Useful Notes / The Renaissance
The dome designed by Filippo Brunelleschi on top of the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, one of the first examples of Renaissance architecture.

"The Renaissance was a load of bloody Italians poncing around claiming to be the golden age of the Greeks come round again.''

A reawakening of Europe to the arts and sciences. This era took many distinct forms depending on decade and geographic location. In Hollywood History, The Renaissance is home to Tudor Mansions, Medici Palazzi and Valois Chateaus, William Shakespeare, King Henry VI and his eight wives (or was it King Henry VIII and his six wives?), Queen Elizabeth I, Mary of Scotland, Charles V, the Borgias, Martin Luther, the Protestant Reformation, global exploration, Ivan the Terrible, Turkish sultans surrounded by gorgeous belly dancers, Mughal rajahs building their pristine white marble mausoleums, Ming emperors in their Forbidden Palace, Sengoku warlords served by loyal samurai and delicate geishas, and bloodthirsty Mayincatec overlords overlooking their rising empires only to have them crushed by gold-hungry Conquistadores, and Leonardo da Vinci (who spent nearly all of his time painting The Last Supper or the Mona Lisa and working on that damn "code" of his...)

Actually, since "the Renaissance" as an overall historical phenomenon covered about 200 to 300 years, it can be portrayed in a variety of different ways depending on the exact year or decade. In the longest definition, it lasted roughly from the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 (others prefer 1492, the year of Columbus' first voyage to the New World) to the invention of the first steam engine in the 1750s; but it is more common to see it ending earlier and to refer to what came after ca. 1650 as the Baroque era and/or the the Age of the Enlightenment. The essence of the Renaissance also tends to vary according to geography, since the great artistic flowering associated therewith began in north-central Italy sometime in the 1300s (with Dante Alighieri, Giotto, etc.) and gradually (sometimes very, very slowly) spread throughout the rest of Europe after that. As a history buff, it can be quite annoying to see that most "Renaissance fairs" select England rather than Italy as their model, since England was slow to receive the Renaissance heritage and was still firmly Gothic in art and architecture during the time of Michelangelo. So your average Renaissance fair in America will as likely as not feature a parade of dirty peasants and noisy farm animals - giving the impression that the Renaissance was a lot more backward than it actually was. Of course, it may also be because some people have a hard time in general telling apart the Renaissance from the Middle Ages aesthetics-wise. (Also, it's a lot harder on a Ren Faire budget to recreate a city like Florence than a village).

How it all began

Arguably, the snowball began to roll with the birth of Humanism in the 1300s. Allegedly, the avalanche began with a Florentine poet, Francesco Petrarch, when he accidentally stumbled upon a box with old Roman letters, written by the known Roman orator Cicero. Petrarch was, on some level, aware that the contemporary Latin, used by the Church, needed some kind of revival, because terminologies used in the Medival Era, Vulgar Latin, had corrupted the language. So, Petrarch began to read Cicero`s letters, at first to study the Latin of the Classical Age, and then to study what Cicero actually wrote about. When he learned that Cicero stressed the point of "humanity" (Humanitatis), the idea of humanism took form, in the head of Petrarch, and of his circle of scholars. The revival of Latin led to the revival of historical science, a more thorough study of history, architecture and art, and then to political dreams and experiments involving a united Italy, a "renaissance" of the Roman age. Thus, a new concept of learning was founded, which led to new science, new political theory, and in turn, a massive upheaval of the medieval society. The pope, puzzled at first, let the humanists struggle on, dumbfounded when he was witness to the excavation of Ancient Rome in his backyard, a little bit frightened when the same humanists began to ask questions around the topics of God and Man, and seriously batshit when the movement in turn led to full religious and social revolution. But then it was too late.

The growing Humanist movement might have changed some ideological perspectives and politics, but had good support from:

  • The fall of Constantinople in 1453, which led to a number of Greek scholars fleeing westwards, taking their knowledge with them.note 
  • Which in turn closed the Silk Route to the east, and led to sailors trying to find another way to China. Cue Columbus, the Portuguese explorersnote , and circumnavigators like Magellan (who was Portuguese).
  • And then Johannes Gutenberg came along with his printing device, making it easier for people with bright ideas to spread them. Martin Luther was one of the first to use the press to address a mass audience, with great success.
  • To top it all, new mercantile power led to more use of money, and a breach with the old natural household. Cue Capitalism.
  • Black Death: The Black Death has caused many of the Europeans to question the authority of the Catholic church, as many felt that god has abandoned man to fend for themselves. Even though the plague did hit Florence, the effects of the plague was not extreme in Florence when compared to other parts of Europe, as Florence was considered to be one of the wealthiest cities in Italy around the time period. The fact that the Black Death killed off a large number of lower class citizens have caused a drastic change of the social structure throughout Europe; peculiarly, it may have increased the well-being of those who survived, as (1) whole families dying meant that a lot a property was left for the taking and (2) skilled laborers could now charge higher prices (on account of reduced competition).

However, like the Enlightenment before the American and French Revolutions, the Renaissance, whether in Italy, or its offshoots in Holland, England, France, Germany, Spain and Portugal, was the province of intellectual aristocrats and emerging middle-classes, a small minority at best. The Reformation to some extent succeeded in weakening the hold of the Church and brought power to secular rulers, but it rarely resulted in mass movements, although the movements that resulted in the Peasants' Wars and the English Revolution were steps in that direction.

This is not to say that the Renaissance era was a period of unalloyed positives on the intellectual front; witch-hunts and witch-burnings (actually hangings, usually) were in their heyday, far more so than in the medieval period, and the Reformation and Counter-reformation unleashed brutal ideological intolerance far greater than the preceding Scholastic Age (Protestants burned "heretics" with just as much gusto as the Catholic Church). Antisemitism also reached new heights, what with the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and Portugal and the resegregation of formerly-tolerant Poland. The Age of Exploration also brought about the birth of the African slave trade, reviving the practice of chattel thralldom which had been absent from Europe for centuries (no, being a serf was NOT as bad).

See also: The Renaissance

Tropes as portrayed in fiction:

Works set in this time period are:

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    Anime and Manga 
  • The Chibitalia chapters of Axis Powers Hetalia take place here. More specifically, the Chibitalia stories tell of the Holy Roman Empire's involvement and influence on the young Italy. Austria's artistic talent gives Italy the inspiration to develop his art skills, and an appreciation for music. Hungary lent Italy some of her clothes, because it wasn't until he actually matured that ANYONE knew Italy was male. Spain had his own hands busy dealing with Chibiromano (South Italy) and how much of a mean brat he was in comparison to his younger, more talented brother.


    Comic Books 
  • The Abrafaxe in the original Don Ferrando arc (January 1981-December 1983) came to Spain in the early Siglo de Oro (in 1577, to be precise), before the Abrafaxe and the Don were sent back 300 years for the finale. In 1997 the Abrafaxe return to the year 1578, and Don Ferrando also makes a return appearance, this time searching for Eldorado. The adventure takes them on Francis Drake's circumnavigation of the Earth. (No. 255-282). The Abrafaxe's distaff counterparts, Anna, Bella and Caramella, had their adventure featuring Philippine Welser in 16th century Augsburg and Bohemia.
  • Marvel1602
  • Les 7 vies de l'Épervier, an seven-part series of historical adventure comics by André Juillard and Patrick Cothias. It is part of a larger cycle and set during the reigns of Henry IV and Louis XIII of France.
  • Suske en Wiske: The stories "Het Spaanse Spook" en "De Zingende Kaars".
  • The names (only) of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles; Donatello, Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael were of course all Italian Renaissance artists.



    Live-Action TV 
  • The 1962 British series Sir Francis Drake (26 episodes).
  • Blackadder, second series. For almost everyone.
    Blackadder: Baldrick, to you, the Renaissance was just something that happened to other people, wasn't it?
  • Da Vinci's Demons
  • Elizabeth R
  • The Six Wives of Henry VIII
  • Shogun
  • The Doctor Who episode "The Shakespeare Code" was set here, shortly after the premiere of Shakespeare's Love's Labour's Lost, and took remarkable trouble to get their dates right. The Doctor frequently quoted Shakespeare to Shakespeare, causing the playwright to say things like "I might use that," until he quoted Henry V, and got the response of "That's mine!" as it had already been written. Martha was surprised to learn that Shakespeare wasn't bald yet and hadn't written anything about witches yet.
    The Doctor: ... Rage, rage against the dying of the night...
    Shakespeare: I might use that.
    The Doctor: You can't, it's someone else's.
  • The Borgias, a series set in Renaissance Rome around 1500, which follows the schemes of Pope Alexander VI and his family.
  • Leonardo, set in 1467 Florence; a kids' adventure series about a teenaged Leonardo da Vinci.
  • The Medici:Masters Of Florence, covering the rule of the titular family

    Tabletop Games 
  • Mage: The Sorcerers Crusade, a historical version of Mage: The Ascension, takes place in this period, covering from the early 1400s to the early 1500s.

  • Henry VIII
  • The Alcalde of Zalamea by Pedro Calderón de la Barca, set during the reign of Philip II.
  • Götz von Berlichingen, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's first play, set in 16th century Germany.
  • Egmont, another play by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, set in the Netherlands in the 16th century.
  • Die Verschwörung des Fiesco zu Genua ("The Conspiracy of Fiesco in Genoa"), Friedrich Schiller's second play, set in the mid-16th century.
  • Maria Stuart, a play by Friedrich Schiller; adpated in to the opera Maria Stuarda by Gaetano Donizetti.
  • Don Karlos a play by Friedrich Schiller about Don Carlos, son of Philip II of Spain; it was turned into an opera by Giuseppe Verdi.
  • Wallenstein
  • Giacomo Meyerbeer's operas The Huguenots (about the Wars of Religion in France) and The Prophet (about the Anabaptists of Münster).
  • Anna Bolena (Ann Boleyn), an opera by Gaetano Donizetti.
  • Hernani, a play by Victor Hugo set in 16th-century Spain; adapted into the opera Ernani by Giuseppe Verdi.
  • Le roi s'amuse, a play by Victor Hugo set at the court of Francis I of France; adapted into the opera Rigoletto by Giuseppe Verdi, who due to censorship troubles had to change the setting from Paris to Mantua.
  • Lucrèce Borgia, another play by Victor Hugo; adapted into the opera Lucrezia Borgia by Gaetano Donizetti.
  • Marie Tudor, yet another play by Victor Hugo.
  • Boris Godunov, a play by Alexander Pushkin, which became the base of an opera by Modest Mussorgsky.
  • Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg by Richard Wagner.
  • Dalibor, an opera by Bedrich Smetana.
  • Palestrina, an opera by Hans Pfitzner about a 16th-century composer.
  • Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht.
  • Mother Courage and Her Children
  • Luther by John Osborne, adapted into a film starring Stacey Keach.
  • The Devils of Loudun, an opera by Krzysztof Penderecki based on the novel by Aldous Huxley.

    Video Games 
  • Assassin's Creed II, Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood, and Assassin's Creed: Revelations.
    • The Assassin's Creed Lineage film (prequel to Assassin's Creed II), has Giovanni Auditore (Ezio's father) speculate on how history will view the Renaissance, given the outward rebirth of culture and the hidden corruption and the secret war between the Templars and the Assassins.
  • The Soul Series, although the culture is never directly described.
  • Roberto the architect's chapter in Eternal Darkness is in the time period, but uses Persia as the setting.