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# '''Solid Drawing''': Not "Solid" as in "Solid like granite", nor necessarily detailed or realistic drawing, but as in "solid geometry": space-occupying shapes with a defined form and an animateable, pliable mass. This essentially means having a mastery and proper understanding of drawing construction, perspective, form, anatomy and line control. Easily the most important of the principles, as it ideally allows the artist to draw and animate anything that comes to their mind--it is also highly encouraged by animators to learn to draw as well as possible before one should even consider learning how to animate. Disney films are commonly used as shorthand examples of solid drawing, such as Bill Tytla's animation of dwarfs in ''WesternAnimation/SnowWhite'', or just about any animation done by Creator/DisneysNineOldMen.

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# '''Solid Drawing''': Not "Solid" as in "Solid like granite", nor necessarily detailed or realistic drawing, but as in "solid geometry": space-occupying shapes with a defined form and an animateable, pliable mass. This essentially means having a mastery and proper understanding of drawing construction, perspective, form, anatomy and line control. Easily the most important of the principles, as it ideally allows the artist to draw and animate anything that comes to their mind--it is also highly encouraged by animators to learn to draw as well as possible before one should even consider learning how to animate. Disney films are commonly used as shorthand examples of solid drawing, such as Bill Tytla's animation of dwarfs in ''WesternAnimation/SnowWhite'', ''WesternAnimation/SnowWhiteAndTheSevenDwarfs'', or just about any animation done by Creator/DisneysNineOldMen.


# '''Follow Through and Overlapping Action''': Not all parts of the body move evenly together. Hard, bony parts move first and the fleshy parts have to catch up--this is demonstrated in the cheek animation of the Dwarfs in ''WesternAnimation/SnowWhite''. For another example, when a character swings from a rope, the legs drag behind the body. Clothing also drags with movement.

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# '''Follow Through and Overlapping Action''': Not all parts of the body move evenly together. Hard, bony parts move first and the fleshy parts have to catch up--this is demonstrated in the cheek animation of the Dwarfs in ''WesternAnimation/SnowWhite''.''WesternAnimation/SnowWhiteAndTheSevenDwarfs''. For another example, when a character swings from a rope, the legs drag behind the body. Clothing also drags with movement.


** The first is Physical Timing. This helps objects appear to have a believable, but not always realistic, sense of weight and mass to them. One efficient technique animators use to keep the timing of their characters consistent and believable is to time the walks or runs to the tempo of a metronome beat (i.e. 12x beat=a step after every 12 drawings for a normal walk, an 8x beat for a fast chase scene). This was universally used by all of the Golden Age studios; one notable example is its use in the ''WesternAnimation/TomAndJerry'' cartoons, as [[Creator/HannaBarbera Bill Hanna]] used this technique constantly on the series, which was part of what gave the shorts their break-neck, but crisp timing.

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** The first is Physical Timing. This helps objects appear to have a believable, but not always realistic, sense of weight and mass to them. One efficient technique animators use to keep the timing of their characters consistent and believable is to time the walks or runs to the tempo of a metronome beat (i.e. 12x beat=a step after every 12 drawings for a normal walk, an 8x beat for a fast chase scene). This was universally used by all of the Golden Age studios; one notable example is its constant use by [[Creator/HannaBarbera Bill Hanna]] in the ''WesternAnimation/TomAndJerry'' cartoons, as [[Creator/HannaBarbera Bill Hanna]] used this technique constantly on the series, which was part of what gave the shorts their break-neck, but crisp timing.



** The third is [[MickeyMousing Musical Timing.]] Not unlike the metronome technique, this can help an animator to not only plan out their animation or even the entire cartoon, but enhance the feeling and mood of it in motion, thus giving it a sensible structure. This principle is generally disregarded by modern animators as predictable and corny save for use in musical sequences, but some animators like Creator/GenndyTartakovsky and [[WesternAnimation/EdEddNEddy Danny Antonucci]] still use this principle to this day in any context they wish.

to:

** The third is [[MickeyMousing Musical Timing.]] Timing]]. Not unlike the metronome technique, this can help an animator to not only plan out their animation or even the entire cartoon, but enhance the feeling and mood of it in motion, thus giving it a sensible structure. This principle is generally disregarded by modern animators as predictable and corny save for use in musical sequences, but some animators like Creator/GenndyTartakovsky and [[WesternAnimation/EdEddNEddy Danny Antonucci]] still use this principle to this day in any context they wish.


# '''Squash and Stretch''': Gives the drawings weight and flexibility while maintaining volume, making them look very organic and natural. The classic bouncing ball test is a perfect demonstration of this principle (among others) and is often used as an entry lesson exam for beginning animators. Squash And Stretch is not "cartoony" in and of itself (some realistic animation has been known to use it, albeit in a much more subdued form), but it can, and is often, exaggerated for comic effect. This principle is usually avoided or downplayed in TV cartoons, save exceptions like ''WesternAnimation/EdEddNEddy'', being percieved as "Too expensive", or, misguidingly, as "Too cartoony".

to:

# '''Squash and Stretch''': Gives the drawings weight and flexibility while maintaining volume, making them look very organic and natural. The classic bouncing ball test is a perfect demonstration of this principle (among others) and is often used as an entry lesson exam for beginning animators. Squash And Stretch is not "cartoony" in and of itself (some realistic animation has been known to use it, albeit in a much more subdued form), but it can, can be, and is often, exaggerated for comic effect. This principle is usually avoided or downplayed in TV cartoons, save exceptions like ''WesternAnimation/EdEddNEddy'', being percieved as "Too expensive", or, misguidingly, as "Too cartoony".


# '''Anticipation''', '''Action''' and '''Reaction''', AKA '''Antic''': The preparation of what action is going to happen next. This allows actions to read for an audience, and it gives breathing room for the next action, so that the illustrated actions have contrast against each other and don't bleed together. For example, a baseball player readies his bat before he swings, or WesternAnimation/DonaldDuck prepares to launch himself into a run. A classic example of an antic is demonstrated [[https://web.archive.org/web/20161128210330/http://www.viz.tamu.edu/faculty/parke/ends489f00/section6/donald.gif by this image.]] Antics not only provide readability for an action, but can also enhance them or be interesting in and of themselves--from something as typical as a lurch before a WildTake, or as broad as a "Shrink Take" pioneered by Creator/{{Terrytoons}} animator Creator/JimTyer. Sometimes an antic can be avoided to add spontaneity to an action--an example of this would be a scene from the WesternAnimation/BugsBunny cartoon "Bugs Bonnets", when, as "Indian Bugs", he snaps out his arms to grab Elmer's rifle, with no antic. Animator Creator/BillTytla added two more steps to complete this principle; "Action", and "Reaction", all three serving as his basic rules of animation--an example of the latter two steps would be Fred Moore's animation of Donald Duck about to swing a bat at a piñata in "Disney/TheThreeCaballeros", where he anticipates, swings the bat and then abruptly screeches to a halt in mid-air.

to:

# '''Anticipation''', '''Action''' and '''Reaction''', AKA '''Antic''': The preparation of what action is going to happen next. This allows actions to read for an audience, and it gives breathing room for the next action, so that the illustrated actions have contrast against each other and don't bleed together. For example, a baseball player readies his bat before he swings, or WesternAnimation/DonaldDuck prepares to launch himself into a run. A classic example of an antic is demonstrated [[https://web.archive.org/web/20161128210330/http://www.viz.tamu.edu/faculty/parke/ends489f00/section6/donald.gif by this image.]] Antics not only provide readability for an action, but can also enhance them or be interesting in and of themselves--from something as typical as a lurch before a WildTake, or as broad as a "Shrink Take" pioneered by Creator/{{Terrytoons}} animator Creator/JimTyer. Sometimes an antic can be avoided to add spontaneity to an action--an example of this would be a scene from the WesternAnimation/BugsBunny cartoon "Bugs Bonnets", when, as "Indian Bugs", he snaps out his arms to grab Elmer's rifle, with no antic. Animator Creator/BillTytla added two more steps to complete this principle; "Action", and "Reaction", all three serving as his basic rules of animation--an example of the latter two steps would be Fred Moore's animation of Donald Duck about to swing a bat at a piñata in "Disney/TheThreeCaballeros", "WesternAnimation/TheThreeCaballeros", where he anticipates, swings the bat and then abruptly screeches to a halt in mid-air.



# '''Follow Through and Overlapping Action''': Not all parts of the body move evenly together. Hard, bony parts move first and the fleshy parts have to catch up--this is demonstrated in the cheek animation of the Dwarfs in ''Disney/SnowWhite''. For another example, when a character swings from a rope, the legs drag behind the body. Clothing also drags with movement.

to:

# '''Follow Through and Overlapping Action''': Not all parts of the body move evenly together. Hard, bony parts move first and the fleshy parts have to catch up--this is demonstrated in the cheek animation of the Dwarfs in ''Disney/SnowWhite''.''WesternAnimation/SnowWhite''. For another example, when a character swings from a rope, the legs drag behind the body. Clothing also drags with movement.



# '''Solid Drawing''': Not "Solid" as in "Solid like granite", nor necessarily detailed or realistic drawing, but as in "solid geometry": space-occupying shapes with a defined form and an animateable, pliable mass. This essentially means having a mastery and proper understanding of drawing construction, perspective, form, anatomy and line control. Easily the most important of the principles, as it ideally allows the artist to draw and animate anything that comes to their mind--it is also highly encouraged by animators to learn to draw as well as possible before one should even consider learning how to animate. Disney films are commonly used as shorthand examples of solid drawing, such as Bill Tytla's animation of dwarfs in ''Disney/SnowWhite'', or just about any animation done by Creator/DisneysNineOldMen.

to:

# '''Solid Drawing''': Not "Solid" as in "Solid like granite", nor necessarily detailed or realistic drawing, but as in "solid geometry": space-occupying shapes with a defined form and an animateable, pliable mass. This essentially means having a mastery and proper understanding of drawing construction, perspective, form, anatomy and line control. Easily the most important of the principles, as it ideally allows the artist to draw and animate anything that comes to their mind--it is also highly encouraged by animators to learn to draw as well as possible before one should even consider learning how to animate. Disney films are commonly used as shorthand examples of solid drawing, such as Bill Tytla's animation of dwarfs in ''Disney/SnowWhite'', ''WesternAnimation/SnowWhite'', or just about any animation done by Creator/DisneysNineOldMen.


Principles 6 to 12 pertain to the DisneySchoolOfActingAndMime.

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Principles 6 to 12 All principles except 3 and 9-12 also pertain to the DisneySchoolOfActingAndMime.


# '''Anticipation''', '''Action''' and '''Reaction''', AKA '''Antic''': The preparation of what action is going to happen next. This allows actions to read for an audience, and it gives breathing room for the next action, so that the illustrated actions have contrast against each other and don't bleed together. For example, a baseball player readies his bat before he swings, or WesternAnimation/DonaldDuck prepares to launch himself into a run. A classic example of an antic is demonstrated [[http://www.viz.tamu.edu/faculty/parke/ends489f00/section6/donald.gif by this image.]] Antics not only provide readability for an action, but can also enhance them or be interesting in and of themselves--from something as typical as a lurch before a WildTake, or as broad as a "Shrink Take" pioneered by Creator/{{Terrytoons}} animator Creator/JimTyer. Sometimes an antic can be avoided to add spontaneity to an action--an example of this would be a scene from the WesternAnimation/BugsBunny cartoon "Bugs Bonnets", when, as "Indian Bugs", he snaps out his arms to grab Elmer's rifle, with no antic. Animator Creator/BillTytla added two more steps to complete this principle; "Action", and "Reaction", all three serving as his basic rules of animation--an example of the latter two steps would be Fred Moore's animation of Donald Duck about to swing a bat at a piñata in "Disney/TheThreeCaballeros", where he anticipates, swings the bat and then abruptly screeches to a halt in mid-air.

to:

# '''Anticipation''', '''Action''' and '''Reaction''', AKA '''Antic''': The preparation of what action is going to happen next. This allows actions to read for an audience, and it gives breathing room for the next action, so that the illustrated actions have contrast against each other and don't bleed together. For example, a baseball player readies his bat before he swings, or WesternAnimation/DonaldDuck prepares to launch himself into a run. A classic example of an antic is demonstrated [[http://www.[[https://web.archive.org/web/20161128210330/http://www.viz.tamu.edu/faculty/parke/ends489f00/section6/donald.gif by this image.]] Antics not only provide readability for an action, but can also enhance them or be interesting in and of themselves--from something as typical as a lurch before a WildTake, or as broad as a "Shrink Take" pioneered by Creator/{{Terrytoons}} animator Creator/JimTyer. Sometimes an antic can be avoided to add spontaneity to an action--an example of this would be a scene from the WesternAnimation/BugsBunny cartoon "Bugs Bonnets", when, as "Indian Bugs", he snaps out his arms to grab Elmer's rifle, with no antic. Animator Creator/BillTytla added two more steps to complete this principle; "Action", and "Reaction", all three serving as his basic rules of animation--an example of the latter two steps would be Fred Moore's animation of Donald Duck about to swing a bat at a piñata in "Disney/TheThreeCaballeros", where he anticipates, swings the bat and then abruptly screeches to a halt in mid-air.


# '''Anticipation''', '''Action''' and '''Reaction''', AKA '''Antic''': The preparation of what action is going to happen next. This allows actions to read for an audience, and it gives breathing room for the next action, so that the illustrated actions have contrast against each other and don't bleed together. For example, a baseball player readies his bat before he swings, or WesternAnimation/DonaldDuck prepares to launch himself into a run. A classic example of an antic is demonstrated [[http://www.viz.tamu.edu/faculty/parke/ends489f00/section6/donald.gif by this image.]] Antics not only provide readability for an action, but can also enhance them or be interesting in and of themselves--from something as typical as a lurch before a WildTake, or as broad as a "Shrink Take" pioneered by Creator/{{Terrytoons}} animator Jim Tyer. Sometimes an antic can be avoided to add spontaneity to an action--an example of this would be a scene from the WesternAnimation/BugsBunny cartoon "Bugs Bonnets", when, as "Indian Bugs", he snaps out his arms to grab Elmer's rifle, with no antic. Animator Bill Tytla added two more steps to complete this principle; "Action", and "Reaction", all three serving as his basic rules of animation--an example of the latter two steps would be Fred Moore's animation of Donald Duck about to swing a bat at a piñata in "Disney/TheThreeCaballeros", where he anticipates, swings the bat and then abruptly screeches to a halt in mid-air.

to:

# '''Anticipation''', '''Action''' and '''Reaction''', AKA '''Antic''': The preparation of what action is going to happen next. This allows actions to read for an audience, and it gives breathing room for the next action, so that the illustrated actions have contrast against each other and don't bleed together. For example, a baseball player readies his bat before he swings, or WesternAnimation/DonaldDuck prepares to launch himself into a run. A classic example of an antic is demonstrated [[http://www.viz.tamu.edu/faculty/parke/ends489f00/section6/donald.gif by this image.]] Antics not only provide readability for an action, but can also enhance them or be interesting in and of themselves--from something as typical as a lurch before a WildTake, or as broad as a "Shrink Take" pioneered by Creator/{{Terrytoons}} animator Jim Tyer.Creator/JimTyer. Sometimes an antic can be avoided to add spontaneity to an action--an example of this would be a scene from the WesternAnimation/BugsBunny cartoon "Bugs Bonnets", when, as "Indian Bugs", he snaps out his arms to grab Elmer's rifle, with no antic. Animator Bill Tytla Creator/BillTytla added two more steps to complete this principle; "Action", and "Reaction", all three serving as his basic rules of animation--an example of the latter two steps would be Fred Moore's animation of Donald Duck about to swing a bat at a piñata in "Disney/TheThreeCaballeros", where he anticipates, swings the bat and then abruptly screeches to a halt in mid-air.



** The third is [[MickeyMousing Musical Timing.]] Not unlike the metronome technique, this can help an animator to not only plan out their animation or even the entire cartoon, but enhance the feeling and mood of it in motion, thus giving it a sensible structure. This principle is generally disregarded by modern animators as predictable and corny save for use in musical sequences, but some animators like Creator/GenndyTartakovsky, [[WesternAnimation/EdEddNEddy Danny Antonucci]] and Creator/JohnKricfalusi still use this principle to this day in any context they wish.

to:

** The third is [[MickeyMousing Musical Timing.]] Not unlike the metronome technique, this can help an animator to not only plan out their animation or even the entire cartoon, but enhance the feeling and mood of it in motion, thus giving it a sensible structure. This principle is generally disregarded by modern animators as predictable and corny save for use in musical sequences, but some animators like Creator/GenndyTartakovsky, Creator/GenndyTartakovsky and [[WesternAnimation/EdEddNEddy Danny Antonucci]] and Creator/JohnKricfalusi still use this principle to this day in any context they wish.



# '''Appeal''': Easily the most subjective principle, this essentially means giving the characters, good or bad, some charismatic aspect to like about them. Solid Drawing and carefully balanced designs and shapes can be appealing in and of themselves, although there are certainly far more ways to find appeal than that. It can range from being merely pretty or cute to being [[UglyCute sardonic]] or even [[NightmareFetishist eerie in its charisma.]] Animation artists with notably dynamic appeal included Fred Moore and Mary Blair for the cuter side, and Creator/WardKimball, Creator/TimBurton, Creator/JohnKricfalusi and Creator/RalphBakshi for the more sardonic side of the scale.

to:

# '''Appeal''': Easily the most subjective principle, this essentially means giving the characters, good or bad, some charismatic aspect to like about them. Solid Drawing and carefully balanced designs and shapes can be appealing in and of themselves, although there are certainly far more ways to find appeal than that. It can range from being merely pretty or cute to being [[UglyCute sardonic]] or even [[NightmareFetishist eerie in its charisma.]] Animation artists with notably dynamic appeal included Fred Moore and Mary Blair for the cuter side, and Creator/WardKimball, Creator/TimBurton, Creator/JohnKricfalusi Creator/TimBurton and Creator/RalphBakshi for the more sardonic side of the scale.


The principles in question are: [[note]]The order listed here was suggested by Creator/JohnKricfalusi according to what he considered important, using [[http://johnkstuff.blogspot.com/2009/03/essential-principals-vs-extras-will.html this post]]. The original order is noted below[[/note]]
# '''Solid Drawing'''[[note]]11[[/note]]: Not "Solid" as in "Solid like granite", nor necessarily detailed or realistic drawing, but as in "solid geometry": space-occupying shapes with a defined form and an animateable, pliable mass. This essentially means having a mastery and proper understanding of drawing construction, perspective, form, anatomy and line control. Easily the most important of the principles, as it ideally allows the artist to draw and animate anything that comes to their mind--it is also highly encouraged by animators to learn to draw as well as possible before one should even consider learning how to animate. Disney films are commonly used as shorthand examples of solid drawing, such as Bill Tytla's animation of dwarfs in ''Disney/SnowWhite'', or just about any animation done by Creator/DisneysNineOldMen.
# '''Appeal'''[[note]]12[[/note]]: Easily the most subjective principle, this essentially means giving the characters, good or bad, some charismatic aspect to like about them. Solid Drawing and carefully balanced designs and shapes can be appealing in and of themselves, although there are certainly far more ways to find appeal than that. It can range from being merely pretty or cute to being [[UglyCute sardonic]] or even [[NightmareFetishist eerie in its charisma.]] Animation artists with notably dynamic appeal included Fred Moore and Mary Blair for the cuter side, and Creator/WardKimball, Creator/TimBurton, Creator/JohnKricfalusi and Creator/RalphBakshi for the more sardonic side of the scale.
# '''Exaggeration'''[[note]]10[[/note]]: Distortion of the drawings from their real life counterparts, be it in their designs or motion, often for comedic effect. Classic cartoon tropes such as SuperSpeed, the WildTake and the [[MotionBlur smear]] are some of many examples of this. Some of the animation principles, particularly squash & stretch, can be exaggerated for not only comedic effect, but to bring out more timing, weight, power and emotion in one's drawings, bringing a rich subtlety to animation that allows it to hold its own against live action--the animation of Bill Tytla, Creator/BobClampett, Creator/JimTyer and Creator/DonBluth for instance demonstrates this clearly. Exaggeration is not limited to motion either: it can likewise apply to not only the design and art direction of a show, but its subtext as well, such as in Creator/RalphBakshi's WesternAnimation/HeavyTraffic, which is a semi-autobiographical animated film, but features plenty of surreal visual hyperbole to put across the film's satirical undertones.
# '''Staging'''[[note]]3[[/note]]: The presentation of an idea, scene, or action so that it is unmistakably clear, or directing the audience's attention to what is most important in a scene, what is happening, or what is about to happen. Only present one idea at a time to ensure your audience does not get confused and can register the presented idea clearly. This can extend from using negative spaces and broad gestures in your characters' movements and expressions, to as far as tailoring an entire background and layout around an action for the sake of clarity. Has close ties to the "Anticipation" principle. Timing also plays an important role in staging--Creator/TexAvery for instance would have certain poses "held" on screen for a few frames, giving certain takes just enough time for the audience to read them clearly.
# '''Timing'''[[note]]9[[/note]]: Three versions:

to:

The principles in question are: [[note]]The order listed here was suggested by Creator/JohnKricfalusi according to what he considered important, using [[http://johnkstuff.blogspot.com/2009/03/essential-principals-vs-extras-will.html this post]]. The original order is noted below[[/note]]
are:
# '''Solid Drawing'''[[note]]11[[/note]]: Not "Solid" as in "Solid like granite", nor necessarily detailed or realistic drawing, but as in "solid geometry": space-occupying shapes with a defined form '''Squash and an animateable, pliable mass. This essentially means having a mastery and proper understanding of drawing construction, perspective, form, anatomy and line control. Easily the most important of the principles, as it ideally allows the artist to draw and animate anything that comes to their mind--it is also highly encouraged by animators to learn to draw as well as possible before one should even consider learning how to animate. Disney films are commonly used as shorthand examples of solid drawing, such as Bill Tytla's animation of dwarfs in ''Disney/SnowWhite'', or just about any animation done by Creator/DisneysNineOldMen.
# '''Appeal'''[[note]]12[[/note]]: Easily the most subjective principle, this essentially means giving the characters, good or bad, some charismatic aspect to like about them. Solid Drawing and carefully balanced designs and shapes can be appealing in and of themselves, although there are certainly far more ways to find appeal than that. It can range from being merely pretty or cute to being [[UglyCute sardonic]] or even [[NightmareFetishist eerie in its charisma.]] Animation artists with notably dynamic appeal included Fred Moore and Mary Blair for the cuter side, and Creator/WardKimball, Creator/TimBurton, Creator/JohnKricfalusi and Creator/RalphBakshi for the more sardonic side of the scale.
# '''Exaggeration'''[[note]]10[[/note]]: Distortion of
Stretch''': Gives the drawings from their real life counterparts, be it in their designs or motion, weight and flexibility while maintaining volume, making them look very organic and natural. The classic bouncing ball test is a perfect demonstration of this principle (among others) and is often used as an entry lesson exam for comedic effect. Classic cartoon tropes such as SuperSpeed, the WildTake beginning animators. Squash And Stretch is not "cartoony" in and the [[MotionBlur smear]] are some of many examples of this. Some of the itself (some realistic animation principles, particularly squash & stretch, can be has been known to use it, albeit in a much more subdued form), but it can, and is often, exaggerated for comic effect. This principle is usually avoided or downplayed in TV cartoons, save exceptions like ''WesternAnimation/EdEddNEddy'', being percieved as "Too expensive", or, misguidingly, as "Too cartoony".
# '''Anticipation''', '''Action''' and '''Reaction''', AKA '''Antic''': The preparation of what action is going to happen next. This allows actions to read for an audience, and it gives breathing room for the next action, so that the illustrated actions have contrast against each other and don't bleed together. For example, a baseball player readies his bat before he swings, or WesternAnimation/DonaldDuck prepares to launch himself into a run. A classic example of an antic is demonstrated [[http://www.viz.tamu.edu/faculty/parke/ends489f00/section6/donald.gif by this image.]] Antics
not only comedic effect, provide readability for an action, but can also enhance them or be interesting in and of themselves--from something as typical as a lurch before a WildTake, or as broad as a "Shrink Take" pioneered by Creator/{{Terrytoons}} animator Jim Tyer. Sometimes an antic can be avoided to bring add spontaneity to an action--an example of this would be a scene from the WesternAnimation/BugsBunny cartoon "Bugs Bonnets", when, as "Indian Bugs", he snaps out his arms to grab Elmer's rifle, with no antic. Animator Bill Tytla added two more timing, weight, power steps to complete this principle; "Action", and emotion in one's drawings, bringing a rich subtlety to animation that allows it to hold its own against live action--the "Reaction", all three serving as his basic rules of animation--an example of the latter two steps would be Fred Moore's animation of Bill Tytla, Creator/BobClampett, Creator/JimTyer Donald Duck about to swing a bat at a piñata in "Disney/TheThreeCaballeros", where he anticipates, swings the bat and Creator/DonBluth for instance demonstrates this clearly. Exaggeration is not limited then abruptly screeches to motion either: it can likewise apply to not only the design and art direction of a show, but its subtext as well, such as halt in Creator/RalphBakshi's WesternAnimation/HeavyTraffic, which is a semi-autobiographical animated film, but features plenty of surreal visual hyperbole to put across the film's satirical undertones.
mid-air.
# '''Staging'''[[note]]3[[/note]]: '''Staging''': The presentation of an idea, scene, or action so that it is unmistakably clear, or directing the audience's attention to what is most important in a scene, what is happening, or what is about to happen. Only present one idea at a time to ensure your audience does not get confused and can register the presented idea clearly. This can extend from using negative spaces and broad gestures in your characters' movements and expressions, to as far as tailoring an entire background and layout around an action for the sake of clarity. Has close ties to the "Anticipation" principle. Timing also plays an important role in staging--Creator/TexAvery for instance would have certain poses "held" on screen for a few frames, giving certain takes just enough time for the audience to read them clearly.
# '''Timing'''[[note]]9[[/note]]: '''Straight Ahead Action and Pose to Pose''': Either drawing each frame in a linear sequence or planning key poses ahead of time and filling them in. A combo of those two things is sometimes used. Pose to pose can be good preparation (and a good work saver) for an animator, but if done carelessly, can rob an action of vitality. Straight ahead can easily add spontaneity to animation, but is often much more time consuming to refine after the work is done.
# '''Follow Through and Overlapping Action''': Not all parts of the body move evenly together. Hard, bony parts move first and the fleshy parts have to catch up--this is demonstrated in the cheek animation of the Dwarfs in ''Disney/SnowWhite''. For another example, when a character swings from a rope, the legs drag behind the body. Clothing also drags with movement.
# '''Slow In and Slow Out''': A more specific variation of the Timing Principle--Every object needs time to both accelerate and slow down and everything is either accelerating or decelerating. This helps out with spacing in animation, which is essential for life-like smoothness and keeping your animation from looking mechanical and weightless.
# '''Arcs''': The lines of movement for paths of action, to make the movement feel natural instead of mechanical. Sometimes the arcs can be drawn out to aid the path of movement, with x marks dotting where the in-between drawings go.
# '''Secondary Action''': An extra action that helps support the primary action (i.e. walking). For example, a man is whistling while he walks, or Doc the Dwarf's cheeks drag as he turns his head.
# '''Timing''':
Three versions:



# '''Straight Ahead Action and Pose to Pose'''[[note]]4[[/note]]: Either drawing each frame in a linear sequence or planning key poses ahead of time and filling them in. A combo of those two things is sometimes used. Pose to pose can be good preparation (and a good work saver) for an animator, but if done carelessly, can rob an action of vitality. Straight ahead can easily add spontaneity to animation, but is often much more time consuming to refine after the work is done.
# '''Anticipation''', '''Action''' and '''Reaction''', AKA '''Antic'''[[note]]2[[/note]]: The preparation of what action is going to happen next. This allows actions to read for an audience, and it gives breathing room for the next action, so that the illustrated actions have contrast against each other and don't bleed together. For example, a baseball player readies his bat before he swings, or WesternAnimation/DonaldDuck prepares to launch himself into a run. A classic example of an antic is demonstrated [[http://www.viz.tamu.edu/faculty/parke/ends489f00/section6/donald.gif by this image.]] Antics not only provide readability for an action, but can also enhance them or be interesting in and of themselves--from something as typical as a lurch before a WildTake, or as broad as a "Shrink Take" pioneered by Creator/{{Terrytoons}} animator Jim Tyer. Sometimes an antic can be avoided to add spontaneity to an action--an example of this would be a scene from the WesternAnimation/BugsBunny cartoon "Bugs Bonnets", when, as "Indian Bugs", he snaps out his arms to grab Elmer's rifle, with no antic. Animator Bill Tytla added two more steps to complete this principle; "Action", and "Reaction", all three serving as his basic rules of animation--an example of the latter two steps would be Fred Moore's animation of Donald Duck about to swing a bat at a piñata in "Disney/TheThreeCaballeros", where he anticipates, swings the bat and then abruptly screeches to a halt in mid-air.
# '''Squash and Stretch'''[[note]]1[[/note]]: Gives the drawings weight and flexibility while maintaining volume, making them look very organic and natural. The classic bouncing ball test is a perfect demonstration of this principle (among others) and is often used as an entry lesson exam for beginning animators. Squash And Stretch is not "cartoony" in and of itself (some realistic animation has been known to use it, albeit in a much more subdued form), but it can, and is often, exaggerated for comic effect. This principle is usually avoided or downplayed in TV cartoons, save exceptions like ''WesternAnimation/EdEddNEddy'', being percieved as "Too expensive", or, misguidingly, as "Too cartoony".
# '''Arcs'''[[note]]7[[/note]]: The lines of movement for paths of action, to make the movement feel natural instead of mechanical. Sometimes the arcs can be drawn out to aid the path of movement, with x marks dotting where the in-between drawings go.
# '''Secondary Action'''[[note]]8[[/note]]: An extra action that helps support the primary action (i.e. walking). For example, a man is whistling while he walks, or Doc the Dwarf's cheeks drag as he turns his head.
# '''Slow In and Slow Out'''[[note]]6[[/note]]: A more specific variation of the Timing Principle--Every object needs time to both accelerate and slow down and everything is either accelerating or decelerating. This helps out with spacing in animation, which is essential for life-like smoothness and keeping your animation from looking mechanical and weightless.
# '''Follow Through and Overlapping Action'''[[note]]5[[/note]]: Not all parts of the body move evenly together. Hard, bony parts move first and the fleshy parts have to catch up--this is demonstrated in the cheek animation of the Dwarfs in ''Disney/SnowWhite''. For another example, when a character swings from a rope, the legs drag behind the body. Clothing also drags with movement.

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# '''Straight Ahead Action and Pose to Pose'''[[note]]4[[/note]]: Either drawing each frame in a linear sequence or planning key poses ahead '''Exaggeration''': Distortion of time and filling them in. A combo of those two things is sometimes used. Pose to pose can be good preparation (and a good work saver) for an animator, but if done carelessly, can rob an action of vitality. Straight ahead can easily add spontaneity to animation, but is often much more time consuming to refine after the work is done.
# '''Anticipation''', '''Action''' and '''Reaction''', AKA '''Antic'''[[note]]2[[/note]]: The preparation of what action is going to happen next. This allows actions to read for an audience, and it gives breathing room for the next action, so that the illustrated actions have contrast against each other and don't bleed together. For example, a baseball player readies his bat before he swings, or WesternAnimation/DonaldDuck prepares to launch himself into a run. A classic example of an antic is demonstrated [[http://www.viz.tamu.edu/faculty/parke/ends489f00/section6/donald.gif by this image.]] Antics not only provide readability for an action, but can also enhance them or be interesting in and of themselves--from something as typical as a lurch before a WildTake, or as broad as a "Shrink Take" pioneered by Creator/{{Terrytoons}} animator Jim Tyer. Sometimes an antic can be avoided to add spontaneity to an action--an example of this would be a scene from the WesternAnimation/BugsBunny cartoon "Bugs Bonnets", when, as "Indian Bugs", he snaps out his arms to grab Elmer's rifle, with no antic. Animator Bill Tytla added two more steps to complete this principle; "Action", and "Reaction", all three serving as his basic rules of animation--an example of the latter two steps would be Fred Moore's animation of Donald Duck about to swing a bat at a piñata in "Disney/TheThreeCaballeros", where he anticipates, swings the bat and then abruptly screeches to a halt in mid-air.
# '''Squash and Stretch'''[[note]]1[[/note]]: Gives
the drawings weight and flexibility while maintaining volume, making them look very organic and natural. The classic bouncing ball test is a perfect demonstration of this principle (among others) and is from their real life counterparts, be it in their designs or motion, often used as an entry lesson exam for beginning animators. Squash And Stretch is not "cartoony" in comedic effect. Classic cartoon tropes such as SuperSpeed, the WildTake and the [[MotionBlur smear]] are some of itself (some realistic many examples of this. Some of the animation has been known to use it, albeit in a much more subdued form), but it can, and is often, principles, particularly squash & stretch, can be exaggerated for comic effect. This principle is usually avoided or downplayed in TV cartoons, save exceptions like ''WesternAnimation/EdEddNEddy'', being percieved as "Too expensive", or, misguidingly, as "Too cartoony".
# '''Arcs'''[[note]]7[[/note]]: The lines of movement for paths of action,
not only comedic effect, but to make the movement feel natural instead of mechanical. Sometimes the arcs can be drawn bring out to aid the path of movement, with x marks dotting where the in-between drawings go.
# '''Secondary Action'''[[note]]8[[/note]]: An extra action that helps support the primary action (i.e. walking). For example, a man is whistling while he walks, or Doc the Dwarf's cheeks drag as he turns his head.
# '''Slow In and Slow Out'''[[note]]6[[/note]]: A
more specific variation of the Timing Principle--Every object needs time to both accelerate timing, weight, power and slow down and everything is either accelerating or decelerating. This helps out with spacing emotion in animation, which is essential for life-like smoothness and keeping your one's drawings, bringing a rich subtlety to animation from looking mechanical and weightless.
# '''Follow Through and Overlapping Action'''[[note]]5[[/note]]: Not all parts of the body move evenly together. Hard, bony parts move first and the fleshy parts have
that allows it to catch up--this is demonstrated in the cheek hold its own against live action--the animation of Bill Tytla, Creator/BobClampett, Creator/JimTyer and Creator/DonBluth for instance demonstrates this clearly. Exaggeration is not limited to motion either: it can likewise apply to not only the Dwarfs design and art direction of a show, but its subtext as well, such as in ''Disney/SnowWhite''. For another example, when Creator/RalphBakshi's WesternAnimation/HeavyTraffic, which is a character swings semi-autobiographical animated film, but features plenty of surreal visual hyperbole to put across the film's satirical undertones.
# '''Solid Drawing''': Not "Solid" as in "Solid like granite", nor necessarily detailed or realistic drawing, but as in "solid geometry": space-occupying shapes with a defined form and an animateable, pliable mass. This essentially means having a mastery and proper understanding of drawing construction, perspective, form, anatomy and line control. Easily the most important of the principles, as it ideally allows the artist to draw and animate anything that comes to their mind--it is also highly encouraged by animators to learn to draw as well as possible before one should even consider learning how to animate. Disney films are commonly used as shorthand examples of solid drawing, such as Bill Tytla's animation of dwarfs in ''Disney/SnowWhite'', or just about any animation done by Creator/DisneysNineOldMen.
# '''Appeal''': Easily the most subjective principle, this essentially means giving the characters, good or bad, some charismatic aspect to like about them. Solid Drawing and carefully balanced designs and shapes can be appealing in and of themselves, although there are certainly far more ways to find appeal than that. It can range
from a rope, the legs drag behind the body. Clothing also drags being merely pretty or cute to being [[UglyCute sardonic]] or even [[NightmareFetishist eerie in its charisma.]] Animation artists with movement.
notably dynamic appeal included Fred Moore and Mary Blair for the cuter side, and Creator/WardKimball, Creator/TimBurton, Creator/JohnKricfalusi and Creator/RalphBakshi for the more sardonic side of the scale.


# '''Appeal'''[[note]]12[[/note]]: Easily the most subjective principle, this essentially means giving the characters, good or bad, some charismatic aspect to like about them. Solid Drawing and carefully balanced designs and shapes can be appealing in and of themselves, although there are certainly far more ways to find appeal than that. It can range from being merely pretty or cute to being [[UglyCute sardonic]] or even [[NightmareFetishist eerie in its charisma.]] Animation artists with notably dynamic appeal included Fred Moore and Mary Blair for the cuter side, and [[Creator/DisneysNineOldMen Ward Kimball]], Creator/TimBurton, Creator/JohnKricfalusi and Creator/RalphBakshi for the more sardonic side of the scale.

to:

# '''Appeal'''[[note]]12[[/note]]: Easily the most subjective principle, this essentially means giving the characters, good or bad, some charismatic aspect to like about them. Solid Drawing and carefully balanced designs and shapes can be appealing in and of themselves, although there are certainly far more ways to find appeal than that. It can range from being merely pretty or cute to being [[UglyCute sardonic]] or even [[NightmareFetishist eerie in its charisma.]] Animation artists with notably dynamic appeal included Fred Moore and Mary Blair for the cuter side, and [[Creator/DisneysNineOldMen Ward Kimball]], Creator/WardKimball, Creator/TimBurton, Creator/JohnKricfalusi and Creator/RalphBakshi for the more sardonic side of the scale.


[[caption-width-right:350:The trope naming page, taken from Literature/TheIllusionOfLife: Disney Animation.]]

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[[caption-width-right:350:The trope naming page, original list, taken from Literature/TheIllusionOfLife: Disney Animation.]]

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[[quoteright:350:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/principles_of_animation1.jpg]]
[[caption-width-right:350:The trope naming page, taken from Literature/TheIllusionOfLife: Disney Animation.]]


TropeNamer is the [[Creator/DisneysNineOldMen Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston]] book ''Literature/TheIllusionOfLife: Disney Animation''.

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TropeNamer is the [[Creator/DisneysNineOldMen Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston]] book ''Literature/TheIllusionOfLife: Disney Animation''.
Animation'', where the third chapter, the most famous part of the book, covers these principles.


# '''Exaggeration'''[[note]]10[[/note]]: Distortion of the drawings from their real life counterparts, be it in their designs or motion, often for comedic effect. Classic cartoon tropes such as SuperSpeed, the WildTake and the [[MotionBlur smear]] are some of many examples of this. Some of the animation principles, particularly squash & stretch, can be exaggerated for not only comedic effect, but to bring out more timing, weight, power and emotion in one's drawings, bringing a rich subtlety to animation that allows it to hold its own against live action--the animation of Bill Tytla, Creator/BobClampett, Creator/Jim Tyer and Creator/DonBluth for instance demonstrates this clearly. Exaggeration is not limited to motion either: it can likewise apply to not only the design and art direction of a show, but its subtext as well, such as in Creator/RalphBakshi's WesternAnimation/HeavyTraffic, which is a semi-autobiographical animated film, but features plenty of surreal visual hyperbole to put across the film's satirical undertones.

to:

# '''Exaggeration'''[[note]]10[[/note]]: Distortion of the drawings from their real life counterparts, be it in their designs or motion, often for comedic effect. Classic cartoon tropes such as SuperSpeed, the WildTake and the [[MotionBlur smear]] are some of many examples of this. Some of the animation principles, particularly squash & stretch, can be exaggerated for not only comedic effect, but to bring out more timing, weight, power and emotion in one's drawings, bringing a rich subtlety to animation that allows it to hold its own against live action--the animation of Bill Tytla, Creator/BobClampett, Creator/Jim Tyer Creator/JimTyer and Creator/DonBluth for instance demonstrates this clearly. Exaggeration is not limited to motion either: it can likewise apply to not only the design and art direction of a show, but its subtext as well, such as in Creator/RalphBakshi's WesternAnimation/HeavyTraffic, which is a semi-autobiographical animated film, but features plenty of surreal visual hyperbole to put across the film's satirical undertones.


# '''Exaggeration'''[[note]]10[[/note]]: Distortion of the drawings from their real life counterparts, be it in their designs or motion, often for comedic effect. Classic cartoon tropes such as SuperSpeed, the WildTake and the [[MotionBlur smear]] are some of many examples of this. Some of the animation principles, particularly squash & stretch, can be exaggerated for not only comedic effect, but to bring out more timing, weight, power and emotion in one's drawings, bringing a rich subtlety to animation that allows it to hold its own against live action--the animation of Bill Tytla, Creator/BobClampett, [[Creator/{{Terrytoons}} Jim Tyer]] and Creator/DonBluth for instance demonstrates this clearly. Exaggeration is not limited to motion either: it can likewise apply to not only the design and art direction of a show, but its subtext as well, such as in Creator/RalphBakshi's WesternAnimation/HeavyTraffic, which is a semi-autobiographical animated film, but features plenty of surreal visual hyperbole to put across the film's satirical undertones.

to:

# '''Exaggeration'''[[note]]10[[/note]]: Distortion of the drawings from their real life counterparts, be it in their designs or motion, often for comedic effect. Classic cartoon tropes such as SuperSpeed, the WildTake and the [[MotionBlur smear]] are some of many examples of this. Some of the animation principles, particularly squash & stretch, can be exaggerated for not only comedic effect, but to bring out more timing, weight, power and emotion in one's drawings, bringing a rich subtlety to animation that allows it to hold its own against live action--the animation of Bill Tytla, Creator/BobClampett, [[Creator/{{Terrytoons}} Jim Tyer]] Creator/Jim Tyer and Creator/DonBluth for instance demonstrates this clearly. Exaggeration is not limited to motion either: it can likewise apply to not only the design and art direction of a show, but its subtext as well, such as in Creator/RalphBakshi's WesternAnimation/HeavyTraffic, which is a semi-autobiographical animated film, but features plenty of surreal visual hyperbole to put across the film's satirical undertones.

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