Like most lizards, they can see in near-ultraviolet light.
Would they see color differently than humans, or would they just see another color that we can't, with everything else appearing the same?
The sky is blue because of Rayleigh scattering and human retinas being more sensitive to blue light than violet light. Since they can see in UV, would their retinas be sensitive to different wavelengths and therefore see the sky as a different color, possibly regular violet? Or would they still see the sky as blue, due to the sun producing less violet light overall and a greater percentage of violet light being absorbed by the atmosphere?
Dogs are dichromatic, meaning they can only see 2 primary colors other than black and white. Those 2 colors are yellow and blue. They see things that are red as green. Human skin is a lime to olive green. Humans can see more, with the added red cone. If the lizard people have an extra cone, it would be another primary color that would affect the way the world looks. But it's likely that the sky would stay the same color.
Their hearing is significantly less sensitive than a human's; about 30 Hz to 8 kHz, compared to a human's 20 Hz to 20 kHz.
Would sounds sound significantly different to them?
To a human, pure tones of about 4 to 6 kHz can be piercing, almost painful. You can check here to see for yourself. Would the "painful" tones be different for them, given their different hearing range?
What would their sense of smell be like? How could a vomeronasal/Jacobson organ affect it beyond pheromones?
I have no idea, but I imagine smell in their society would be on par with sight.
As they're cold-blooded, they don't need to take in energy to maintain body temperature, and so need to eat about a third as much as a human. However, they also need to live in warmer environments or have special equipment to keep their body temperature up.
How would this affect their sense of temperature? Would a hot environment seem to cool off as their temperature stabilized?
It would make them feel a lot more vulnerable in a cold climate.
How would scales affect their sense of touch?
It wouldn't have an effect. Remember, reptilian scales are just bloated versions of human skin. And if the sensory nerves are in the same place, then there's no big change.
What kind of diseases could they get that humans can't, because of biochemical barriers? What about vice versa?
They can't get rabies or AIDS, but they can get dermatological diseases that pertain to scales.
How about food?
I assume this society's omnivorous. If so, they'd probably have learned about agriculture and have utilized it.
How would a tail affect their balance and center of gravity?
It would have an extremely large effect. The tail would probably evolve to be much smaller. If not, the people might walk around crouched.
What kind of accent would they get with a snoutish mouth? Would there be certain sounds that they can't pronounce? Would they be able to make sounds that we can't?
They'd likely have an accent similar to that of a native to Mexico or the Southeast USA. If they have no lips, they can't make the /m/, /b/, or /p/ sounds.
edited 8th May '13 2:44:34 PM by Golbolco