Useful Notes: 24 Hours of Le Mans
The 24 Hours of Le Mans (French: 24 Heures du Mans) is a twenty-four-hour endurance race held at the Circuit de la Sarthe, better known as Le Mans. Currently part of the FIA World Endurance Championship, it is part of the "Triple Crown of Racing" with the Formula One Grand Prix of Monaco and the Indy 500.
The CircuitThe Circuit de la Sarthe is very old, having been opened in 1923. It is also very long, at 13.629KM or 8.469 miles. Notable features include large sections held on closed-off public roads and the 6 kilometre long Ligne Droite des Hunaudières, which is the straight with the two chicanes. The chicanes are a relatively recent addition, to stop the cars from flipping over or worse from the sheer speed.
The CarsThere are four main classes that can be categorized in two different ways depending on what the nature of the car and the drivers that will be racing it:
- LMP (Le Mans Prototype) cars are purpose-built for racing at Le Mans and other endurance races only. Although they aren't necessarily more powerful than GTs (LMP2 cars can be less powerful than GT cars), LMPs produce much faster lap times because the high downforce they produce lets them corner faster and brake later.
- The LMP1 class is where the factories (such as Audi and Toyota) and richer private teams compete. The factory cars are at least as technologically advanced as Formula One cars, as they both feature energy recovery systems and complex aerodynamics.
- The LMP2 class is focused on privateer teams (that typically have backing from non-professional drivers), with cost-capped chassis and mandatory production-based engines. To reduce spending further, there are also limits on improvements that can be made to the cars' components and hybrid technology is banned.
- The two GT Endurance (GTE) classes, which use modified production supercars, ranging from the Porsche 997 over the Ferrari F458 to the Chevrolet Corvette. While the GTs are not in contention for overall victories, they still provide a good show at Le Mans.
- GTE-Pro cars are raced by teams of all-professional drivers. As with LMP1 this is the class where the factory teams compete, with their quickest and most reliable drivers showcasing the latest developments in GT racing.
- GTE-Am cars are supposed to be identical to their Pro counterparts even though they are fielded by privateers, although in practice the factory cars are faster because they get the latest parts. As with LMP2 there are measures to prevent spending getting out of hand.
Notable cars include:
- Jaguar D-Type, which won the late 1950s Le Mans in four consecutive years, and one of them was won by Mike Hawthorn during 1955, when Le Mans Disaster occured.
- The Ford GT40, which the modern Ford GT is based on. Designed by Carrol Shelby to compete with the Ferraris. Two one-two victories. Designed by recently-deceased Carrol Shelby, who is better known for the Shelby brand of performance muscle cars. The Mk1 still looks pretty futuristic for a 1960s car, even for today, while the other three versions look more generic.
- Ferrari P cars: The cars which the GT40 was developed to compete against.
- Porsche 917/936/956/962: The cars that dominated the period between the Ford/Ferrari rivalry and the establishment of Group C, winning 12 races from 1970-1987.
- To demonstrate the strength in depth that Porsche had, this is an advert that ran after the 1983 race.◊
- Sauber Mercedes C9: The most successful of a series of cars comprised of advanced Sauber chassis/aerodynamics and powerful Mercedes engines. While it's predecessors weren't exactly reliable, the C9 combined speed and reliability to win the 1989 race.
- Although 400+km/h speeds had been reached previouslynote , it was the C9 consistently reaching these speeds that finally forced the organizers to introduce chicanes on the Hunaudières to slow the cars down.
- Mazda 787B: The only Japanese and rotary-engined car to win the race so far.
- Mercedes CLR: The Alleged Car of recent Le Mans history, because it flew off the track in front of a world-wide television audience.
- Saying the Mercedes-Benz CLR flew off the track in front of a worldwide television audience would be an understatement. Saying it took off of its own accord on a high speed kink in the track before flipping through the air multiple times before crash landing on the other side of the trees, fortunately in an area where no one was standing, and with the driver unhurt, would be accurate.
- Audi R8/R10/R15/R18: The Boring Invincible Hero, Audi won 13 races from 2000-2015, with only Bentleynote , Peugeot and Porsche interrupting the streak in 2003, 2009 and 2015 respectively.
- Toyota TS030/TS040: The only other LMP who's been able to remotely match Audi in the 24 Hours of Le Mans in the last few years. The latter stripped the World Endurance Championship title away from the German team in 2014!
The driversA 4-tier system is used to classify drivers based on skill and results, which are based on definitions of "professional" and "amateur" drivers:
- Platinum drivers are considered the best of the best - previous Le Mans winners, former/current Formula One or Indy Car drivers, "factory" drivers (who drive for one manufacturer only) and other drivers that have consistently done well in high profile racing series.
- Gold drivers, while not quite reaching the heights of their platinum counterparts, are professional drivers who still produce good performances regularly in a variety of races and cars.
- Silver drivers are the top amateur class, consisting of young talents starting out in sportscars and "gentleman" drivers (who fit in driving around work or other commitments) who may have the speed to match the pros, if not the consistency.
- Bronze drivers are slower gentleman drivers, very old former professionals or other amateur drivers that have little to no prior experience of endurance races to call on.
The race itselfThe race is held non-stop from Saturday afternoon to Sunday afternoon on the third weekend of June (the 24th weekend of the year). As in other multi-class endurance races, cars from all four classes are on the track simultaneously. While blue flags are shown to slower cars to warn them of faster cars approaching, unlike in other series the slower cars are not required to move out of the way - the onus is on the faster car to get past quickly and safely. This can lead to situations where a prototype is held up behind two or more GT cars battling for position who don't want to let the prototype past in case they lose time to each other, and navigating slower traffic without losing too much time is a key aspect of doing well in the race. During the race it is almost expected for a car to encounter problems, either due to mechanical failure or driver error. As long as the car isn't totally wrecked or immobile (and doesn't present an immediate danger to other entrants), the driver is allowed to bring the car to the pits so the pit crew can attempt to fix it and get the car back out as soon as possible. With so much time spent in the pits (both for regular pit stops and to make repairs), Le Mans can be won or lost as much in the pit lane as it can be on track, so efficient pit crew and an astute engineering crew are just as important as good drivers and a fast, reliable car. At the end of the 24th hour, the lap the leading car is on becomes the last lap of the race, and every car that has completed 70% of the class leader's distance and completes a lap at the same time as the leader's last lap is classified as having finished the race. Le Mans in fiction:
- The film Le Mans, obviously.
- Sega made an arcade game based on the race for the arcades, featuring six top Le Mans racers, dubbed Le Mans 24. Konami previously made another video game based on the race, WEC Le Mans 24.
- Both the Gran Turismo and Forza Motorsport games contain LMP and GT cars, with the former being the fastest cars in the games (barring formula cars and high-end concepts like the Red Bull X2010). The Circuit de la Sarthe features in later instalments of both series.
- GRID allows you to race the Le Mans 24 Hours at the end of every season. If you feel like it you can also set up an actual 24 hour race on the Circuit de La Sarthe.
- Project CARS features LMP 2 and LMP 1 with some real cars and some are Original Characters designed by the WMD Community underneath the fictional monikers of RWD and Marek. There is also a Prototype 1 and 2 class featuring cars such as such as the Radical SR-3/SR-8 or the Caterham SP/300.R, there are also historic classes such as the LMP 900 that features cars such as the Bentley Speed 8 or the GR.C class that features the Sauber C9 Mercedes-Benz as mentioned above. There is an actual 24 Hours of Le Mans you can get invited to in the career but even at 1% time progression, it will take you upwards of two hours. The game suggest streaming if you plan on a whole twenty four hour race.