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Since the early 18th century some have speculated that "William Shakespeare" was just a pen name for one or more other individuals. People who believe this hypothesis are generally called "anti-Stratfordians"; those who hold to the view of Shakespearian authorship that William Shakespeare, of Stratford-on-Avon, did, in fact, write the works attributed to him, [[CaptainObvious are dubbed "Stratfordians"]]. With entire books and websites dedicated to arguing one way or the other, this is clearly SeriousBusiness to some.

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Since the early 18th century some have speculated that "William Shakespeare" was just a pen name for one or more other individuals. People who believe this hypothesis are generally called "anti-Stratfordians"; those who hold to the view of Shakespearian authorship that William Shakespeare, of Stratford-on-Avon, did, in fact, write the works attributed to him, [[CaptainObvious are [are dubbed "Stratfordians"]]."Stratfordians". With entire books and websites dedicated to arguing one way or the other, this is clearly SeriousBusiness to some.

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* LoveIsLikeReligion: Several sonnets explore this trope.
** In Sonnet 31, the poet, speaking about his past lovers, laments:
--->How many a holy and obsequious tear\\
Hath dear religious love stol'n from mine eye
** In Sonnet 105, the poet protests that his devotion to his beloved should not be considered "idolatry" (worship of idols distracting from {{God}}), because his love is, like his faith, "To one, of one, still such, and ever so."
** In 108, he compares the beloved's name to a prayer:
---> ... like prayers divine,\\
I must each day say o'er the very same,\\
Counting no old thing old, thou mine, I thine,\\
Even as when first I hallowed thy fair name.


* ''EdwardIII''

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* ''EdwardIII''''Theatre/EdwardIII''

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** ''ComicBook/ToilAndTrouble''


** ''Series/ShakespeaReTold''

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** ''Series/ShakespeaReTold'' ''Series/ShakespeareRetold''


* Multiple:

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* Multiple: Multiple or crossover:


** ''Film/Titus''

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** ''Film/Titus'' ''Film/{{Titus}}''



** ''Literature/AMidsummerTempest''



** ''Literature/AMidsummerTempest''




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\n[[/folder]]

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[[folder:Adaptations and derivative works with their own pages]]
[[index]]
* ''Hamlet'':
** ''Theatre/RosencrantzAndGuildensternAreDead''
* ''Macbeth'':
** ''Film/ThroneOfBlood''
* ''A Midsummer Night's Dream'':
** ''Theatre/ISPPresentsAMidsummerNightsDream''
* ''Much Ado About Nothing'':
** ''Film/MuchAdoAboutNothing1993''
** ''Film/MuchAdoAboutNothing2012''
** ''WebVideo/NothingMuchToDo''
* ''Othello'':
** ''Film/{{O}}''
** ''Film/Othello1951''
** ''Film/Othello1995''
* ''Richard III'':
** ''Film/RichardIII''
* ''Romeo and Juliet'':
** ''WesternAnimation/RomeoAndJulietSealedWithAKiss''
** ''Theatre/RomeoEtJulietteDeLaHaineALamour''
** ''Film/RomeoMustDie''
** ''Anime/RomeoXJuliet''
** ''Theatre/WestBankStory''
** ''Theatre/WestSideStory''
** ''Film/WilliamShakespearesRomeoAndJuliet''
* ''The Taming of the Shrew'':
** ''Theatre/KissMeKate''
** ''Film/TenThingsIHateAboutYou''
* ''The Tempest'':
** ''Film/TheTempest2010''
* ''Titus Andronicus'':
** ''Film/Titus''
* ''Twelfth Night'':
** ''Film/ShesTheMan''
* Multiple:
** ''Series/ShakespeaReTold''
** ''Literature/AMidsummerTempest''
[[/index]]



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* CoupledCouples: Various comedies including ''Theatre/AMidsummerNightsDream'' (Hermia/Lysander and Demetrius/Helena), ''Theatre/TheTwoGentlemenOfVerona'' (Proteus/Julia and Valentine/Silvia), ''Theatre/MuchAdoAboutNothing'' (Claudio/Hero and Benedick/Beatrice), ''Theatre/AsYouLikeIt'' (Rosalind/Orlando and Celia/Oliver), ''Theatre/TheComedyOfErrors'' (Syracusian Antipholus/Luciana and Ephesian Antipholus/Adriana), ''Theatre/TwelfthNight'' (Viola/Orsino and Sebastian/Olivia).


* AntagonistInMourning: Marc Antony for Brutus in ''Theatre/JuliusCaesar'', Octavius in turn for Marc Antony in ''Theatre/AntonyAndCleopatra'', Fortinbras for Hamlet in ''Theatre/{{Hamlet}}'', and Bolingbroke for Richard in ''Theatre/RichardII''.

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* AntagonistInMourning: Marc Antony for Brutus in ''Theatre/JuliusCaesar'', Octavius in turn for Marc Antony in ''Theatre/AntonyAndCleopatra'', Fortinbras for Hamlet in ''Theatre/{{Hamlet}}'', and Bolingbroke for Richard in ''Theatre/RichardII''.''Theatre/RichardII'' and Aufidius for Coriolanus in ''Theatre/{{Coriolanus}}''.


* ''Sir Thomas More'' (a fragment survives)

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* ''Sir Thomas More'' ''Theatre/SirThomasMore'' (a fragment survives)


* YouFailGeographyForever: Considering that John Dee was considered an expert of geography because he had travelled Europe, and his audience didn't really care about accuracy on this topic anyway, this is hardly a surprise. Of course, sometimes an odd quirk of history made his geography accurate, such as [[http://www.gwu.edu/~ieresgwu/assets/docs/CanalsofMilan.pdf the canal system in Italy]], linking many "landlocked" Italian cities by boat to each other and to the Mediterranean Sea; or the Bohemian Empire once extending to the ocean (under King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudolf_II,_Holy_Roman_Emperor Rudolf II]], from 15751608, ''the period of Shakespeare''), even though Bohemia itself has no coastline.
* YouFailHistoryForever: Mostly due to him not doing the research, but sometimes due to his wish to please whomever was on the throne. For example, even if Shakespeare had had access to a more accurate and sympathetic source on Richard III, he probably wouldn't have used it, since Richard was overthrown by Henry Tudor, aka Queen Elizabeth's grandfather and King James I/VI's great-great-grandfather. Then there's the fact regarding what happened [[MakeAnExampleOfThem to his fellow playwrights Kyd and Marlowe]]

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* YouFailGeographyForever: ArtisticLicenseGeography: Considering that John Dee was considered an expert of geography because he had travelled Europe, and his audience didn't really care about accuracy on this topic anyway, this is hardly a surprise. Of course, sometimes an odd quirk of history made his geography accurate, such as [[http://www.gwu.edu/~ieresgwu/assets/docs/CanalsofMilan.pdf the canal system in Italy]], linking many "landlocked" Italian cities by boat to each other and to the Mediterranean Sea; or the Bohemian Empire once extending to the ocean (under King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudolf_II,_Holy_Roman_Emperor Rudolf II]], from 15751608, ''the period of Shakespeare''), even though Bohemia itself has no coastline.
* YouFailHistoryForever: ArtisticLicenseHistory: Mostly due to him not doing the research, but sometimes due to his wish to please whomever was on the throne. For example, even if Shakespeare had had access to a more accurate and sympathetic source on Richard III, he probably wouldn't have used it, since Richard was overthrown by Henry Tudor, aka Queen Elizabeth's grandfather and King James I/VI's great-great-grandfather. Then there's the fact regarding what happened [[MakeAnExampleOfThem to his fellow playwrights Kyd and Marlowe]]


Notably, the theory has attracted many high-profile supporters, including such luminaries like Creator/WaltWhitman, Creator/CharlesDickens, Creator/RalphWaldoEmerson, Creator/MarkTwain, UsefulNotes/SigmundFreud, Creator/DerekJacobi, Creator/OrsonWelles, Creator/JimJarmusch, Creator/CharlieChaplin, at least two recent members of the [[UsefulNotes/AmericanCourts US Supreme Court]] (John Paul Stevens and Antonin Scalia, to be exact, and possibly the only thing they ever agreed on), and others. The Authorship Question has a few [[http://shakespeareauthorship.org/ adherents]] from Shakespeare scholarship, such as [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Stritmatter Roger Stritmatter]] and Oxfordian Shakespeare scholar [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felicia_Hardison_Londr%C3%A9 Felicia Londre]], but they are very rare.

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Notably, the theory has attracted many high-profile supporters, including such luminaries like Creator/WaltWhitman, Creator/CharlesDickens, Creator/RalphWaldoEmerson, Creator/MarkTwain, UsefulNotes/SigmundFreud, Creator/DerekJacobi, Creator/OrsonWelles, Creator/JimJarmusch, Creator/CharlieChaplin, Creator/JohnByrne, at least two recent members of the [[UsefulNotes/AmericanCourts US Supreme Court]] (John Paul Stevens and Antonin Scalia, to be exact, and possibly the only thing they ever agreed on), and others. The Authorship Question has a few [[http://shakespeareauthorship.org/ adherents]] from Shakespeare scholarship, such as [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Stritmatter Roger Stritmatter]] and Oxfordian Shakespeare scholar [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felicia_Hardison_Londr%C3%A9 Felicia Londre]], but they are very rare.

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* CommediaDellArte:
** Playfully mocked in ''Theatre/MuchAdoAboutNothing''. The [[MeaningfulName aptly-named]] Hero and Claudio are the innamorati, Antonio is the tartaglia, Margaret is the colombina, etc. It's mockery because Beatrice and Benedick are the real main characters, and they are probably the only ones who don't fit any stock models. Also, the ZanyScheme is cooked up by Don Pedro, probably the highest-ranking person in the play, and his chief compatriot, Hero's father Leonato, really should be a Pantalone figure.
** ''Theatre/RomeoAndJuliet'' is a GenreDeconstruction. Many of the stock characters are obviously there. However, the play is a tragedy rather than a comedy. So the ZanyScheme doesn't really work out, and several of the characters end up dying.
*** Romeo and Juliet themselves are the Innamorati, [[LoveAtFirstSight who fall in love with each other at first sight]].
*** Friar Lawrence is the Tartaglia, who performs a secret wedding ceremony for Romeo and Juliet.
*** Lord Capulet is the Pantalone, who wants Juliet to marry Paris to further his own ambitions.
*** Lady Capulet is the Signora, who wants her daughter to be a proper upper class woman just like her.
*** Tybalt is the Capitano, who seems to always want to start a fight.
*** Nurse is the Columbina, who does her best to help Juliet.
*** Mercutio is the wise-cracking Arlecchino (but he's a cousin of the local prince, so unlike most other classical Arlecchinos, he's not a servant, but a fellow aristocrat and a friend of Romeo's).
*** Benvolio is the more sombre Pedrolino (but he's a cousin of Romeo's, so unlike most of the other classical Pedrolinos, he's a not a servant, but a fellow aristocrat and a friend of Romeo's).
** ''Theatre/TheMerchantOfVenice'' has Portia and Bassanio the innamorati, as well as Shylock as the Pantalone. And of course, Touchstone, Bottom, Gratiano, and many others are perfect arlecchini.
** ''Theatre/TheMerryWivesOfWindsor'' has Fenton and Anne as the innamorati, the foolish doctor Caius, Evans as the priest with a "speech impediment" (actually an outrageous Welsh accent), and Falstaff of all people as a sleazy Pantalone-type.
** ''Theatre/TwelfthNight'' has Andrew Aguecheek as a MilesGloriosus Scaramouche, Malvolio the Pierrot, Feste the Arlecchino, Maria is the Colombina to Sir Toby Belch's Capitano, with Duke Orsino as the hopeful Innamorato to Olivia, ending up with Viola after she reveals her disguise as Cesario, and Olivia falls for Sebastian, mistaking him for Cesario, who is really Viola, his fraternal twin sister.
** At least one version of ''Theatre/TheTamingOfTheShrew'', produced for television in the '70s by [[Creator/{{PBS}} WNET New York]], is explicitly Commedia, down to the costumes and presentation style.

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