The Montreal Screwjob is one of the most important events in the history of professional wrestling. In 1997, the World Wrestling Federation was facing its most heated competition ever in the form of World Championship Wrestling. The Monday Night Wars were in full swing and the New World Order angle was giving WCW better ratings than the WWF. Vince McMahon's promotion was looking at some seriously hard times, and McMahon himself was being forced to make some tough decisions. One of these decisions involved Bret "The Hitman" Hart. In 1996, Hart had signed an unprecedented twenty-year deal with the WWF for a considerable amount of money — but with McMahon losing his shirt thanks to WCW, he felt that he would have to breach Hart's contract in order to keep the company alive; McMahon has been accused by Hart and others of exaggerating his financial situation at the time. Backstage tension between Hart and fellow performer Shawn Michaels were also reaching a boiling point around this time, and the fiscal security that the WCW contract offered was enough to get Hart to jump ship: in November 1997, Hart, then the reigning WWF Champion, signed a contract with WCW for a guaranteed three million dollars per year. Hart's last appearance on WWF programming would be Survivor Series 1997 (taking place in Montreal), where he faced Michaels in the main event for the WWF Championship. The event was not scheduled to be Hart's last booking with the WWF, as his working agreement ran for three weeks after the pay-per-view, and he had received verbal approval from WCW to work another PPV in early December where he likely would have dropped the title in a four-way match to either Michaels (if Michaels agreed to lose at Montreal) or another wrestler who would later lose to Michaels (if Michaels refused to job). Michaels refused to lose the Survivor Series match to Hart under any circumstances, and Hart made it clear that he would not lose to Michaels in Montreal. The exit clause in Hart's aforementioned contract required that Hart and McMahon come to an agreement regarding any booking decisions regarding Hart, leaving him with all the cards. The pair's mutual stubbornness placed McMahon between the proverbial rock and a hard place. The original plan for the match's finish (according to Hart) was for Michaels to use Hart's famous Sharpshooter submission hold against him while the referee was down. After Michaels applied the hold, Hart would reverse it, and feuding factions D-Generation X (which Michaels was a part of) and the Hart Foundation (which Hart led) would run in and cause the match to be tossed out, leaving Hart open to drop the title at the four-way match the next month (Hart briefly discussed simply giving up the title on TV, but at that point, McMahon was committed to the Screwjob, and he agreed to nearly anything Hart said in order to get Hart to perform at Survivor Series). McMahon was still angry over then-WWF Women's Champion Alundra Blayze tossing the WWF Women's Championship belt in the trash live on WCW's Nitro, and he was afraid Hart would show up on WCW programming with the WWF Championship and toss that belt in the trash (or worse) —despite the fact that multiple lawsuits had been filed regarding the Blayze incident (and an earlier incident with Ric Flair taking WCW's World Championship belt with him to the WWF). Since Hart refused to drop the belt to Michaels in Canada, McMahon was worried about the possibility of Bret jumping ship with the championship belt. Well, that was McMahon's story, anyway. More recent analyses by wrestling critics/historians says that the people pressuring Bischoff to sign Hart didn't want him to get over — Hart was kept on the WCW shelf for over a month before popping a buyrate with the then-considered-washed-up Flair and being buried in pointless United States Title feuds — and the real reason for the Screwjob on McMahon's end was the fact Hart was earning just shy of two million dollars per year [compared to Michaels' $750,000 per year]. "Stone Cold" Steve Austin and The Undertaker were negotiating new contracts at this point; when they compared themselves to the highest paid guy — Hart — McMahon got really scared. A plot was hatched and carried out the night of Survivor Series: when Hart was caught in the Sharpshooter by Michaels, McMahon ran down to the ring and ordered the referee (Earl Hebner) to ring the bell as if Hart had submitted to the hold (despite Hart clearly not submitting in any fashion). This singular moment — known today as the "Montreal Screwjob" — was one of the most controversial and shocking events in the history of the entire pro wrestling industry. The Screwjob not only sent Hart packing to WCW without a real sendoff, but it also had a hand in destroying kayfabe for many fans around the world, and it served as the launching pad for the "Mr. McMahon" character, which was played full hilt by McMahon — who famously said the next night on Raw that "Bret screwed Bret" — as he feuded with "Stone Cold" Steve Austin during the Attitude Era. The screwjob actually qualifies as Hilarious in Hindsight when you consider how Hart won his first title in the WWF. The Hart Foundation (Hart and brother-in-law Jim "The Anvil" Neidhart, w/non-relative manager "The Mouth of the South" Jimmy Hart) defeated the British Bulldogs (The Dynamite Kid and cousin Davey Boy Smith- another brother-in-law, though not acknowledged as such at the time) for the WWF World Tag Team Titles on the February 7, 1987 (taped January 26) episode of WWF Superstars due to referee Danny Davis generally ignoring the Harts' constant double-teaming and spending most of the time checking on the injured Dynamite Kid. After the Harts won the match, Davis left with them. Even before it became a running gag, other promotions were already parodying it. At ECW November to Remember '97 PPV, held a mere three weeks later, Al Snow, in the early months of his carrying around a mannequin head gimmick, cut a promo where he said, "I didn't screw the Head. The HEAD SCREWED THE HEAD!" Even Scott Keith thought it was funny. Hart left the WWF and spent three years floundering around in WCW thanks to crappy booking and nobody really knowing what to do with someone who was — at the time — the hottest free agent in professional wrestling (something that McMahon himself predicted would happen). Thanks to an errant kick by Goldberg during a match, Hart suffered a career-ending concussion and has been retired from in-ring action ever since (a stroke suffered after his retirement has ensured that, save for special circumstances where he doesn't have to take a bump, he'll never be able to perform in the ring again). Following his retirement, Hart had very little love lost for WWF — thanks both to the Screwjob and the death of his brother Owen in 1999 — but managed to put his animosity aside to help preserve his legacy, working with WWE to produce a DVD set that was widely acclaimed as being a great retrospective on his career (it was initially going to be a smearjob set called ''Screwed'' until Hart heard about the plans). In 2006, Hart accepted induction into the WWE Hall of Fame, making his first appearance on WWE programming of any kind in nearly a decade to accept the honor. A few years later, Hart signed up again with the WWE to ensure that he got a proper and honorable exit from the business (see below). Michaels spent the next few months as the WWF Champion, but back injuries suffered during a Casket Match with The Undertaker at Royal Rumble 1998 eventually caught up to him. Following his loss to Steve Austin at WrestleMania 14 (where he performed despite his injury causing him severe pain), Michaels spent the next four years on the shelf, making sporadic appearances for WWE while he slowly healed up. In this interim, Michaels not only admitted that he was aware of the plan to screw over Hart, but he became a born-again Christian. Michaels made his return to active competition in 2002; he remained one of WWE's most popular and skilled performers until his retirement at WrestleMania 26. In December 2009, Hart confirmed that he would return to WWE in 2010 to guest host the first Raw of the year (his first appearance on Raw in over twelve years), and during that show's opening segment, Hart made his peace with Michaels in the middle of the ring in one of the most surreal moments in wrestling history. He was (kayfabe) attacked by McMahon at the end of the show, which set up an angle that led up to WrestleMania 26, where McMahon faced Hart in a "No Holds Barred" Match. Although McMahon tried to bribe the rest of the Hart family into screwing Hart over again, they knew it was coming and double-crossed McMahon, allowing Hart to finally make McMahon pay for Montreal (via thirteen chairshots and the Sharpshooter) and get the full closure he'd been looking for (as part of the angle, Hart's father — legendary Canadian wrestling promoter/trainer and patriarch of the Hart family, the late Stu Hart — was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame). After WrestleMania, he appeared sporadically to help put over The Hart Dynasty (David Hart Smith, Tyson Kidd, and Natalya) and serve as Raw's General Manager for a brief period (he was eventually taken out by The Nexus). Both Hart and Michaels continue to make special "cameo" appearances at WWE events to this day. In late 2011, WWE released Greatest Rivalries: Shawn Michaels vs. Bret Hart on DVD and Blu-ray; the set — a first-of-its-kind release for WWE — was dedicated to the long rivalry between Hart and Michaels, which stretched back all the way to the feud between The Rockers and The Hart Foundation. The real meat of the DVD was Jim Ross' sitdown interview with both Hart and Michaels, who discussed their careers and their rivalry — including the Screwjob — at length. The DVD pretty firmly backs Bret Hart's side of the story, with Ross conceding that no one in the WWE had any fear of Bret pulling a Ric Flair with the belt, and that he had acted reasonably regarding the Survivor Series finish. The set was generally regarded as being one of WWE's best in years. Along with the extensive article on That Other Wiki, this 411mania column is a good rundown of the events leading up to and surrounding the Screwjob.
Tropes associated with the Montreal Screwjob include: