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** One of Remillia's win quotes in ''Immaterial and Missing Power'' has her say "Useless, useless, useless!", a reference to DIO's {{battlecry}}.



** One of Nitori's spell cards in ''Urban Legend in Limbo'' is called "Bubble Sign 'Fire! [[VideoGame/BubbleBobble Bubble Dragon]]'"
** One of Saki's spell cards is named "Agile Skill '[[Manga/SaintSeiya Black Pegasus Meteor Shot]]'"
** One of Shou's spell cards is called "Jeweled Pagoda '[[VideoGame/RadiantSilvergun Radiant Treasure Gun]]'"



* One of Meiling's C bullet moves in ''Hisoutensoku'' is a carbon copy of [[VideoGame/TheKingOfFighters Krizalid's]] Typhoon Rage. This is the main reason why [[CrossoverShipping they're often paired up with each other in fanart]].

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* One of Meiling's C bullet moves in ''Hisoutensoku'' is a carbon copy of [[VideoGame/TheKingOfFighters Krizalid's]] Typhoon Rage. This is the main reason why [[CrossoverShipping they're often paired up with each other in fanart]].fanart]].
* In the first chapter of ''Forbidden Scrollery'', it's revealed that Kosuzu owns a Japanese manuscript of [[Creator/HPLovecraft the Necronomicon]], and it's implied she uses it to make reprints.
* One of Nitori's spell cards in ''Hopeless Masquerade'' has her do [[VideoGame/BloodWarrior Sanpei]]'s Jet Shoot attack.
* In ''Violet Detector'', Sumireko parodies a series of commercials for the Japanese phone carrier [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Au_%28mobile_phone_company%29?wprov=sfla1 au]] in one of the comments.


* Kokoro has a costume that makes her look like [[VisualNovel/DanganronpaTriggerHappyHavoc Kyouko Kirigiri]].

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* Kokoro has a costume that makes her look like [[VisualNovel/DanganronpaTriggerHappyHavoc Kyouko Kyoko Kirigiri]].

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With a series as long running and having as many characters as ''Touhou'', {{Shout Out}}s to one thing or another is pretty much inevitable. Full details on all of them on [[Characters/TouhouProject the character page]].
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* Many, ''many'' references to ''Literature/AliceInWonderland''. Just to give you an idea, Alice Margatroid is heavily designed after the main character (in case her name didn't tip you off enough).
* ZUN is an admitted fanboy of ''Manga/JoJosBizarreAdventure'' and as such there are ''lots'' of shout outs to that series:
** Sakuya has several homages to Dio Brando, the overall BigBad of ''[=JoJo=]'', including her time-stop powers (specifically "The World", which is the name of DIO's [[FightingSpirit Stand]]), knife-throwing skills, and she's associated with vampires (Dio ''is'' a vampire, but close enough, right?). ''Scarlet Weather Rhapsody'' takes it a step further by giving her attack animations inspired by DIO's from the Capcom fighting game ''VideoGame/JoJosBizarreAdventureHeritageForTheFuture'', as well as a DIO costume just to drive the point home.
*** One of her scenes in ''Impossible Spell Card'' is named "I Don't Know What Happened", a reference to a scene where DIO uses his Stand to stop Polnareff from ascending a set of stairs.
** In Marisa and Patchouli's scenario in ''Subterranean Animism'', Patchouli notices that Yuugi didn't spill a drop of her sake during their fight. This is a reference to a part in ''Phantom Blood'', where Will A. Zeppeli tests Johnathan's Hamon skills by having him fight a vampire while holding a glass of wine, instructing him not to spill a single drop.
** Yuugi has a star-shaped mark on her horn akin to the Joestars' star-shaped birthmark.
** Remilia asking Marisa "Can you count the number of times you've eaten bread?" is a reference to a line uttered by Dio in ''Phantom Blood'', who asks the exact same question as a ButForMeItWasTuesday speech after Zeppeli demands to know how many humans he's drained just to heal a minor scar.[[note]]Marisa does remember how many times she's eaten bread... [[RhetoricalQuestionBlunder thirteen times. She prefers Japanese food]].[[/note]]
** Marisa uses Jotaro Kujo's CatchPhrase "Yare yare da ze" (often translated as "Good grief") after defeating Wriggle in ''Imperishable Night''.
** One of Kaguya's spellcards in ''Shoot the Bullet'' is named "New Impossible Request 'Red Stone of Aja'", the PlotDevice from Part 2.
** Hatate, dressed mostly in purple, uses spirit photography using her cellphone-like camera. Joseph's Stand, Hermit Purple, has the same ability by breaking a camera.
** Many of the characters have [[WhatKindOfLamePowerIsHeartAnyway vague or seemingly useless abilities]] that [[HeartIsAnAwesomePower can be dangerous when used effectively]], which is also a recurring theme in ''[=JoJo=]''.
** The name of the series itself may be a ''[=JoJo=]'' reference an alternate reading of the kanji in "Touhou" is "Higashikata", the surname of Part 4's protagonist, Josuke.
** One of Miko's lines in ''Ten Desires'' is "Your next line is...", Joseph Joestar's catchphrase.
** In Marisa's scenario in ''Hidden Star in Four Seasons'', she says "But I refuse!", a line from ''Diamond is Unbreakable'' that [[MemeAcknowledgement became a meme]] around the same time. ZUN stated in an interview that this is his favorite line from ''[=JoJo=]'', and him referencing it was inevitable.
** One of Ichirin's attacks in the fighting games has her doing Jotaro's famous [[RapidFireFisticuffs Jaguar Varied Assault]] with Unzan.
** If Marisa beats Koishi in ''Hopeless Masquerade'', she says "Before I knew it, I was fightin' someone", a line said by Polnareff in ''Stardust Crusaders''. She then says [[LampshadedTheObscureReference she didn't know what she was talking about]].
** One of Hecatia's portaits in ''Legacy of Lunatic Kingdom'' has the series' infamous "ゴゴゴゴゴ" (menacing) UnsoundEffect on it.
** One of Youmu's skins in ''Scarlet Weather Rhapsody'' makes her look like Silver Chariot, Polnareff's Stand.
** Cirno in ''Hisotensoku'' plays very similarly to Pet Shop in ''Herritage for the Future''. However, unlike Pet Shop, Cirno is a JokeCharacter.
** The spell card comment for "Divine Treasure 'Salamander Shield'" states that the creatures would at least need blood that doesn't boil, and brings up AC/DC as an example, a pillar man from ''Battle Tendency'' whose ability is to heat his blood to boiling temperatures.
* They only appear onscreen for a split second, but plenty of spell card names contain references.
** Three of Mamizou's spell cards are references to ''Genpei Toumaden''.[[note]]One is "Reimu" dropping Yin-yang orbs in the same manner as the Buddha enemy in that game. Another is "Byakuren" throwing animal likenesses as the Lute player enemy of the same game. The last one is a giant "Miko" waving her shaku in a similar way to the final boss' showing off before the last battle.[[/note]]
** One of Shinmyoumaru's spell cards is called "[[Manga/AttackOnTitan Attack on Dwarf]]".
** One of Flandre's spell cards is called "[[Literature/AndThenThereWereNone And Then Will There Be None?]]". This is also where the name for "U.N. Owen Was Her?" comes from.
** One of Kogasa's spell cards is named "Rainbow Sign "[[Film/TheWizardOfOz Over The Rainbow]]"" She also has two spells cards titled "Umbrella Sign [[VideoGame/BubbleBobble "Parasol Star Symphony"" and "Parasol Star Memories", respectively]].
** One of Raiko's spell cards is called "[[Music/BlueManGroup Blue Lady Show]]".
** One of Seija's spell cards is called "Reverse Sign '[[Music/MichaelJackson Evil in the Mirror]]'"
** Yukari's infamous train spell card got renamed in ''Antinomy of Common Flowers'' to "Unmanned Abandoned Railroad Car Bomb", a reference to a scene in ''Film/ShinGodzilla'', where trains filled with bombs are used to attack Godzilla.
** One of Aunn's spell cards in ''Violet Detector'' is named "Dream Dog '[[WesternAnimation/OneHundredAndOneDalmatians 101 Stray Dogs]]'"
* Stage 6 of ''Undefined Fantastic Object'' has rows of fairies that move in a zig-zag pattern and fire bullets straight downwards, as a reference to ''VideoGame/SpaceInvaders''.
* One of Nue's spell cards in ''Double Spoiler'' has her making [[UsefulNotes/PlayStation triangles, squares, circles, and crosses]] out of bullets. ''The Grimoire of Usami'' has Sumireko basically [[LampshadeHanging spell out the reference]].
-->'''Sumireko:''' ◯△□✕... I-It's a Playstation! Guess I identified it, lol!
* One strip in ''Inaba of the Moon and Inaba of the Earth'' contains a reference to the ''VideoGame/{{Wizardry}}'' series. Also, a certain weapon in the comic is labelled [[Film/MontyPythonAndTheHolyGrail "HHG of Aunty Ock"]].
-->'''Akyu:''' ''(to Reisen)'' [[KillerRabbit Is it true that you decapitate your prey with your front teeth?]]
%% Makai in ''Mystic Square'' is basically one big ShoutOut to ''Literature/ParadiseLost''.
* In ''Phantasmagoria of Flower View'', most times when you defeat an enemy, the game will call them a [[Series/MontyPythonsFlyingCircus DEAD PARROT]].
* A few of the bullet patterns seem directly inspired by patterns from other BulletHell games. [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Touhou_influences Look at this list and decide for yourself.]]
* There are references to ''Manga/FistOfTheNorthStar'' in the fighting games, most notably ''Hisoutensoku''. If Reimu's ultimate spellcard "Fantasy Heaven" ("''Musou Tensei''" in Japanese, which happens to be a [[NamesTheSame homonym]] for Kenshiro's ultimate technique, "Unconscious Transmigration of Souls", also pronounced "''Musou Tensei''") is successfully activated in the third round of a match, the background music will change to [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O8-SrmzsrkE a mashup remix]] of Mystic Oriental Love Consultation and the Fatal KO theme from the ''Fist Of The North Star'' fighting games. Fitting because said spellcard is a guaranteed knock-out unless [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hCkhBwipem0 the opponent gets very lucky]] (no, it is ''not'' a OneHitKill).
** Utsuho Reiuji's [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/File:Utsuho_Similarities.png sprite animations greatly resemble those of Souther]].
* Hong Meiling takes several moves from Yun of ''Franchise/StreetFighter'' fame in the fighting games, including his You Hou super and his lunge punch.
* Miko's powerbar image in ''Hopeless Masquerade'' is a [[http://knowyourmeme.com/memes/reaction-guys-gaijin-4koma modified gaijin 4koma]].
* Nitori's Last Word in ''Hopeless Masquerade'' is a homage to [[VideoGame/MetalGearSolid Snake's]] Final Smash in ''VideoGame/SuperSmashBrosBrawl''. Its name also references the [[UsefulNotes/SuperNintendoEntertainmentSystem Super Scope]], which, coincidentally, is an item in the ''Smash'' series.
* One of Ichirin's skins in the fighting games resembles [[LightNovel/ACertainMagicalIndex Index's]] outfit.
* Seija default pose is a reference to [[http://i.imgur.com/4dqAX.jpg an expression]] often found in Creator/StudioShaft projects.
* The plot of ''Double Dealing Character'' is a WholePlotReference to ''Anime/RevolutionaryGirlUtena'', where people (youkai) are given power by the resident of an upside-down floating castle to "start a revolution", but their benefactor's actual goals are far more selfish.
* The description for one of Eirin's spellcards refer to "the wheelchair man" and the song "Future Universe of Wheelchair", both being references to Creator/StephenHawking.
* In the [=PS4=] port of ''Urban Legend in Limbo'', if Reisen beats herself in VS mode, she will comment on the similarity of the Kune-kune to the [[Literature/TheMoomins Hattifnatter]].
* The entry for therianthropes in ''Perfect Memento in Strict Sense'' mentions "being doused with water" as one of the potential causes for transformation, much like how transformations in ''Manga/RanmaOneHalf'' work. In a footnote, some of the animals it mentions are cats, pandas, and piglets, which are what Shampoo, Genma, and Ryōga transform into.
* The entire plot of ''Hidden Star in Four Seasons'' is pretty much a WholePlotReference and {{Homage}} to ''VideoGame/LenEn'''s first game ''Evanescent Existence'', right down to the respective culprits of the incident kick-starting the whole event by secretly pitting the main characters against other characters, while also secretly finding a worthy successor as a protector of their respective {{Fantasy Kitchen Sink}}s. The game also implements a flash bomb system, similar to those from ''Earthen Miraculous Sword'' onwards.
* The soundtrack CD for ''Urban Legend in Limbo'' is called "[[Literature/HarryPotterAndTheChamberOfSecrets Sumireko Usami and the Clubroom of Secrets]]".
* ''Symposium of Post-mysticism'' reveals that Kogasa got a babysitting job because she thinks [[Literature/MaryPoppins all babysitters fly through the sky using an umbrella]].
* If Futo beats Mamizou in ''Hopeless Masquerade'', she states that she finds [[VideoGame/SuperMarioBros3 dressing like a tanuki giving one the ability to fly ridiculous]].
* In ''The Grimoire of Marisa'', she questions if riding keystones works like [[Manga/DragonBall The Flying Nimbus]].
* ''Alernative Facts in Eastern Utopia'' contains an ad spoofing [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hells_of_Beppu Hells of Beppu]].
* Raiko states in ''Double Dealing Character'' that people in the Outside World call skilled drummers "[[VideoGame/TaikoNoTatsujin Taiko Drum Masters]]". Coincidentally, actual Touhou arrangements have appeared in ''Taiko'' games beforehand.
* In Chapter 11 of ''Curiosities of Lotus Asia", Yukari finds what's implied to be an [=iPod=] Classic inside of Kourindou. She's the only one there who knows how to use it.
* Cirno's scene in ''Impossible Spell Card'' is titled "[[Anime/{{Doraemon}} Gee Cirno, You Sure Are Conceited]]"
* In ''Alternative Facts in Eastern Utopia'', Kokoro names a group of her masks "[[Music/{{AKB48}} KKR48]]".
* In ''Forbidden Scrollery'' Akyuu started writing detective novels under the pen name "[[Creator/AgathaChristie Agatha Chris Q]]".
** One of her novels was submitted in ''Alternative Facts in Eastern Utopia'' titled "[[Manga/MythicalDetectiveLokiRagnarok The Mythical Detective: Melissa]]". It's a straight up fanfiction, complete with suspiciously named [=OCs=].
* In ''The Grimoire of Usami'', Sumireko compares the zombie fairies in Orin's "Corpse Shopping District" Spell Card to ''Series/TheWalkingDead''.
* One of Reimu's skins in the fighting games makes her look like [[Franchise/LyricalNanoha Nanoha Takamachi]].
* Reisen has skins that make her look like various Music/{{Vocaloid}} characters. These include Music/HatsuneMiku, Rin Kagamine, Luka Megurine, Meiko, Kaito, Gakupo Kamui, and Gumi.
* If Komachi beats Patchouli in ''Scarlet Weather Rhapsody'' she mentions [[Manga/DeathNote a book that kills the person whose name is written in it]].
* When Mamizou uses "Transformation: Futatsuiwa Family's Clan" on Ichirin, she turns into [[Literature/JourneyToTheWest a monkey]].
* Eternity Larva's theme is named "[[Theatre/AMidsummerNightsDream A Midsummer Fairy's Dream]]".
* Kokoro has a costume that makes her look like [[VisualNovel/DanganronpaTriggerHappyHavoc Kyouko Kirigiri]].
* All of Yuyuko's "Resurrection Butterfly 'Reflowering'" spell cards also disable shooting for their duration, much like Stage 1 of ''VideoGame/RadiantSilvergun'', which also disables shooting as well. Furthering the connection, the editor's comment includes the phrase "Be Praying", the words of warning that appear before fighting against Xiga, ''Silvergun'''s penultimate boss.
* One of the Nicknames in Impossible Spell Card is "Strike Physically", and its description reads "Victory goes to the swift! Even if you don't raise your level, strike physically!", a TakeThat towards ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Last_Rebellion?wprov=sfla1 Last Rebellion]]'' and its notoriously broken level system.
* Jo'on's Last Word in ''Antinomy of Common Flowers'' has sound effects taken from ''VideoGame/SuperMarisaLand'', a fangame also developed by Creator/TwilightFrontier.
* If Sumireko beats Byakuren in ''Urban Legend in Limbo'', she says that Turbo Granny runs on her feet, not a motorcycle, and assumes Byakuren confused it with ComicBook/GhostRider.
* Alice has skins in the fighting games that makes her dolls look like characters from ''Manga/RozenMaiden''. In ''Scarlet Weather Rhapsody'', one made them look Hina-Ichigo. ''Hisoutensoku'' added ones that make them look like Suiseiseki, Souseiseki, Suigintou, Shinku, Kanaria, and Kirakishou.
* In Kasen's scenario in ''Urban Legend in Limbo'', Sumireko mentions [[VideoGame/YoKaiWatch children making whole collections of youkai]].
* One of Meiling's C bullet moves in ''Hisoutensoku'' is a carbon copy of [[VideoGame/TheKingOfFighters Krizalid's]] Typhoon Rage. This is the main reason why [[CrossoverShipping they're often paired up with each other in fanart]].

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