempt to pull a self-coup much like [[UsefulNotes/GetulioVargas Getúlio Vargas Vargas]] had done decades ago, expecting the population and the military to overwhelmingly beg him to reassume presidency over their fears of Goulart's left-wing policies.[[note]]Either that, or [[OccamsRazor he was just drunk]].[[/note]] Needless to say, [[DidntThinkThisThrough that didn't happen]]. Instead, the government accepted his resignation, which created a serious political crisis as the military and Brazilian elites were convinced that Goulart's proposals to reduce adult illiteracy and implant basic land reforms that had long been done in ''the United States'' were [[{{Demonization}} communism incarnate]], and that he was single-handedly planning to turn Brazil into Cuba 2: ElectricBoogaloo. The United States' government agreed with them.



For much of the '60s, protests from urban areas took place all over the country, primarily among college students, Catholic Church members[[note]]Even though the Regime leaders were right-wing conservative Catholics themselves and had the initial support of the Church, [[TurbulentPriest several priests, nuns and bishops were targeted by the military]] for speaking out and the Church slowly turned against the dictatorship over time[[/note]], Marxists, workers, and anyone else who opposed the dictatorship. However, the military was ruthless in repressing all resistance without mercy. People were taken from their homes, never to be seen again, or were found dead under "accidental" circumstances or claimed they committed suicide (using a machine gun). Those who were not killed were made to suffer through intense torture, usually by hanging for hours in the painful ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pau_de_Arara Pau de Arara]]'' (macaw's perch) position, in agonizing muscle pain. The junta also quickly [[PropagandaMachine took control of the media]] to [[OrwellianEditor censor anything they deemed objectionable]].

to:

For much of the '60s, protests from urban areas took place all over the country, primarily among college students, Catholic Church members[[note]]Even though the Regime leaders were right-wing conservative Catholics themselves and had the initial support of the Church, [[TurbulentPriest several priests, nuns and bishops were targeted by the military]] for speaking out and the Church slowly turned against the dictatorship over time[[/note]], Marxists, workers, and anyone else who opposed the dictatorship. However, the military was ruthless in repressing all resistance without mercy. People were taken from their homes, never to be seen again, or were found dead under "accidental" circumstances or claimed they committed suicide (using a machine gun). Those who were not killed were made to suffer through intense torture, usually by hanging for hours in the painful ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pau_de_Arara Pau de Arara]]'' (macaw's perch) position, in agonizing muscle pain. The junta also quickly [[PropagandaMachine took control of the media]] to [[OrwellianEditor censor anything they deemed objectionable]].
objectionable]]. One example of this would be the movie ''Film/FromRussiaWithLove'' whose title was changed in Brazil to ''[[CompletelyDifferentTitle Moscow vs. 007]]'' because the original title sounded too sympathetic to communism and it was changed to something more antagonistic.


Added DiffLines:

* ''Film/BatismoDeSangue'': An adaptation from an biographical novel of the same name about a group of [[TurbulentPriest Dominican priests]] that team up to resist the regime.


However, that problem was nowhere near as bad as Quadros' actual policies - the man was known for being a complete loon, intentionally avoiding fulfilling his duties, scapegoating his problems on the previous president Juscelino Kubitschek, but perhaps most relevantly for [[UsefulNotes/ColdWar the time period]], mistakengly believing he could play [[UsefulNotes/UnitedStates both]] [[UsefulNotes/SovietRussiaUkraineAndSoOn giants]] for his own benefit. He actively pandered to both the United States and the Eastern Bloc, but drew a lot of ire from the capitalist conservative groups in Brazil for the latter, as it often involved directly dealing with Cuba, China, and the Soviet Union itself, and going as far as to granting Brazil's highest medal for foreigners to ''Che Guevara''. Accusations of communism sympathy were rampant, and Quadros' approval rapidly declined.

However, on August 25, 1961, after having sent Goulart overseas for an impromptu diplomatic meeting with China, Quadros surprised many by unexpectedly resigning from his presidency, blaming "terrible occult forces". Many agree that Quadros had done so in an attempt to pull a self-coup much like Getúlio Vargas had done decades ago, expecting the population and the military to overwhelmingly beg him to reassume presidency over their fears of Goulart's left-wing policies.[[note]]Either that, or [[OccamsRazor he was just drunk]].[[/note]] Needless to say, [[DidntThinkThisThrough that didn't happen]]. Instead, the government accepted his resignation, which created a serious political crisis as the military and brazilian elites were convinced that Goulart's proposals to reduce adult illiteracy and implant basic land reforms that had long been done in ''the United States'' were [[{{Demonization}} communism incarnate]], and that he was single-handedly planning to turn Brazil into Cuba 2: ElectricBoogaloo. The United States' government agreed with them.


to:

However, that problem was nowhere near as bad as Quadros' actual policies - the man was known for being a [[CloudCuckooLander complete loon, loon]], intentionally avoiding fulfilling his duties, scapegoating his problems on the previous president Juscelino Kubitschek, but perhaps most relevantly for [[UsefulNotes/ColdWar the time period]], mistakengly mistakenly believing he could play [[UsefulNotes/UnitedStates both]] [[UsefulNotes/SovietRussiaUkraineAndSoOn giants]] for his own benefit. He actively pandered to both the United States and the Eastern Bloc, but drew a lot of ire from the capitalist conservative groups in Brazil for the latter, as it often involved directly dealing with Cuba, China, and the Soviet Union itself, and going as far as to granting Brazil's highest medal for foreigners to ''Che Guevara''. Accusations of communism sympathy were rampant, and Quadros' approval rapidly declined.

However, on August 25, 1961, after having sent Goulart overseas for an impromptu diplomatic meeting with China, Quadros surprised many by unexpectedly resigning from his presidency, blaming "terrible occult forces". Many agree that Quadros had done so in an attempt to pull a self-coup much like Getúlio Vargas had done decades ago, expecting the population and the military to overwhelmingly beg him to reassume presidency over their fears of Goulart's left-wing policies.[[note]]Either that, or [[OccamsRazor he was just drunk]].[[/note]] Needless to say, [[DidntThinkThisThrough that didn't happen]]. Instead, the government accepted his resignation, which created a serious political crisis as the military and brazilian Brazilian elites were convinced that Goulart's proposals to reduce adult illiteracy and implant basic land reforms that had long been done in ''the United States'' were [[{{Demonization}} communism incarnate]], and that he was single-handedly planning to turn Brazil into Cuba 2: ElectricBoogaloo. The United States' government agreed with them.




In April 1st, 1964, after nearly three years of intense political tension, and subtle under-the-hood political manipulation of the situation from the United States, the brazilian military led by Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castello Branco [[MilitaryCoup threw a]] [[TheCoup coup]] that ousted Goulart from presidency. As Goulart fled to exile in neighbouring UsefulNotes/{{Uruguay}} (and died ten years later in Argentina), a military junta was established, adopting a hardline anticommunist, ultranationalistic stance that sought to reform the political-economic system that saw a new Constitution being made, all political parties being abolished, civilians and citizens being prevented from being elected and all elections being indirect. There were only two parties after the coup: the National Renewal Alliance, known as [[FunWithAcronyms ARENA]] (the Regime's party); and the Brazilian Democratic Movement, known as the [=MDB=] (the controlled opposition party).[[labelnote:trivia]]The [=MDB=] would live on after the regime ended, for a moment renaming itself as [=PMDB=] and "giving birth" to numerous other parties, before renaming itself back to the [=MDB=]. Left-wing pundits argue that, ironically, the [=MDB=] threw a coup of its own ''much'' later in 2016, against the Workers' Party to impeach president Dilma Rousseff on allegedly fabricated reasons.[[/labelnote]] Brazil was officially established as a BananaRepublic, to the loud cheers of rich corporate owners and the middle class - and the panic of students, Marxists, poor workers, and left-leaning brazilians.

to:

In April 1st, 1964, after nearly three years of intense political tension, and subtle under-the-hood political manipulation of the situation from the United States, the brazilian Brazilian military led by [[TheGeneralissimo Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castello Branco Branco]] [[MilitaryCoup threw a]] [[TheCoup coup]] that ousted Goulart from presidency. As Goulart fled to exile in neighbouring UsefulNotes/{{Uruguay}} (and died ten years later in Argentina), a military junta was established, adopting a hardline anticommunist, ultranationalistic stance that sought to reform the political-economic system that saw a new Constitution being made, all political parties being abolished, civilians and citizens being prevented from being elected and all elections being indirect. There were only two parties after the coup: the National Renewal Alliance, known as [[FunWithAcronyms ARENA]] (the Regime's party); and the Brazilian Democratic Movement, known as the [=MDB=] (the controlled opposition party).[[labelnote:trivia]]The [=MDB=] would live on after the regime ended, for a moment renaming itself as [=PMDB=] and "giving birth" to numerous other parties, before renaming itself back to the [=MDB=]. Left-wing pundits argue that, ironically, the [=MDB=] threw a coup of its own ''much'' later in 2016, against the Workers' Party to impeach president Dilma Rousseff on allegedly fabricated reasons.[[/labelnote]] Brazil was officially established as a BananaRepublic, to the loud cheers of rich corporate owners and the middle class - and the panic of students, Marxists, poor workers, and left-leaning brazilians.
Brazilians.



The Regime was, for a large part of post-1985 Brazil, considered a ''[[FlameWar very touchy subject]]'' for Brazilians. Many famous people today lived in fear or suffered under its heel, such as former president Dilma Rousseff, who herself was brutally tortured for opposing it. Many are also angry at how ''none'' of the people who commanded the dictatorship and committed acts of torture were tried for their crimes. However, throughout [[TheNewTens the 2010s]], increasing cases of corruption and the civic government being more interested in lining up their pockets with money have given birth to a ''very'' prevalent resentment toward the new democracy, as many brazilians found themselves losing faith in the idea of a democracy. Nostalgia for the Military Regime has always existed even as far back as in the late '80s, especially in fringe far-right groups who saw it as a Necessary Evil or [[GoodOldWays an outright good thing]], but when combined with the recent distaste for the democracy, nostalgia for the military dictatorship has become commonplace in 2017 and 2018.

A politician who capitalized on this sentment is ex-military man Jair Bolsonaro, who ran for president on the 2018 Brazilian election. Bolsonaro has held extreme pro-dictatorship views since the 1990s, often calling for mass genocide against politicians and advocating for torture during interviews with him. But whereas he was viewed as an extremist loon through [[TheNineties the 1990s]], [[TurnOfTheMillennium 2000s]] and the early 2010s, his ideas were ''widely'' embraced near the end of the decade, with him achieving '''46%''' of the valid votes in the first round alone.[[note]]For comparison, the candidate in second place achieved 26% and the third 12%. If you achieve 50.1% of valid votes in the first round, you automatically win without requiring a second round.[[/note]] Bolsonaro, alongside his running mate (a retired general who also is a major supporter of the military dictatorship and torture advocate), has since been elected as the next president of Brazil, to the shock and worry of not just the brazilian left, but also causing concerns among human rights activists, environmentalists and [=LGBTQ=] communities worldwide, as Bolsonaro has largely been appointing other military men for positions of high power and prestige, whom are vocal opponents of human rights and regularly challenge climate change as "a communist plot to destroy world borders".

Though Bolsonaro has relatively diminshed his rhetoric's aggressivity since his election and has promised he will govern following the democratic constitution, his promises are still met with skepticism from many on the left, who note how the president-elect continues appointing military officers with extreme far-right views. Time will tell whether the future president will fulfill his promises, or if a third military dictatorship awaits Brazil.

to:

The Regime was, for a large part of post-1985 Brazil, considered a ''[[FlameWar very touchy subject]]'' for Brazilians. Many famous people today lived in fear or suffered under its heel, such as former president Dilma Rousseff, who herself was brutally tortured for opposing it. Many are also angry at how ''none'' of the people who commanded the dictatorship and committed acts of torture were tried for their crimes. However, throughout [[TheNewTens the 2010s]], increasing cases of corruption and the civic government being more interested in lining up their pockets with money have given birth to a ''very'' prevalent resentment toward the new democracy, as many brazilians Brazilians found themselves losing faith in the idea of a democracy.democratic values. Nostalgia for the Military Regime has always existed even as far back as in the late '80s, especially in fringe far-right groups who saw it as a Necessary Evil or [[GoodOldWays an outright good thing]], but when combined with the recent distaste for the democracy, nostalgia for the military dictatorship has become commonplace in 2017 and 2018.

A politician who capitalized on this sentment sentiment is ex-military man retired military officer Jair Bolsonaro, who ran for president on the 2018 Brazilian election. Bolsonaro has held extreme pro-dictatorship views since the 1990s, often calling for mass genocide against politicians and advocating for torture during interviews with him. him (to put things into perspective, that is just the ''least'' outrageous things he has said). But whereas he was always viewed as an extremist loon through [[TheNineties the 1990s]], [[TurnOfTheMillennium 2000s]] and the early 2010s, his ideas were ''widely'' embraced near the end of the decade, with him achieving '''46%''' of the valid votes in the first round alone.[[note]]For comparison, the candidate in second place achieved 26% and the third 12%. If you achieve 50.1% of valid votes in the first round, you automatically win without requiring a second round.[[/note]] Bolsonaro, alongside his running mate Hamilton Mourão (a retired general who also is a major supporter of the military dictatorship and torture advocate), has since been elected as the next president of Brazil, to the shock and worry of not just the brazilian Brazilian left, but also causing concerns among human rights activists, environmentalists and [=LGBTQ=] communities worldwide, as Bolsonaro has largely been appointing other military men for positions of high power and prestige, whom are vocal opponents of human rights and regularly challenge climate change as "a communist plot to destroy world borders".

Though Bolsonaro has relatively diminshed diminished his rhetoric's aggressivity aggressiveness since his election and has promised he will govern following the democratic constitution, constitution committed to make an "government for everyone" and "upholding free speech", his promises are still met with skepticism from many on the left, who note how the president-elect continues appointing military officers with extreme far-right views. Time will tell whether the future president will fulfill his promises, or if a third military dictatorship awaits Brazil.


While Brazil prospered economically in the beginning of the 70s (at the expense of the workers), the so-called "Economical Miracle" wouldn't last as the oil crisis would interrupt their growth, and social pressure started rising. Demands from the middle class for greater freedoms, the end of censorship, and the inflation control would destabilize the country for much of the decade. It was in 1976 under Ernesto Geisel that the process to reorganize the country and return it under control of the people would begin, albeit ''very'' slowly. It wasn't until his successor João Figueireido that these changes started to pick up steam, as political opponents were now granted amnesty, and the [=ARENA=] was dissolved in order to allow the creation of other political parties.[[note]]Again, the [=MDB=] was left intact.[[/note]] The political movement ''Diretas Já'' - Direct (Elections) Now - showed that the army could no longer ignore that the people were sick and tired of having them in power.

With the Soviet Union now severely weakened by the 80s and with no enemy left to fight, the Regime had no other purpose left and it finally came to an end in 1985, when Tancredo Neves was indirectly elected the first President of post-dictatorship Brazil via a pre-selected electoral college[[note]]There was a vigorous political battle to hold a popular election for presidency in 1984, but it was in vain[[/note]], but he died before he could take office due to health complications. As such, his Vice-President José Sarney took up his position. It wouldn't be until 1990 when a democratically-elected President would run the country, with Fernando Collor de Mello... [[HereWeGoAgain who quickly turned out to be a destructive character in his own way]]. And as for the military men responsible for the atrocities of the regime? [[KarmaHoudini All of them were immediately granted amnesty and complete immunity from prosecution for their crimes]].


to:

While Brazil prospered economically in the beginning of [[TheSeventies the 70s '70s]] (at the expense of the workers), the so-called "Economical Miracle" wouldn't last as the oil crisis would interrupt their growth, and social pressure started rising. Demands from the middle class for greater freedoms, the end of censorship, and the inflation control would destabilize the country for much of the decade. It was in 1976 under Ernesto Geisel that the process to reorganize the country and return it under control of the people would begin, albeit ''very'' slowly. It wasn't until his successor João Figueireido that these changes started to pick up steam, as political opponents were now granted amnesty, and the [=ARENA=] was dissolved in order to allow the creation of other political parties.[[note]]Again, the [=MDB=] was left intact.[[/note]] The political movement ''Diretas Já'' - Direct (Elections) Now - showed that the army could no longer ignore that the people were sick and tired of having them in power.

With the Soviet Union now severely weakened by [[TheEighties the 80s '80s]] and with no enemy left to fight, the Regime had no other purpose left and it finally came to an end in 1985, when Tancredo Neves was indirectly elected the first President of post-dictatorship Brazil via a pre-selected electoral college[[note]]There was a vigorous political battle to hold a popular election for presidency in 1984, but it was in vain[[/note]], but he died before he could take office due to health complications. As such, his Vice-President José Sarney took up his position. It wouldn't be until 1990 when a democratically-elected President would run the country, with Fernando Collor de Mello... [[HereWeGoAgain who quickly turned out to be a destructive character in his own way]]. And as for the military men responsible for the atrocities of the regime? [[KarmaHoudini All of them were immediately granted amnesty and complete immunity from prosecution for their crimes]].




A politician who capitalized on this sentment is ex-military man Jair Bolsonaro, who ran for president on the 2018 Brazilian election. Bolsonaro has held extreme pro-dictatorship views since the 1990s, often calling for mass genocide against politicians and advocating for torture during interviews with him. But whereas he was viewed as an extremist loon through the 1990s, 2000s and the early 2010s, his ideas were ''widely'' embraced near the end of the decade, with him achieving '''46%''' of the valid votes in the first round alone.[[note]]For comparison, the candidate in second place achieved 26% and the third 12%. If you achieve 50.1% of valid votes in the first round, you automatically win without requiring a second round.[[/note]] Bolsonaro, alongside his running mate (a retired general who also is a major supporter of the military dictatorship and torture advocate), has since been elected as the next president of Brazil, to the shock and worry of not just the brazilian left, but also causing concerns among human rights activists, environmentalists and [=LGBTQ=] communities worldwide, as Bolsonaro has largely been appointing other military men for positions of high power and prestige, whom are vocal opponents of human rights and regularly challenge climate change as "a communist plot to destroy world borders".

to:

A politician who capitalized on this sentment is ex-military man Jair Bolsonaro, who ran for president on the 2018 Brazilian election. Bolsonaro has held extreme pro-dictatorship views since the 1990s, often calling for mass genocide against politicians and advocating for torture during interviews with him. But whereas he was viewed as an extremist loon through [[TheNineties the 1990s, 2000s 1990s]], [[TurnOfTheMillennium 2000s]] and the early 2010s, his ideas were ''widely'' embraced near the end of the decade, with him achieving '''46%''' of the valid votes in the first round alone.[[note]]For comparison, the candidate in second place achieved 26% and the third 12%. If you achieve 50.1% of valid votes in the first round, you automatically win without requiring a second round.[[/note]] Bolsonaro, alongside his running mate (a retired general who also is a major supporter of the military dictatorship and torture advocate), has since been elected as the next president of Brazil, to the shock and worry of not just the brazilian left, but also causing concerns among human rights activists, environmentalists and [=LGBTQ=] communities worldwide, as Bolsonaro has largely been appointing other military men for positions of high power and prestige, whom are vocal opponents of human rights and regularly challenge climate change as "a communist plot to destroy world borders".


->''Those who do not live to serve Brazil, do not deserve to live in Brazil''

to:

->''Those ->''[[PatrioticFervor Those who do not live to serve Brazil, do not deserve to live in Brazil''Brazil.]]''



Or as its known in Portuguese ''Regime Militar Brasileiro'' - or ''Ditadura Militar'' was the period of time which UsefulNotes/{{Brazil}} was governed by an authoritarian military dictatorship from April 1, 1964 to March 15, 1985. It was one of many others that took place all over in Latin America during the UsefulNotes/ColdWar and served as a model to those that followed this later such as the UsefulNotes/NationalReorganizationProcess in Argentina, and much like its neighbor, this time period is often regarded as one of the darkest periods in Brazilian history, if not the ''darkest'' one, characterized by stifling freedom of speech and press, political persecution, [[ColdBloodedTorture tortures]], [[KangarooCourt arbitrary trials]], [[NeverFoundTheBody disappearance]] and [[TheExile banishing]] of countless individuals.

It wasn't the first time that the military had taken control of the government: the [[VestigialEmpire Brazilian Empire]] became a Republic in the first place after the Armed Forces gained enough prestige and power following the UsefulNotes/WarOfTheTripleAlliance. The first President of Brazil being Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca ousted UsefulNotes/PedroII in a practically bloodless coup in 1889, since the Emperor gave up the crown without a fight as he was too tired to rule, had no male heirs and regarded this as his opportunity to retire. Even though he had no will to resist, Pedro II was still a beloved figure in his country and many didn't want to see him go, but the newly-established Republic would make sure to repress any rebellious monarchist movements and was basically a military dictatorship for its first decade.

Fast-forward to the [[UsefulNotes/TheSixties 60s]], when the UsefulNotes/ColdWar was at its height, the 24th President of Brazil is João Goulart, whose left-leaning tendencies, policies and willingness to make closer relationships with Communist countries made him very unpopular with the army and many conservative elements in the government, who regarded him as a closeted DirtyCommunist for his social reforms which would have seen the profits of large companies being "socialized" to ensure people's better quality of life. Tensions boiled over until 1964 when the military under General Humberto de Alencar Castello Branco thought Goulart would "turn Brazil into another UsefulNotes/{{Cuba}}" and so did the United States, who legitimately feared the notion of a massive country like Brazil actually becoming Communist, especially in the aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis. Then in April, a US-backed MilitaryCoup was launched in the country's capital of Brasilia, deposing the President who fled to exile in Uruguay and would later die ten years afterwards in Argentina. A military junta was established and Brazil became a BananaRepublic adopting a hard-line anti-Communist, nationalistic stance that sought to reform the political-economic system that saw a new Constitution being made, all political parties being abolished, civilians and citizens being prevented from being elected and all elections being indirect. Now there would be only two parties: the National Renewal Alliance (the Regime's party) and the Brazilian Democratic Movement (the controlled opposition party). This was done to prevent the power falling into the hands of a single dictator like Getúlio Vargas had held decades before.

For much of the 60s, protests from urban areas took place all over the country primarily among college students, Catholic Church members,[[labelnote:note]]Even though the Regime leaders were right-wing conservative Catholics themselves and had the initial support of the Church, [[TurbulentPriest several priests, nuns and bishops were targeted by the military]] for speaking out and the Church slowly turned against the dictatorship over time.[[/labelnote]] Marxists, workers and anyone who opposed the dictatorship. However, the military was ruthless throughout in repressing all resistance without mercy. People were taken from their homes, never to be seen again, or were found dead under "accidental" circumstances or claimed they committed suicide (using a machine gun). Those who were not killed were made to suffer through intense torture, usually by hanging for hours in the painful ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pau_de_Arara Pau de Arara]]'' (macaw's perch) position, in agonizing muscle pain. The junta also quickly [[PropagandaMachine took control of the media]] to [[OrwellianEditor censor anything they deemed objectionable]]. Due to its fervently nationalistic nature, they used the media to force the people to love their country at any costs, the most well-known slogan used by the government was ''Brasil: Ame-o ou deixe-o'' (Brazil: Love it or leave it). It was very common for any artists, intellectuals and celebrities that were not in line with the Regime to be banished from the country in order to avoid being tortured, killed or disappeared. By the 70s, Brazil has joined several other Latin American countries that also became dictatorships such as Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, Uruguay and Chile in the infamous ''Operation: Condor'', a campaign of political repression to hunt down Marxists, Communists, leftists or any enemies of the right-winged rulers of these countries, which would see the death toll of 60,000 across the continent.

While in the beginning of the 70s, Brazil prospered economically at the expense of the worker, the so-called "Economical Miracle" wouldn't last as the oil crisis would interrupt their growth and social pressure started to rise. Demands from the middle class for greater freedoms, the end of censorship, and the inflation control would destabilize the country for much of the decade. It was in 1976 under Ernesto Geisel that the process to reorganize the country and return it under control of the people would begin, albeit very slowly. It wasn't until his successor João Figueireido that these changes started to pick up steam as now political opponents were granted amnesty and the political movement ''Diretas Já'' - Direct (Elections) Now - showed that the army could no longer ignore that the people were sick and tired with them in power. With the Soviet Union now severely weakened by the 80s and with no enemy left to fight, the Regime had no other purpose left and it finally came to an end democratically in 1985 when Tancredo Neves was elected the first President by the people, but sadly he died before he could take office due to health complications, leaving his Vice-President José Sarney to take up his position. It wouldn't be until 1990 when a democratically-elected President would run the country with Fernando Collor de Melo and relief could finally begin for the Brazilian nation.

The Regime is considered a ''[[FlameWar very touchy subject]]'' for Brazilians. Many famous people today lived in fear or suffered under its heel, such as former President Dilma Rouselff. Despite the horrid violation of human rights that took place, they still have sympathizers today who see it as either a NecessaryEvil or an outright GoodOldWays compared to the instability that followed (and that was caused by the dictatorship). Making things worse, nobody was ever tried for their crimes due to the military granting amnesty to any of their officials that committed atrocities during this period. Either way, the resentment is still alive today and its unlikely to go away any time soon, and sane people hope that they never happen again.

[[AC:List of Presidents during the Regime]]

to:

Or The Brazilian Military Regime - or, as its it's known in Portuguese Portuguese, ''Regime Militar Brasileiro'' - or ''Ditadura Militar'' Militar''[[labelnote:Translation]]"Military Dictatorship"[[/labelnote]] was the period of time which UsefulNotes/{{Brazil}} was governed by an authoritarian military dictatorship from April 1, 1964 to March 15, 1985. It was one of many others that took place all over in Latin America UsefulNotes/LatinAmerica during the UsefulNotes/ColdWar UsefulNotes/ColdWar, as part of the US-backed [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Condor Operation Condor]], a campaign of political repression to hunt down Marxists, Communists, leftists or any enemies of the right-winged rulers of these countries and of the United States by toppling democratically-elected leaders to replace them with US-loyal puppet dictatorships. Brazil's dictatorship served as a role model to those others in the continent that followed this later during TheSeventies, such as the UsefulNotes/NationalReorganizationProcess in Argentina, and much Argentina. Much like its neighbor, this time period regime is often regarded as one of the darkest periods in Brazilian history, if not the ''darkest'' one, ''the'' darkest, characterized by stifling freedom of speech and press, political persecution, [[TheExile banishing]] of countless individuals, and numerous human rights violations, such as [[ColdBloodedTorture tortures]], torture]], [[KangarooCourt arbitrary trials]], and [[NeverFoundTheBody disappearance]] and [[TheExile banishing]] of countless individuals.

disappearances]].

It wasn't the first time that the military had taken control of the government: the [[VestigialEmpire Brazilian Empire]] became a Republic in the first place after the Armed Forces gained enough prestige and power following the UsefulNotes/WarOfTheTripleAlliance. The first President of Brazil being Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca ousted UsefulNotes/PedroII in a practically bloodless coup in 1889, since the Emperor gave up the crown without a fight as he was too tired to rule, had no male heirs and regarded this as his opportunity to retire. Even though he had no will to resist, Pedro II was still a beloved figure in his country and many didn't want to see him go, but the newly-established Republic would make sure to repress any rebellious monarchist movements movements, and was basically a military dictatorship for its first decade.

Fast-forward to the
decade.


!Prelude
Back in
[[UsefulNotes/TheSixties 60s]], when the UsefulNotes/ColdWar was at its height, 1960s]], Jânio Quadros had been officially elected the 24th 22nd President of Brazil in a landslide victory in the elections of 1960 - in no small part because Quadros' opponent, Henrique Lott, was a public relations ''disaster'' who greatly alienated his supporters with blunt and offensive comments. However, back then, instead of a presidential candidate choosing their vice-president running mate during their campaign, the population voted in the vice-president seperately from the president, which easily created the scenario of a President and a Vice-President being of opposite or even inimical parties. This is what happened in [='61=], as although Quadros was elected president, the elected vice-president was João Goulart, whose left-leaning tendencies, who was Lott's running mate, and therefore a rival of Quadros, as Goulart was a firm left-wing politician while Quadros was a right-winger.

However, that problem was nowhere near as bad as Quadros' actual
policies - the man was known for being a complete loon, intentionally avoiding fulfilling his duties, scapegoating his problems on the previous president Juscelino Kubitschek, but perhaps most relevantly for [[UsefulNotes/ColdWar the time period]], mistakengly believing he could play [[UsefulNotes/UnitedStates both]] [[UsefulNotes/SovietRussiaUkraineAndSoOn giants]] for his own benefit. He actively pandered to both the United States and willingness to make closer relationships with Communist countries made him very unpopular with the army and many Eastern Bloc, but drew a lot of ire from the capitalist conservative elements groups in Brazil for the government, who regarded him latter, as a closeted DirtyCommunist it often involved directly dealing with Cuba, China, and the Soviet Union itself, and going as far as to granting Brazil's highest medal for foreigners to ''Che Guevara''. Accusations of communism sympathy were rampant, and Quadros' approval rapidly declined.

However, on August 25, 1961, after having sent Goulart overseas for an impromptu diplomatic meeting with China, Quadros surprised many by unexpectedly resigning from
his social reforms which would have seen presidency, blaming "terrible occult forces". Many agree that Quadros had done so in an attempt to pull a self-coup much like Getúlio Vargas had done decades ago, expecting the profits of large companies being "socialized" to ensure people's better quality of life. Tensions boiled over until 1964 when population and the military under General to overwhelmingly beg him to reassume presidency over their fears of Goulart's left-wing policies.[[note]]Either that, or [[OccamsRazor he was just drunk]].[[/note]] Needless to say, [[DidntThinkThisThrough that didn't happen]]. Instead, the government accepted his resignation, which created a serious political crisis as the military and brazilian elites were convinced that Goulart's proposals to reduce adult illiteracy and implant basic land reforms that had long been done in ''the United States'' were [[{{Demonization}} communism incarnate]], and that he was single-handedly planning to turn Brazil into Cuba 2: ElectricBoogaloo. The United States' government agreed with them.


!The Coup
In April 1st, 1964, after nearly three years of intense political tension, and subtle under-the-hood political manipulation of the situation from the United States, the brazilian military led by Marshal
Humberto de Alencar Castello Branco thought [[MilitaryCoup threw a]] [[TheCoup coup]] that ousted Goulart would "turn Brazil into another UsefulNotes/{{Cuba}}" and so did the United States, who legitimately feared the notion of a massive country like Brazil actually becoming Communist, especially in the aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis. Then in April, a US-backed MilitaryCoup was launched in the country's capital of Brasilia, deposing the President who from presidency. As Goulart fled to exile in Uruguay and would later die neighbouring UsefulNotes/{{Uruguay}} (and died ten years afterwards later in Argentina. A Argentina), a military junta was established and Brazil became a BananaRepublic established, adopting a hard-line anti-Communist, nationalistic hardline anticommunist, ultranationalistic stance that sought to reform the political-economic system that saw a new Constitution being made, all political parties being abolished, civilians and citizens being prevented from being elected and all elections being indirect. Now there would be There were only two parties: parties after the coup: the National Renewal Alliance Alliance, known as [[FunWithAcronyms ARENA]] (the Regime's party) party); and the Brazilian Democratic Movement Movement, known as the [=MDB=] (the controlled opposition party). This party).[[labelnote:trivia]]The [=MDB=] would live on after the regime ended, for a moment renaming itself as [=PMDB=] and "giving birth" to numerous other parties, before renaming itself back to the [=MDB=]. Left-wing pundits argue that, ironically, the [=MDB=] threw a coup of its own ''much'' later in 2016, against the Workers' Party to impeach president Dilma Rousseff on allegedly fabricated reasons.[[/labelnote]] Brazil was done officially established as a BananaRepublic, to prevent the power falling into loud cheers of rich corporate owners and the hands middle class - and the panic of a single dictator like Getúlio Vargas had held decades before.

students, Marxists, poor workers, and left-leaning brazilians.

For much of the 60s, '60s, protests from urban areas took place all over the country country, primarily among college students, Catholic Church members,[[labelnote:note]]Even members[[note]]Even though the Regime leaders were right-wing conservative Catholics themselves and had the initial support of the Church, [[TurbulentPriest several priests, nuns and bishops were targeted by the military]] for speaking out and the Church slowly turned against the dictatorship over time.[[/labelnote]] time[[/note]], Marxists, workers workers, and anyone else who opposed the dictatorship. However, the military was ruthless throughout in repressing all resistance without mercy. People were taken from their homes, never to be seen again, or were found dead under "accidental" circumstances or claimed they committed suicide (using a machine gun). Those who were not killed were made to suffer through intense torture, usually by hanging for hours in the painful ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pau_de_Arara Pau de Arara]]'' (macaw's perch) position, in agonizing muscle pain. The junta also quickly [[PropagandaMachine took control of the media]] to [[OrwellianEditor censor anything they deemed objectionable]]. objectionable]].

Due to its fervently nationalistic nature, they used the media to force the people to love their country at any costs, costs; the most well-known slogan used by the government was ''Brasil: Ame-o ou deixe-o'' (Brazil: Love it or leave it). It was very common for any artists, intellectuals and celebrities that were not in line with the Regime to be banished from the country Brazil in order to avoid being tortured, killed or disappeared. By the 70s, Brazil has joined several other Latin American countries that had also became dictatorships joined Brazil in becoming dictatorships, such as Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, Uruguay and Chile in thanks to the infamous ''Operation: aforementioned ''Operation Condor'', resulting in a campaign of political repression to hunt down Marxists, Communists, leftists or any enemies of the right-winged rulers of these countries, which would see the death toll of 60,000 across the continent.

continent.


!Downfall
While in the beginning of the 70s, Brazil prospered economically at in the beginning of the 70s (at the expense of the worker, workers), the so-called "Economical Miracle" wouldn't last as the oil crisis would interrupt their growth growth, and social pressure started to rise.rising. Demands from the middle class for greater freedoms, the end of censorship, and the inflation control would destabilize the country for much of the decade. It was in 1976 under Ernesto Geisel that the process to reorganize the country and return it under control of the people would begin, albeit very ''very'' slowly. It wasn't until his successor João Figueireido that these changes started to pick up steam steam, as now political opponents were now granted amnesty amnesty, and the [=ARENA=] was dissolved in order to allow the creation of other political parties.[[note]]Again, the [=MDB=] was left intact.[[/note]] The political movement ''Diretas Já'' - Direct (Elections) Now - showed that the army could no longer ignore that the people were sick and tired with of having them in power. power.

With the Soviet Union now severely weakened by the 80s and with no enemy left to fight, the Regime had no other purpose left and it finally came to an end democratically in 1985 1985, when Tancredo Neves was indirectly elected the first President by the people, of post-dictatorship Brazil via a pre-selected electoral college[[note]]There was a vigorous political battle to hold a popular election for presidency in 1984, but sadly it was in vain[[/note]], but he died before he could take office due to health complications, leaving complications. As such, his Vice-President José Sarney to take took up his position. It wouldn't be until 1990 when a democratically-elected President would run the country country, with Fernando Collor de Melo and relief could finally begin Mello... [[HereWeGoAgain who quickly turned out to be a destructive character in his own way]]. And as for the Brazilian nation.

military men responsible for the atrocities of the regime? [[KarmaHoudini All of them were immediately granted amnesty and complete immunity from prosecution for their crimes]].


!Legacy and the Present Day
The Regime is was, for a large part of post-1985 Brazil, considered a ''[[FlameWar very touchy subject]]'' for Brazilians. Many famous people today lived in fear or suffered under its heel, such as former President president Dilma Rouselff. Despite Rousseff, who herself was brutally tortured for opposing it. Many are also angry at how ''none'' of the horrid violation people who commanded the dictatorship and committed acts of torture were tried for their crimes. However, throughout [[TheNewTens the 2010s]], increasing cases of corruption and the civic government being more interested in lining up their pockets with money have given birth to a ''very'' prevalent resentment toward the new democracy, as many brazilians found themselves losing faith in the idea of a democracy. Nostalgia for the Military Regime has always existed even as far back as in the late '80s, especially in fringe far-right groups who saw it as a Necessary Evil or [[GoodOldWays an outright good thing]], but when combined with the recent distaste for the democracy, nostalgia for the military dictatorship has become commonplace in 2017 and 2018.

A politician who capitalized on this sentment is ex-military man Jair Bolsonaro, who ran for president on the 2018 Brazilian election. Bolsonaro has held extreme pro-dictatorship views since the 1990s, often calling for mass genocide against politicians and advocating for torture during interviews with him. But whereas he was viewed as an extremist loon through the 1990s, 2000s and the early 2010s, his ideas were ''widely'' embraced near the end of the decade, with him achieving '''46%''' of the valid votes in the first round alone.[[note]]For comparison, the candidate in second place achieved 26% and the third 12%. If you achieve 50.1% of valid votes in the first round, you automatically win without requiring a second round.[[/note]] Bolsonaro, alongside his running mate (a retired general who also is a major supporter of the military dictatorship and torture advocate), has since been elected as the next president of Brazil, to the shock and worry of not just the brazilian left, but also causing concerns among human rights activists, environmentalists and [=LGBTQ=] communities worldwide, as Bolsonaro has largely been appointing other military men for positions of high power and prestige, whom are vocal opponents
of human rights that took place, they and regularly challenge climate change as "a communist plot to destroy world borders".

Though Bolsonaro has relatively diminshed his rhetoric's aggressivity since his election and has promised he will govern following the democratic constitution, his promises are
still have sympathizers today met with skepticism from many on the left, who see it as either a NecessaryEvil or an outright GoodOldWays compared to note how the instability that followed (and that was caused by the dictatorship). Making things worse, nobody was ever tried for their crimes due to the president-elect continues appointing military granting amnesty to any of their officials that committed atrocities during this period. Either way, officers with extreme far-right views. Time will tell whether the resentment is still alive today and its unlikely to go away any time soon, and sane people hope that they never happen again.

[[AC:List
future president will fulfill his promises, or if a third military dictatorship awaits Brazil.

!!List
of Presidents during the Regime]]Regime



* Aurélio de Lira Tavares, Augusto Rademakar, Márcio de Souza Melo (1969)[[labelnote:note]] provisional government.[[/labelnote]]
* Emilio Médici (1969-1974)

to:

* Aurélio de Lira Tavares, Augusto Rademakar, Márcio de Souza Melo (1969)[[labelnote:note]] provisional government.[[/labelnote]]
* Emilio Médici (1969-1974)



* João Figueiredo (1979-1985)

to:

* João Figueiredo (1979-1985)



!Works featuring the Regime include:

to:

!Works !!Works featuring the Regime include:


Fast-forward to the [[UsefulNotes/TheSixties 60s]], when the UsefulNotes/ColdWar was at its height, the 24th President of Brazil is João Goulart, whose left-leaning tendencies, policies and willingness to make closer relationships with Communist countries made him very unpopular with the army and many conservative elements in the government, who regarded him as a closeted DirtyCommunist for his social reforms which would have seen the profits of large companies being "socialized" to ensure people's better quality of life. Tensions boiled over until 1964 when the military under General Humberto de Alencar Castello Branco thought Goulart would "turn Brazil into another UsefulNotes/{{Cuba}}" and so did the United States, who legitimately feared the notion of a massive country like Brazil actually becoming Communist, specially in the aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis. Then in April, a US-backed MilitaryCoup was launched in the country's capital of Brasilia, deposing the President who fled to exile in Uruguay and would later die ten years afterwards in Argentina. A military junta was established and Brazil became a BananaRepublic adopting a hard-line anti-Communist, nationalistic stance that sought to reform political-economic system that saw a new Constitution being made, all political parties being abolished, civilians and citizens being prevented from being elected and all elections being indirect. Now there would be only two parties: the National Renewal Alliance (the Regime's party) and the Brazilian Democratic Movement (the controlled opposition party). This was done to prevent the power falling in the hands of a single dictator like Getúlio Vargas had done so decades ago.

For much of the 60s, protests from urban areas took place all over the country primarily among college students, Catholic Church members [[labelnote:note]]Even though the Regime leaders were right-winged conservative Catholic themselves and had the initial support of the Church, [[TurbulentPriest several priests, nuns and bishops were targeted by the military]] for speaking out and the Church slowly turned against the dictatorship over time[[/labelnote]], Marxists, workers and anyone who opposed the dictatorship. However, the military was ruthless and throughout in repressing all resistance without mercy. People were taken from their homes, never to be seen again or were found dead under "accidental" circumstances or claimed they committed suicide (using a machine gun). Those who were not killed were made to suffer through intense torture, usually by hanging for hours in the painful ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pau_de_Arara Pau de Arara]]'' (macaw's perch) position, in agonizing muscle pain. The junta also quickly [[PropagandaMachine took control of the media]] to [[OrwellianEditor censor anything they deemed objectionable]]. Due to its fervently nationalistic nature, they used the media to force the people to love their country at any costs, the most well-known slogan used by the government was ''Brasil: Ame-o ou deixe-o'' (Brazil: Love it or leave it). It was very common for any artists, intellectuals and celebrities that were not in line with the Regime to be banished from the country in order to avoid being tortured, killed or disappeared. By the 70s, Brazil has joined several other Latin American countries that also became dictatorships such as Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, Uruguay, Chile in the infamous ''Operation: Condor'', a campaign of political repression to hunt down Marxists, Communists, leftists or any enemies of the right-winged rulers of these countries, which would see the death toll of 60,000 across the continent.

While in the beginning of the 70s, Brazil prospered economically at the expense of the worker, the so-called "Economical Miracle" wouldn't last as the oil crisis would interrupt their growth and social pressure started to rise. Demands from the middle class for greater freedoms, the end of censorship, and the inflation control would destabilize the country for much of the decade. It was in 1976 under Ernesto Geisel that the process to reorganize the country and return it under control of the people would begin, albeit very slowly. It wasn't until his successor João Figueireido that these changes started to pick up steam as now political opponents were granted amnesty and the political movement ''Diretas Já'' - Direct (Elections) Now - showed that the army could no longer ignore that the people were sick and tired with them in power. With the Soviet Union now severely weakened by the 80s and with no enemy left to fight, the Regime had no other purpose left and it finally came to an end democratically in 1985 when Tancredo Neves was elected the first President by the people, but sadly he died before he could take office due to health complications leaving his Vice-President José Sarney to take up his position. It wouldn't be until 1990 when a democratically-elected President would run the country with Fernando Collor de Melo and morning could finally begin for the Brazilian nation.

The Regime is considered a ''[[FlameWar very touchy subject]]'' for Brazilians. Several people today lived in fear or suffered under its heel, such as former President Dilma Rouselff. Despite the horrid violation of human rights that took place, they still have sympathizers today who see it as either a NecessaryEvil or an outright GoodOldWays compared to the instability that followed (and that was caused by the dictatorship). Making things worse, nobody was ever tried for their crimes due to the military granting amnesty to any of their officials that committed atrocities during this period. Either way, the resentment is still alive today and its unlikely to go away any time soon, and sane people hope that they never happen again.

to:

Fast-forward to the [[UsefulNotes/TheSixties 60s]], when the UsefulNotes/ColdWar was at its height, the 24th President of Brazil is João Goulart, whose left-leaning tendencies, policies and willingness to make closer relationships with Communist countries made him very unpopular with the army and many conservative elements in the government, who regarded him as a closeted DirtyCommunist for his social reforms which would have seen the profits of large companies being "socialized" to ensure people's better quality of life. Tensions boiled over until 1964 when the military under General Humberto de Alencar Castello Branco thought Goulart would "turn Brazil into another UsefulNotes/{{Cuba}}" and so did the United States, who legitimately feared the notion of a massive country like Brazil actually becoming Communist, specially especially in the aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis. Then in April, a US-backed MilitaryCoup was launched in the country's capital of Brasilia, deposing the President who fled to exile in Uruguay and would later die ten years afterwards in Argentina. A military junta was established and Brazil became a BananaRepublic adopting a hard-line anti-Communist, nationalistic stance that sought to reform the political-economic system that saw a new Constitution being made, all political parties being abolished, civilians and citizens being prevented from being elected and all elections being indirect. Now there would be only two parties: the National Renewal Alliance (the Regime's party) and the Brazilian Democratic Movement (the controlled opposition party). This was done to prevent the power falling in into the hands of a single dictator like Getúlio Vargas had done so held decades ago.

before.

For much of the 60s, protests from urban areas took place all over the country primarily among college students, Catholic Church members [[labelnote:note]]Even members,[[labelnote:note]]Even though the Regime leaders were right-winged right-wing conservative Catholic Catholics themselves and had the initial support of the Church, [[TurbulentPriest several priests, nuns and bishops were targeted by the military]] for speaking out and the Church slowly turned against the dictatorship over time[[/labelnote]], time.[[/labelnote]] Marxists, workers and anyone who opposed the dictatorship. However, the military was ruthless and throughout in repressing all resistance without mercy. People were taken from their homes, never to be seen again again, or were found dead under "accidental" circumstances or claimed they committed suicide (using a machine gun). Those who were not killed were made to suffer through intense torture, usually by hanging for hours in the painful ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pau_de_Arara Pau de Arara]]'' (macaw's perch) position, in agonizing muscle pain. The junta also quickly [[PropagandaMachine took control of the media]] to [[OrwellianEditor censor anything they deemed objectionable]]. Due to its fervently nationalistic nature, they used the media to force the people to love their country at any costs, the most well-known slogan used by the government was ''Brasil: Ame-o ou deixe-o'' (Brazil: Love it or leave it). It was very common for any artists, intellectuals and celebrities that were not in line with the Regime to be banished from the country in order to avoid being tortured, killed or disappeared. By the 70s, Brazil has joined several other Latin American countries that also became dictatorships such as Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, Uruguay, Uruguay and Chile in the infamous ''Operation: Condor'', a campaign of political repression to hunt down Marxists, Communists, leftists or any enemies of the right-winged rulers of these countries, which would see the death toll of 60,000 across the continent.

While in the beginning of the 70s, Brazil prospered economically at the expense of the worker, the so-called "Economical Miracle" wouldn't last as the oil crisis would interrupt their growth and social pressure started to rise. Demands from the middle class for greater freedoms, the end of censorship, and the inflation control would destabilize the country for much of the decade. It was in 1976 under Ernesto Geisel that the process to reorganize the country and return it under control of the people would begin, albeit very slowly. It wasn't until his successor João Figueireido that these changes started to pick up steam as now political opponents were granted amnesty and the political movement ''Diretas Já'' - Direct (Elections) Now - showed that the army could no longer ignore that the people were sick and tired with them in power. With the Soviet Union now severely weakened by the 80s and with no enemy left to fight, the Regime had no other purpose left and it finally came to an end democratically in 1985 when Tancredo Neves was elected the first President by the people, but sadly he died before he could take office due to health complications complications, leaving his Vice-President José Sarney to take up his position. It wouldn't be until 1990 when a democratically-elected President would run the country with Fernando Collor de Melo and morning relief could finally begin for the Brazilian nation.

The Regime is considered a ''[[FlameWar very touchy subject]]'' for Brazilians. Several Many famous people today lived in fear or suffered under its heel, such as former President Dilma Rouselff. Despite the horrid violation of human rights that took place, they still have sympathizers today who see it as either a NecessaryEvil or an outright GoodOldWays compared to the instability that followed (and that was caused by the dictatorship). Making things worse, nobody was ever tried for their crimes due to the military granting amnesty to any of their officials that committed atrocities during this period. Either way, the resentment is still alive today and its unlikely to go away any time soon, and sane people hope that they never happen again.



* Artur da Costa e Silva (1967-1969) [[labelnote:note]]He couldn't finish his term due to suffering a stroke and dying shortly afterwards leading to his term being taken over by a trio of generals that would run the country. [[/labelnote]]
* Aurélio de Lira Tavares, Augusto Rademakar, Márcio de Souza Melo (1969) [[labelnote:note]] provisional government [[/labelnote]]

to:

* Artur da Costa e Silva (1967-1969) [[labelnote:note]]He (1967-1969)[[labelnote:note]]He couldn't finish his term due to suffering a stroke and dying shortly afterwards leading to his term being taken over by a trio of generals that would run the country. [[/labelnote]]
* Aurélio de Lira Tavares, Augusto Rademakar, Márcio de Souza Melo (1969) [[labelnote:note]] (1969)[[labelnote:note]] provisional government government.[[/labelnote]]



* ''Film/OHomemDaCapaPreta'': A movie inspired in real-life politician Tenório Cavalcantti who lived during the Regime and initially backed it, until he decided to turn against it.

to:

* ''Film/OHomemDaCapaPreta'': A movie inspired in by real-life politician Tenório Cavalcantti who lived during the Regime and initially backed it, until he decided to turn against it.

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