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* When ''Literature/MartianTimeSlip'' was first published in TheSixties, autism was believed to be the same thing as childhood schizophrenia. It's now known that the two conditions are unrelated.



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* An actual plot point in the film version of ''Film/TheGeneralsDaughter''. In 1992, the Army leadership covered up a rape of a cadet, as they believed that there was no way to positively identify the rapists, and an unsolvable rape would destroy West Point's reputation. Seven years later, with advances in DNA testing methods, Sunhill convinces one of the rapists to rat out the others. [[spoiler: No DNA test had actually been done; Sunhill only said that DNA testing could expose the rapists.]]


* Another Creator/IsaacAsimov work, ''Pebble in the Sky'', cites this in the afterword in later editions:
** "''Pebble In The Sky'' was written in 1949 and first published in 1950. At that time, only four years after Hiroshima, I (and the world, generally, I believe) underestimated the effects on living tissue of low-level radioactivity. I thought it, at the time, to be a legitimate speculation that Earth might be generally radioactive and that human life could nevertheless survive. I no longer think so, but it is impossible to change the book since the radioactivity of Earth is essential to the plot. I can only ask you to continue to suspend your disbelief in that respect and enjoy the book (assuming you do) on your own terms." - Isaac Asimov

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* Another Creator/IsaacAsimov work, ''Pebble in the Sky'', cites this in the afterword in later editions:
**
editions: "''Pebble In The Sky'' was written in 1949 and first published in 1950. At that time, only four years after Hiroshima, I (and the world, generally, I believe) underestimated the effects on living tissue of low-level radioactivity. I thought it, at the time, to be a legitimate speculation that Earth might be generally radioactive and that human life could nevertheless survive. I no longer think so, but it is impossible to change the book since the radioactivity of Earth is essential to the plot. I can only ask you to continue to suspend your disbelief in that respect and enjoy the book (assuming you do) on your own terms." - Isaac Asimov

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* In one episode of ''Series/StarTrekDeepSpaceNine'', a clue to a bizarre phenomenon turns out to be the spin direction of the neutrinos on the station, working from the premise that "Given the laws of probability, from any point of view, about half of them should be spinning clockwise and the other half counterclockwise." It was later discovered that all neutrinos actually spin in the same direction.


* In an episode of ''Series/StarTrekTheNextGeneration'' Worf comes down with a disease most Klingons get as children. Dr. Polaski compares it to measles, implying that even centuries into the future measles is a common childhood disease, while in actuality measles is now almost unknown in the US at least thanks to vaccines. Thanks to anti-vaccination campaigners, measles outbreaks are on the uptick again.

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* In an episode of ''Series/StarTrekTheNextGeneration'' Worf comes down with a disease most Klingons get as children. Dr. Polaski Pulaski compares it to measles, implying that even centuries into the future measles is a common childhood disease, while in actuality measles is now almost unknown in the US at least thanks to vaccines. Thanks Although thanks to anti-vaccination campaigners, measles outbreaks are on the uptick again.

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[[AC:WebOriginal]]
* In the ''WebOriginal/ProtectorsOfThePlotContinuum'' mission "Eyes of Fire", the MarySue was called Astarai, and the following exchange ensued:
-->"Well," I said thoughtfully, "we learnt that the creepy necklace is Astatine's way of communicating with the wizard, that she's meant to hand Legolas over to the wizard, that Aragorn was able to tell Legolas his own name, and… what?" I stopped when Lou looked at me, amused. "What?"\\
"Oh, it's just that name – Astatine. It's funny."\\
I blinked. "Er, thank you," I said, "but I just made it up. I-"\\
"It's an element," Lou said, to my surprise. "Heaviest of the halogens, a group including several poisons, it's black and highly unstable."
** At the time the mission was written, Astatine ''was'' the heaviest of the halogens. In TheNewTeens, Tennessine took that title.

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* ''WebOriginal/Sagan4'': Seen occasionally in the original, and surprisingly less often than one might expect from a project with so many young contributors. The reboot is so new that there are no examples from it yet, but they will inevitably happen eventually.
** Though later retconned to have bones, Plents originally walked on thick muscular tentacles. Since then, such limbs working on land has been questioned and proven to not be possible.
** The locomotion transition rules stated that a species must glide before it can evolve flight. Since then, scientific study into the origins of flight have suggested that flight does not come from gliding--it comes from parachuting. To reflect this, in the reboot the rule has been revised to require parachuting instead.


* The golden age version of the ComicBook/TheFlash got his super-speed powers from inhaling hard water vapors. No, not ''[[ILoveNuclearPower heavy]]'' [[ILoveNuclearPower water]], (though that would be equally absurd) ''hard'' water, as in water that has a high mineral content. At the time it was thought that ingesting hard water would somehow heighten one's reflexes.

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* The golden age version of the ComicBook/TheFlash got his super-speed powers from inhaling hard water vapors. No, not ''[[ILoveNuclearPower heavy]]'' [[ILoveNuclearPower water]], water]] (though that would be equally absurd) absurd), ''hard'' water, as in water that has a high mineral content. At the time it was thought that ingesting hard water would somehow heighten one's reflexes.


** In the original French version of the novel, the iconic giant tentacled sea monsters were actually ''octopuses'' (or ''"poulps"'' in French). Since the book's publication, though, marine biology has concluded that there probably aren't any real species of octopus that grow to the gigantic proportions seen in the book--even in the deep ocean. This is likely why most modern English translations refer to the creatures as "squids" instead; marine biology has shown that certain species of squid actually ''are'' that big.


* John Varley's novel ''Millennium'' was about time travelers who go back to the past to rescue people who are about to die in accidents. If they have to, they take people off of a vehicle before its destruction but it's much easier to just bring the vehicle itself forward in time if it was historically never found after its destruction. Varley uses the Titanic as an example of a ship that the time travelers were able to bring to the future because it was never found. The novel was published in 1983, just two years before the wreckage of the Titanic was found.

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* John Varley's novel ''Millennium'' ''Literature/{{Millennium}}'' was about time travelers who go back to the past to rescue people who are about to die in accidents. If they have to, they take people off of a vehicle before its destruction but it's much easier to just bring the vehicle itself forward in time if it was historically never found after its destruction. Varley uses the Titanic as an example of a ship that the time travelers were able to bring to the future because it was never found. The novel was published in 1983, just two years before the wreckage of the Titanic was found.


** Referenced in the ''Series/StargateSG1'' episode "The Torment of Tantalus". A 1940s scientist, stranded on another planet for fifty years, discovers through alien records that there are 146 basic elements. The main characters (from the 1990s) tell him that Earth science only recognizes 107 basic elements, to which he nonchalantly replies, "only ninety when I last looked". [[note]] [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranium Ninety-two]], to be exact.[[//note]]

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** Referenced in the ''Series/StargateSG1'' episode "The Torment of Tantalus". A 1940s scientist, stranded on another planet for fifty years, discovers through alien records that there are 146 basic elements. The main characters (from the 1990s) tell him that Earth science only recognizes 107 basic elements, to which he nonchalantly replies, "only ninety when I last looked". [[note]] [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranium Ninety-two]], to be exact.[[//note]][[/note]]


* In the ''Series/StarTrekTheNextGeneration'' episode " [[{{Recap/StarTrekTheNextGenerationS5E12Violations}} Violations]]" Geordi and Data are discussing human memories, and explicitly state that memories are stored as RNA molecules in the brain. Although we still do not know exactly how memory functions, we can by now fairly safely say that our memories are not stored as individual strings of RNA.

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* In the ''Series/StarTrekTheNextGeneration'' episode " [[{{Recap/StarTrekTheNextGenerationS5E12Violations}} "[[Recap/StarTrekTheNextGenerationS5E12Violations Violations]]" Geordi and Data are discussing human memories, and explicitly state that memories are stored as RNA molecules in the brain. Although we still do not know exactly how memory functions, we can by now fairly safely say that our memories are not stored as individual strings of RNA.


*** The ''Dilophosaurus'' is about half the size of the actual animal, and is portrayed with a neck frill and venom glands for which there is no evidence at all in the fossil record. The former, at least, is implied to be due to the one Nedry runs into being a juvenile (i.e. "I though you were one of your big brothers").

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*** The ''Dilophosaurus'' is about half the size of the actual animal, and is portrayed with a neck frill and venom glands for which there is no evidence at all in the fossil record. The former, at least, is implied to be due to the one Nedry runs into being a juvenile (i.e. "I though thought you were one of your big brothers").



* ''Literature/AfterManyASummer'' by ''Creator/AldousHuxley'' is based on the "neotenous ape" theory which held that humans were mutations based on ape babies which didn't grow up . A character in the book has lived several hundred tears, but paid the price by becoming more apelike as he ages.

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* ''Literature/AfterManyASummer'' by ''Creator/AldousHuxley'' Aldous Huxley is based on the "neotenous ape" theory which held that humans were mutations based on ape babies which didn't grow up . up. A character in the book has lived several hundred tears, years, but paid the price by becoming more apelike as he ages.


* In the mid-19th century, the prevailing theory of disease was miasma theory, which blamed disease on bad air and smells. It is from miasma theory that we get our word "malaria", meaning "bad air". Although the theory was wrong, its focus on sanitation improved the treatment of disease from what it had been like previously. For example, Florence Nightingale's work at improving sanitary conditions in hospitals was based on miasma theory. Then again, while miasma theory was wrong about bad smells being the cause of disease...the organisms that actually were responsible for disease were also responsible for the bad smells. So by coming up with traps and modern plumbing to keep sewer air out of houses, they were actually preventing disease, just not for the reason they thought.

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* In the mid-19th century, the prevailing theory of disease was miasma theory, which blamed disease on bad air and smells. It is from miasma theory that we get our word "malaria", meaning "bad air". Although the theory was wrong, its focus on sanitation improved the treatment of disease from what it had been like previously. For example, Florence Nightingale's work at improving sanitary conditions in hospitals was based on miasma theory. Then again, while miasma theory was wrong about bad smells being the cause of disease...the organisms that actually were responsible for disease were also responsible for the bad smells. So by coming up with traps and modern plumbing to keep sewer air out of houses, they were actually preventing disease, just [[RightForTheWrongReasons not for the reason reasons they thought.thought]].


* Martians or the idea of any form of native alien civilization on the planet Mars is now no longer taken seriously by scientists. What has changed since ''WarOfTheWorlds'', ''JohnCarter'',''Literature/TheMartianChronicles'' and ''Film/RobinsonCrusoeOnMars''? We have now sent probes to Mars. And from what they reveal, there has been no evidence of past or present alien civilizations on Mars. Most likely, the first and only Martians will be humans if the planet is ever colonized.

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* Martians or the idea of any form of native alien civilization on the planet Mars is now no longer taken seriously by scientists. What has changed since ''WarOfTheWorlds'', ''JohnCarter'',''Literature/TheMartianChronicles'' and ''Film/RobinsonCrusoeOnMars''? We have now sent probes to Mars. And from what they reveal, there has been no evidence of past or present alien civilizations on Mars. Most likely, the first and only Martians will be humans if the planet is ever colonized.

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