Classic 1980s arcade game from Nintendo
. Introduced both Donkey Kong
While not, as is commonly reported, the very first Platform Game
(that honor belongs to Space Panic
), it was the very first to feature actual jumping. Didn't scroll at all, but involved a lot of jumping and climbing, and one level had moving platforms.
The storyline involved Mario (then known as Jumpman) saving a lady named Pauline (who actually wasn't given this name until the NES version was releasednote
) from Donkey Kong, in an obvious reference to King Kong
. Donkey Kong's main weapon seemed to be an endless supply of barrels, which Mario/Jumpman could, well...jump over.
The game is more-or-less single-handedly successful for saving the then-fledgling Nintendo of America. After having numerous arcade games tank, the then-president of Nintendo of Japan sent over circuit boards containing Donkey Kong
. The NOA team set on translating the game. Pauline was named after an employee's wife, and Mario was named after their then-landlord, Mario Segale. They installed the game in an old arcade cabinet and set it up at a nearby bar, the Spot Tavern. The first day in, it made $30. The next day, it broke down — too many quarters had caused a short circuit. Soon after that, Nintendo of America was assembling and shipping Donkey Kong
machines all over the country, and the company was saved by this single game from Shigeru Miyamoto
The Donkey Kong character's resemblance to King Kong
led to Universal
Studios filing suit against Nintendo, claiming trademark infringement. In an ironic twist, Nintendo's counsel, John Kirby, countered that Universal had itself argued in a previous case that King Kong
's scenario and characters were in the public domain and the court agreed. 1 2
The name itself resulted from Miyamoto's minimal knowledge of English at the time. He wanted to call the game "Stubborn Gorilla," to convey that the villain was not acting out of malice or with premeditation. With a pocket-sized Japanese/English dictionary, he latched on to "donkey" as a euphemism for "stubborn," and assumed from King Kong
that "kong" meant gorilla. The name did give rise to a number of theories
which attempted to explain its origin. One, which appeared on some of the cabinet labels, stated that Jumpman was in fact the title's Donkey.
The game's sequel, Donkey Kong Junior
, inverted the villain/hero roles; Junior had to rescue his father from Mario's clutches, and Donkey Kong 3
had a gardener named Stanley trying to chase Donkey Kong away from his greenhouse with a bug sprayer.
A new version of the game, also titled Donkey Kong
but referred to by many fans as Game Boy Donkey Kong
or Donkey Kong '94
, was released on the Game Boy in 1994.Donkey Kong
features prominently in the documentary The King of Kong
Tropes in this game include:
- Alternate Company Equivalent: The Sega arcade game Congo Bongo (aka Tip Top) is often considered to be a rip-off of Donkey Kong. In reality, the programming for Donkey Kong was outsourced to a company called Ikegami Tsushinki, who sued Nintendo when they felt they were not properly compensated for their work. Ikegami ended developing a Donkey Kong-like game for Sega, foreshadowing the future rivalry between the two companies.
- American Kirby Is Hardcore: We all know DK, right? Well, I bet you've never seen him like THIS.◊
- Animated Adaptation: The Saturday Supercade show.
- Antagonist Title
- Arcade Perfect Port: Averted. Most of the port are faithful to the arcade version, but leave out 50m due to memory limitations. Although some ports play it straight, such as "Donkey Kong: Original Edition" and Donkey Kong '94.
- Big Bad: The title character in Donkey Kong and Donkey Kong 3, and Mario in Donkey Kong Junior.
- Blackout Basement/Ascended Glitch: If this is to be believed.
- Breakout Character: Donkey Kong and Jumpman, who later became Mario. Pauline, not so much.
- Characterization Marches On: This whole plot got started because Mario was basically an animal abuser. Quite a far cry from the kind-hearted hero he is now known as.
- Character Title
- Damsel in Distress: Pauline.
- Drop the Hammer
- Expy: Initially conceived as a Popeye game until Nintendo was unable to secure the rights from Kings Features, the three central characters were instead made into new ones, Popeye becoming Jumpman, Bluto becoming Donkey Kong, and Olive Oyl becoming Pauline. A Popeye arcade game did get made some time later.
- Everything's Better with Monkeys
- Face-Heel Turn: Mario in Donkey Kong Jr.
- Rogue Protagonist
- However, you're not totally invincible. It's possible for a barrel to slip under it and kill you if your timing is really bad or unlucky.
- Falling Damage: A very early example. If Mario falls through a hole in the floor, goes over the edge of a platform, or falls too far before hitting a surface while jumping onto or off of an elevator in Screen 3, he dies upon impact.
- Fan Nickname: 50m is often called "pie factory" because of the sprites used there. In reality however, these are actually tins of cement.
- Fireballs: Some of the first Mario enemies!
- Follow the Leader: The game was endlessly ripped off by other Japanese games companies, both straight clones and also variations - one of which, the 3D-isometric Congo Bongo, was foreshadowing-ly made by Sega.
- Invincibility Power-Up: The hammer, which lets you smash oncoming barrels and fireballs.
- Jump Physics: Mario's jumping ability is rather weak compared to later games, and you can die if you fall above your jumping height. This also applies to Donkey Kong Jr. in the sequel.
- Just Friends: Mario and Pauline in the second Mario vs. Donkey Kong game.
- Kill Screen: Level 22. Interestingly, the devteam did think to Cap the level counter at 99, so how did that oversight make it into the game?
- Mascot: What Mario would eventually become for Nintendo, starting with this game.
- Nice Job Breaking It, Hero:
- According to the manual, Donkey only went on his rampage after being mistreated by Mario.
- A Real Life case happened during the development of the game — Nintendo contracted Ikegami Co. Ltd. to code the Donkey Kong arcade game software and assemble the boards, but did not actually own the manufacturing rights to the game. A contract dispute soured relations between the two companies, and a court case ruled in favor of Ikegami Co. This has prevented Nintendo from re-releasing the original arcade game onto its various game systems. See here for more details.
- No OSHA Compliance: It's understandable that a giant ape could cause a few collapsed walkways and broken ladders in a construction site, but who's responsible for letting him get up there in the first place?
- Palette Swap
- Puzzle Boss: Defeating Donkey Kong isn't as straightforward as jumping into him (of course, the Goomba Stomp hadn't been formulated quite yet anyway).
- Serendipity Writes The Plot: Mario had a hat for two reasons. One, Miyamoto claimed that he was terrible at drawing hairstyles, but the major reason was that when Mario fell, the engineers would not be able to show his hair sticking up.
- His mustache, large nose, and overalls also came into being because they would be visible and recognizable at that resolution.
- Sphere Eyes
- Throw a Barrel at It
- Unexpected Gameplay Change: Donkey Kong 3 was this to the original series, which is partly why it wasn't as popular as its predecessors.
- Updated Re-release: The "Original Edition" designed for the 30th anniversary is a version of the game's NES release with 50m and the intermission cutscenes (originally removed due to space issues) added back in.
- Urban Legend of Zelda: Theories about what the name meant. Another example, from a review in Acorn User magazine, was that the name was supposed to be Monkey Kong, but someone made a typo. In actuality, Shigeru Miyamoto thought that "donkey" means "stubborn", so he intentionally named the character Donkey Kong.
- Villain Protagonist: Mario, while more of a Jerkass than a villain, fits into this role according to the backstory. Yes, really.
Wait a second, I know that monkey, his name is Donkey!
Professor Farnsworth: Monkeys aren't donkeys. Quit messing with my head!