CLANNAD: Sanae Furukawa is afraid of the Bengal Monitor Lizard. Her husband Akio talks Tomoya into dropping a toy one down her back. Hilarity Ensues.
Ikkitousen: Bachou Mouki is deathly afraid of snakes.
Love Hina: Motoko Aoyama is afraid of turtles. So her fellow tenants adopt one that can fly.
Queen's Blade: Ymir can't stand snakes. When she met Echidna, she spent the following night sitting up, axe in hand, convinced the snakes would come when she slept.
Wasted Minds: Yura is afraid of snakes. At one point, when she sees something she thinks is a boa constrictor, she's too scared to help her partner, Tamuro, out of its grasp. After she discovers that "the snake" is actually the trunk of an aggressive elephant, she fearlessly flips it over and slams it into the ground.
Yura: Boa constrictor!
Tamuro:There aren't any boa constrictors in Japan! Help me!
Yura: I hate snakes!
Ace Attorney: In the manga version, Jirou Kimura was scared to death of spiders. He went apeshit and committed suicide after his boss Komori Akamune, who couldn't stand his arrogance, locked him for hours in a room full of them.
Sakaki is also revealed to be scared of horseflies, among other things (See the "Various" category below).
Detective Conan: A plot point in one case: Rich Bitch Hiromi Yamazaki is completely terrified of bees due to being allergic to their sting (and she almost died when stung by one as a little girl)... and the person who killed her is smart enough to actually use bees as one of their "killer weapons". More exactly, they caused her to panic at the sight of some bees released in the highest floor of her Big Fancy House, then covered the door handle in honey so there would be more bees there, and when Hiromi leaned on a wooden rail... the rail was "broken", causing her to fall to her death.
Franken Fran: Adorea is scared of cockroaches, and had quite the reaction when she and Okita happened to walk into a room that was full of them. From the same chapter, a young woman who is obsessed with cleanliness freaks out when a cockroach falls into her tea.
Kekkaishi: Tokine she is the more experienced, much smarter of the two kekkaishi, tough as nails and able to handle anything....except cockroaches. She definitely hates those cockroaches.
My Hero Academia: Kouji Kouda is afraid of insects, but since his Quirk is to command and control animals, he sometimes needs to overcome his fear to help his comrades.
Nichijou: Nano is scared to death of cockroaches. In one sketch she has one trapped under a bowl and would rather tape the bowl to the table and throw the table itself out than risk it getting free. She also faints at the sight of a mosquito (which she herself killed).
Gothic Lolita Perona is absolutely terrified of cockroaches. It only took Usopp a bunch of fake ones to make her flip her shit.
It's not really surprising that Oda made Nami afraid of bugs as well, but Sanji? He's just as terrified. It's even more hilarious, when Usopp, who embodies the Lovable Coward trope, is the only one of three who is not afraid of insects and finds them cute.
Misty of Pokémon has three things that she hates most of all: carrots, peppers, and bugs, as exhibited when Ash catches a Caterpie in one of the first episodes of the show and Misty cannot stand being near it. This is exhibited many times in the show, like during the episode with the Bug Catching Contest where she freaks out whenever a wild Bug Pokemon even comes close to her. It should be noted, however, that she doesn't mind the prettier bugs like Butterfree and Ledian.
Rising X Rydeen: Mikan is a tough girl who can move as fast as lightning and fire powerful lightning blasts but she is deathly afraid of cockroaches.
Yu-Gi-Oh! 5D's: The English dub gives Yusei Fudo a fear of bugs in Episode 2. This gave them some potential 40 episodes later, when his opponent had a deck full of spiders, including one really bigplot-related one. It's a mystery how they didn't realize that Yusei being scared of something like bugs is just... laughable.
Mice & Rats (musophobia)
Doraemon: The title character is afraid of mice despite being a robotic cat. It's because he was once sleeping and mice ate his ears. He turned blue of the shock and that's why he is a blue, ear-less robot cat.
Dragon Ball: General Blue. In fact, this is what breaks his concentration on paralyzing Goku when a mouse crawls across his leg.
Pokémon: Dawn's reactions to Plusle and Minun (two mouse-like Pokémon) range from Blue with Shock to shrieking collapse. Oddly, it's just those two; she has no problem with other Electric Pokémon (like her own Pachirisu), or mice (like Pikachu and her Cyndaquil). It stems from a childhood incident that gave her an Embarrassing Nickname. She gets over it later on, though.
Ruin Explorers: Rassha. Inconvenient in that one of her traveling partners has a curse that turns them into a mouse whenever they do magic.
Saber Marionette J: All the Saber Marionettes except Lime. And it's hard-coded into their programming.
Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves (1971): The goofy pink animalistic genie from is terrified of cats.
Anpanman: Katsuobushiman is a skillful samurai that's a master with his blade...but, thanks to being a dried bonito fish, he has a horribly crippling fear of cats. Baikinman has managed to use this fear against him, building giant feline robots. This also gives him troubles when being around Nyanja, a ninja cat.
Cowboy Bebop: Psychopathic Manchild Pierrot le Fou, due to his association of them to his experimental trauma. It also turns out the cat that was present during the experimentation had heterochromia just like Spike has (his false eye doesn't quite match his real one), which makes him freeze up at a crucial moment during their final showdown and allows Spike to defeat him.
My Bride Is a Mermaid: Every single mermaid (except Masa) is utterly terrified of cats, to the point that San's father (who is the head of a Yakuza clan) evacuates a school because Nagasumi had a kitten with him. Mikawa goes even further, using his contacts to bring in the military.
Pandora Hearts: Gilbert was terrified into freezing up by the mere presence of the Cheshire Cat, to the point where he didn't react when Cheshire was about to rip him wide open, and he didn't even look like a cat. Cheshire looked like a bishie in a cat costume.
Pokémon: Cilan is terrified of Purrloin for an unrevealed reason.
Ranma ˝: Ranma developed this after training for a particular technique. Except there's a stinger in the tail — Ranma's fear can drive him into a temporary psychotic state where he becomes a mindless but unbeatable berserker (who acts like a cat), and only Akane can bring him outta his funk. What makes this worse is that one of Ranma's many fiances is cursed to turn into a cat when exposed to cold water.
In the Saiyuki Party Drama CD Sanzo is terrified of a small kitten that Goku brings in from the rain, so much that when it hides under his kimono he starts screaming (in some fan's minds) like a sissy.
This is played with in the Reload anime with a mixture a fear and a supposed allergy. He got over it.
Wolf's Rain: The wolf Toboe says that cats creep him out. However, after the world's death and rebirth Toboe is seen in human form cradling a stray kitten.
Yu-Gi-Oh! GX: Professor Chronos (Crowler in the dub) was afraid of cats (and the fact that Daitokuji-sensei's (Professor Banner's) pet cat Pharaoh was a constant presence at the Osiris dorm didn't help).
Yu-Gi-Oh! ZEXAL: There are two characters with this phobia: Astral and Rio Kamishiro.
Maison Ikkoku: Shun Mitaka has an inconvenient fear of dogs. Problem is, the object of his affection (Kyouko) has a big dog she is really fond of, and his arranged fiancée (Asuna) has a whole bunch of them in all sizes. He beats his fear, by getting his own dog, who then gets him into a compromising (marriage) position.
The Professor is scared of dogs because she's afraid they may bite her. Rather amusing, given her favorite animal is the shark.
Sakamoto is afraid of dogs too, but that's mostly because he's a cat.
In Nurse Angel Ririka SOS, Ririka leaves her puppy in the care of her father for the day. The problem is that he doesn't get along with dogs and won't get anywhere near Herb. When forced to take him on a walk he tie multiple ropes together so that there is a huge gap between him and Herb.
Onidere: Sayo cowers in fear of even the smallest puppy.
To Heart 2: Tamaki is so afraid of dogs that she freezes on the spot. It becomes a major plot point in the original Visual Novel to save her from one.
To Love-Ru: Oshizu has a crippling fear of dogs, despite being a ghost. The characters point out that the dogs cannot do anything to her, as she's already dead, but it doesn't help. She does have a physical body to inhabit and dogs can now do something to her…and she is definitely aware of this, and it only makes her fear worse.
Fujiko Mine from Lupin III is afraid of frogs. Naturally Lupin teases her from time to time about it, and Zenigata used it against her on one occasion to get information out of her. In another episode, Lupin actually uses a frog to knock Fujiko out, whereupon he ties up and gags her in order to steal her identity as part of a con.
Tetsuya Tsurugi from Great Mazinger and Kyouichi Shidou from Idaten Jump. Both of them were attacked by birds when they were small children. Naturally, the omake of the Idaten Jump episode featuring Shido's hate of birds milked it for what it's worth.
Sengyoku of Soul Hunter is afraid of birds after being stalked by a guy with birds.
Blue from Pokémon Special is afraid of birds for roughly the same reason. She gets over it by confronting Ho-Oh, the Pokémon who kidnapped her, and capturing Articuno, Zapdos, and Moltres, also known as the legendary birds. She then sics them on The Mask of Ice.
Genie in Rune Soldier had some very bad experience with giant snails, which leads to Louie giggling immaturely and thinking of Naughty Tentacles.
The heroine of Slayers, Lina Inverse, also known (to herself) as Sorceress Genius and (to anyone else) as Bandit Killer, Dragon Spooker and Enemy Of All Who Live, is terrified unto death by two things: Slugs, and her big sister Luna. Her sister is also the reason why she fears slugs. Luna was pissed off because Lina decided to sell pictures of her in the bath.
Ferrets: Inori is afraid of ferrets at first, due to getting bitten by a ferret whom she tried to tend to (she's a veterinarian daughter)... and then when she became a Precure, she got saddled with a ferret fairy, Tart, which freaked her out that she either communicates with her friends with a phone in the same room just so she doesn't need to look at Tart, and used a long range hand device for body contact. That got resolved in about 10 episodes after one "Freaky Friday" Flip in which Inori got stuck in Tart's body and made her overcome her fears.
Octopus: Miki from the same series is reduced into a screaming loon whenever she saw an octopus, living or not, due to an incident when she's young and tried to play with a small octopus, only for the octopus to wrap her hands with its tentacles and started showing off its tentacles in close up, freaking her out. Since she was trying to be 'perfect', she tried hiding this fear, but things excarbated when the current Monster of the Week is taken from an octopus statue. Thankfully, Setsuna managed to give blunt but encouraging words that eventually pushed Miki to get over her fear and fight the monster, and eventually her whole fear.
Kaitou Kid, the titular character of Magic Kaito and an Ensemble Dark Horse character in Detective Conan is afraid of... fish. To the point where only a bomb going off on a boat urges Kaito to scuba dive to find out what happened to his not-girlfriend Aoko and Silver during a chapter in Volume 1.
The titular character from Shinryaku! Ika Musume is deathly afraid of sharks and killer whales, even inflatable ones (in the beginning, at least). Justified in that she is a squid girl and sharks and killer whales are natural predators to her and since she has no idea what floats are, she assumes that the inflatable ones are real. She works and lives near a popular beach with lots of children...
In Pokémon Special, given how long she's been in the wild, you'd think someone like Sapphire wouldn't exhibit this. However, during the single-elimination tournament at the Battle Frontier, she winds up paired against Tucker and subsequently chokes when he deploys his Salamence (compared to Ruby, who went up against Emerald but threw his fight). Reviewing the R/S arc should give deep insight as to the source of this particular issue. And unlike Blue above, she hasn't had the chance to thwart this issue... yet.
Iris from PokémonBest Wishes has a huge fear of Ice Pokemon similar to Misty and her fear of bugs. The first Pokemon she reacted to do with absolute disgust was Trip's Vanillite, one of the most harmless looking Ice-type Pokemon around. When both Ash and Trip ask her why she's scared of Vanillite, she replies that as a Dragon trainer, she has developed an emotional bond for them including the weakness. Trip calls her out on it though because he says that Dragons are also super effective against each other and should have a fear of Dragons as well. Iris then tells him to shut up and quickly corrects herself by saying she can't stand the cold.
Vegeta from Dragon Ball Z is afraid of worms. He meets giant worms in Buu's body (filler only).
Flying (aviophobia) or Heights (acrophobia)
Gene Starwind (space travel) from Outlaw Star (Conveniently, the titular Cool Ship has Applied Phlebotinum that keeps the fear from taking effect). Rather justified because his last experience in space before the story begins saw him watching from an escape pod as his dad was killed.
Sailor Moon: Sailor Jupiter (her parents died in a plane crash), although apparently the writers forgot about it when they put her on a plane in an episode of the final season. It was only mentioned in the manga.
One villain in 666 Satan took this to a ridiculous degree: he's so afraid of heights that he is scared crapless if he needs to stand up.
Hayate the Combat Butler: Katsura Hinagiku was deathly afraid of heights, although she seems to be able to handle them now, particularly when it means spending time with Hayate, or something having to do with him. Ayumu also seems to have a similar effect on her.
Masayuki from Ghost Hound became deathly scared of heights for perfectly understandable reasons. He got over it by spending hours at a time playing a virtual reality flight simulator game. Actual flight didn't hurt either.
Tsubomi Hanasaki from Heart Catch Pretty Cure is fearful of heights, freaking out when she first uses the Cure Mantle while normal. In the epilogue of the novel released in 2015, it's revealed that she wants to go into NASA to help deal with this so she can finally go into space.
Tasuki of Fushigi Yuugi, who naturally is the first person overboard when the ship hits a violent storm. Additionally, vitriolic best bud Tamahome's preferred method of torment is dangling him over a body of water.
Golem in Monster Rancher hates water. Justified because he's made of rock and would sink like a stone.
Aiko of Ojamajo Doremi. The story is that she told her dad that she could put her head in the water. Then, they have a contest to find out who can put their head in the water. She drowned 10 seconds into the contest.
Seine from Hekikai No Ai On since her second father tried to drown her. It took years to sit in a bathtub. It is also a disadvantage against the mermaid she fights, since they live in the sea, and Seine refuses to learn how to swim.
Sonic in Sonic X (though not in the games, oddly). In an early episode, he falls into a pool of water during a fight with Knuckles and immediately begins thrashing around and screaming for help, only to be rather embarrassed when he realises the water is only ankle-deep.
Kitsuka from Brynhildr in the Darkness had an water pool accident when she was younger. She tripped in a pool where she could stand perfectly, and she nearly drowned. This traumatized her enough to suffer from aquaphopia.
Rita Rossi, the Cute Mute from Ashita no Nadja, because her parents died in a huge fire that broken in their circus, and poor little Rita saw them perish..
Aoba from Durarara!! has a rather strong fear of fire. However, he uses this to his advantage in order to frame Izumi by setting his room on fire and making it seem like it was Izumi's fault because he forgot to unlit the cigarette he smoked. He plays this straight though after the events though.
Barnaby Brooks in Tiger & Bunny, due to the circumstances of his parents' deaths.
Other things in nature
Astrapophobia, Ceraunophobia, Brontophobia (fear of thunder and lightning) or Tonitrophobia (fear of just thunder): Haruhi from Ouran High School Host Club has this (these) fear(s), after being discovered to be afraid of little else.
Himawari on Wandaba Style has a fear of running out of air while in space, which is bad, since she and the other members of Girl Group Mix Juice are trying to get into space to perform a concert on the Moon.
Mew of Psychic Academy is mortally afraid of rain, to the point where she will not go outside if it's raining, and panics if it starts raining while she's outside. This is a byproduct of the day when an experiment her parents performed on her caused her powers to go out of control and kill her mother, the only memory of that day she hadn't suppressed was the sound of the sprinkler system going off.
Sakura Kinomoto from Card Captor Sakura is afraid ghosts much to the point that even hearing a rumor or a ghost story frightens her.
The Action Girl Ran Mouri of Detective Conan. In her case, it's kinda justified: she fears them not because of the supernatural stuff, but because if she ever was under attack from them, her physical strength would be useless against them.
Hikaru Himuro from Dragon Drive also has that fear. Unfortunately, Chibi is a victim of his fear, as he grabs on to Chibi's tail for some reason (maybe a reflex to help calm himself?), and doesn't let go when he passes out from fear, much to both Chibi and Reiji's annoyances.
Tabitha from The Familiar of Zero is a stoic badass, but trembles and faints when she thinks she hears ghosts.
Veronica of Franken Fran is an Artificial Human built for assassination and bodyguard duties. She also recoils in fear at the prospect of ghosts.
Both Gintoki and Hijikata in Gintama are very scared of ghosts, not that either of them would ever admit it.
In the Naruto anime, when Naruto heard that one his missions has possibility of ghosts being involved, he curled into a ball which odd when didn't back down against the Kyuubi.
The Kyuubi is a chakra spirit, and he's part of him. Ghosts, on the other hand, are dead people, and not something Naruto had ever had to deal with before.
One Piece has Brook, who is terrified of ghosts, zombies, and all other things that can be considered spooky... which is about as outrageous as it gets considering the fact that he's a living skeleton.
Misty from Pokémon gets nightmares after encounters with Ghost Pokémon, though that's a typical side effect of that type.
Cilan from PokémonBest Wishes has a huge fear of Ghost-type Pokemon. He tends to zigzag around this trope, because while he's not scared of the Ghost Pokemon once it shows itself to be the cause of items moving around, the mere thought of being around them apparently creeps him out. Special mention in BW029 when he freaks out and screams like a girl when the Litwick were controlling the items in the haunted mansion.
Liz Thompson from Soul Eater is afraid of ghosts. Not helpful when her job/homework requires her to fight them, and odd considering she's something supernatural herself. In contrast, her death god teammate is afraid of completely mundane things - see 'Various'.
Haruna in To Love-Ru. She has a severe fear of ghosts and the supernatural with the exception being Oshizu, but only for a while. When frightened, she has a habit of grabbing the nearest thing around her – typically Rito – and swinging wildly, in an attempt to get rid of whatever frightens her.
Jonouchi Katsuya from Yu-Gi-Oh! has such an intense fear of the supernatural in general (Ghosts included) that he actually passes out twice as a result of them — Once during the manga's version of an Amusement Park of Doom and again before his duel against 'Ghost Kotsuzuka'. He wins the duel after being woken up in the end.
Ashita no Joe: Ryuhi Kin has an immense fear of this due to him accidentally killing his father when he thought his father was a hungry soldier coming back from the Korean War to get him food.
Naruto: Tsunade, after her lover Dan died and she couldn't do anything about it. Should have been quite a cramp on her superninja-doctor career... until she overcame it during a high-stakes battle at a point of near mortal defeat, thus leading to overcoming her opponent Kabuto as well (this must be a trope somewhere). Also Gaara when Sasuke punctured his chest and saw his own blood for the first time he freaks out.
Pearl from the Baratie arc was acting rather smug and arrogant up until Sanji managed to draw blood from him, which he claimed had never happened before, at which point he went berserk. So, it's either this trope or he was just that upset about having his perfect record tarnished.
Dr. Kobato, a pediatrician from the G8 Filler Arc, was this trope to a T, unable to look at even a picture of blood without fainting. She overcomes it thanks to Chopper's inspiration as a doctor, however.
Slayers: Naga the White Serpent is also quite afraid of blood, since she walked on the place where her mother was assassinated, which was all blood-splattered. Made even worse by how she killed the assassin... via using a Razor Floss-like spell, thus splattering the room in even more blood.
Women (gynophobia) and beautiful women (venustraphobia)
The male lead from Girls Bravo. Then his so-called rival is terrified of men (androphobia).
Yamcha from Dragon Ball. He wanted the Dragon Balls to actually cure this phobia, since he also wanted a girlfriend but was too terrified to ask any girl out. He got over himself after hanging out with Bulma, though.
At the beginning of the series, most (if not all) of the male cast of Vandread are scared of women. This is understandable, since one of the main plot points is that men and women have been segregated for years, to the point that neither gender really believes that the other exists anymore. To men, women have become something akin to horrible, frightening monsters of legend.
The Haou-Sou in Onidere are all afraid of the opposite sex, with two of them being male.
Urusei Yatsura: Shutaro Mendou is afraid of one specific woman—his fiancee, Asuka Mizunokoji. Due to her intense strength (she even tore a tank apart and made it into a makeshift armor suit with her bare hands) and athleticism (she could run 100 meters in 12 seconds with same armor suit—200 kg, or 440 pounds) a simple "light hug" from her causes multiple broken bones and internal injuries. Since Shuutaro is rather terrified of being crushed, it seems unlikely that this relationship will ever be consummated.
The doppelgänger who appears in early chapters of Rosario + Vampire Season II is very afraid of women. It doesn't stop him to kick their asses or copying them.
High School Dx D: Believe or not, Issei Hyoudou is somewhat terrified of attractive women, all due to a very brutal betrayal on his first date. Already suffering from low-self esteem, he often avoids getting close to girls he finds attractive out of fear that they find him boring. For a while, this fear puts a damper in his relationship with his Second LoveRias.
Urusei Yatsura has Asuka Mizunokoji, the sister of Tobimaro Mizunokoji. She's isolated according to the Mizonokoji family's tradition, from any and all males from the moment of her birth until the age of 16, at which time an omiai will be held for her to get married. As such, even her brother was unaware of her existence until then. Because of this isolation (and the fact the first male she met was the lecherous Ataru Moroboshi) she is extremely timid and deathly afraid of males. Now whenever she sees one, she pushes him away, screams "Eek! A maaan!" ("Aa~! Otokoo~!") and runs in terror at high speed from all males, not heeding any obstacles unfortunate to be in her path (such as buildings). She is, thanks to her daily training and the genetics she inherited from her mother, insanely strong (once tearing a completely armored tank apart and fashioning it into a makeshift suit of armor on herself with her bare hands), as well as very athletic (being able to run 100 metres within 12 seconds, while wearing her 200 kilogram suit of armor). While engaged to Shutaru Mendou at the omiai to end the Mendou-Mijunokoji rivalry, her strength even means a simple "light hug" from her causes multiple broken bones and internal injuries. Between Asuka's androphobia and Shuutaro's fear of being crushed, it seems unlikely that this relationship will ever be consummated.
In Girls Bravo, the eventual Big Bad Yukina has the same allergic reaction to men as the male lead Yukinari has to women. She's a Broken Bird as a result. She also has superpowers. It's not a good combo. In the last episode, she gets over it thanks to Yukinari and promptly becomes his (second) Stalker with a Crush. Unfortunately for Yukinari, he hasn't gotten over his phobia yet.
Shutaro Mendou of Urusei Yatsura is afraid of both the dark and tight spaces, though this was accidentally caused by locking his child form in a large pickling jar while trying to ''cure him of said phobias.'' As long as a girl's in sight, though, he's not claustrophobic as long as she can see HIM. If she CAN'T see him, often by putting a bell over him (and combining his phobias) he'll either break the bell out of terror-induced strength, or scream "It's cramped! It's dark! I'm scared!" over and over again until he is freed from confinement (as it often is in the anime).
Jamil Neate in After War Gundam X has a severe cockpit phobia due to blaming himself for the massive Colony Drop that almost wiped out human life on Earth at the end of the previous war. In early episodes he just can't get in, and his hands shake visibly at the prospect. Starting in the Fort Severn arc, though, he starts getting treatment and is able to slowly return to his old skills.
Baikinman from Anpanman, being an alien bacterium, is terrified of soap. Contact with it reduces him to the size of a fly. Likewise, Mushibaikinman, a cavity from the same species as Baikinman is afraid of toothpaste, as it has the same effect on him. Interestingly, they're the only members of their species to have this weakness.
Also, Seychelles hates the cold to the point of collapsing in Cuba's arms after walking in the snow for a while, despite wearing a huge coat. Justified Trope due to the very warm Seychellois climate.
Sakaki from Azumanga Daioh is scared of horseflies, but also of thunder, earthquakes, and even the mechanical guards at construction sites.
In A Certain Magical Index, Hyouka Kazakiri is terrified of Touma Kamijo, despite him being one of the nicest guys on the planet and her having a crush on him. It is because she is an artificial angel, and she subconsciously sensed Touma's right hand, the Imagine Breaker, which would erase a supernatural being from existence on contact. When Touma learns this, he assures her that her fear is a good thing, because the fear of death proves that a being is alive. She somewhat gets over her fear when Touma saves her several times and assures her that he would never willingly harm her.
Goku from Dragon Ball Z is terrified of needles, this came after he got a shot after his first fight with Vegeta. Sorta justified: he had never gotten a shot in his life until then.
Miyuki Takara of Lucky Star really hates dentists.
Makoto Kenzaki from Doki Doki Pretty Cure is afraid of dentists in episode 35, but she overcomes her fear in the same episode.
Ryoshi Morino in Okami-San has extreme scopophobia (fear of being seen or stared at); he shrinks down into a cringing ball and covers his face whenever people look at him.
The Rurouni Kenshin anime gives Sanosuke a crippling fear of trains (which pops up in every Filler episode and Non-Serial Movie that involves riding a train), as well express a suspicion of cameras, fearing that it'll steal his soul. Truth in Television, actually: when trains and cameras were introduced in Japan after the isolation period was finished, many Japanese reacted in exactly the same way.
Jesus in Saint Young Men has a phobia of salespeople, which he confesses to Buddha was the real reason for his famous freakout in the temple. Apparently he was trying to hide under the chair, 'used too much force', and when people rounded on him for an explanation as to why he threw the chair he was so berserk he screamed at them all about how this was supposed to be a place of worship.
In the original Yu-Gi-Oh!, Seto Kaiba has a rather peculiar fear: of Exodia. He has a good reason, of course, seeing as Yugi defeated him rather badly using it, and inflicted a Penalty Game after doing so that took Kaiba a while to recover from. (It was not without some malice that Kaiba refused to disqualify the Exodia-using Rare Hunter in Battle City much later, as he was hoping Yugi would be just as scared of facing it.) Later, Kaiba's evil stepfather Gozaburo tried to take advantage of this by using Exodia Necross against him, something he claimed was an even stronger version, but by then, Kaiba had learned not to be so careless, and was able to defeat it using careful strategy. (The fact that Gozaburo had almost no strategy other than Necross helped.)
In a Yu-Gi-Oh! GX 3-parter, it is revealed that vampires scare the crap out of Daitokuji-sensei. Guess who was the Villain of the Week in all 3 episodes? He may have been lying, however. He was secretly a member of the Seven Stars, a group that Camula also belonged to. They were only seen as a group in one brief scene (in shadow), and it is not known if the individual members actually helped each other at all.
In Ashita no Joe the titular character is afraid of hitting his opponents in the head, because of his rival Rikishi died by suffering a blow to the head by Joe himself.
It was hinted that Magellan, the main antagonist of the Impel Down arc of One Piece, was actually agoraphobic (the polar opposite of being claustrophobic) and was nervous in large, open spaces, enjoying dark, enclosed areas. Likely a big reason why he was so suited for his job. One odd example in that the character acquires the phobia, but after a certain incident where Usopp unleashed the mother of all Wild Takes when fed an ultra-spicy berry, one of Doflamingo's crew, Sugar, got a phobia of people with long noses. Usopp, Combat Pragmatist that he is, used it against her later on, by sniping her with a projectile shaped exactly like the aforementioned Wild Take.
In Onegai My Melody, the tough tomboy Mana has a fear of cute things. She can barely tolerate the presence My Melody and her friends.
Sgt. Frog: Keroro has two — huge dogs and the Banana Lizard (although not for the same reasons).
For Natsumi, it's slugs, which leads to the creation of Wettol King.
For Giroro, it's sea cucumbers — apart from paralleling Natsumi's only fear, there seems to be no other explanation.
Technically Giroro has another — ghosts. Counts as Primal Fear on its own, until you consider that Giroro is a war veteran, implying that he's spent a lot of timein the company of death.