Useful Notes: The Mexican Revolution
aka: Mexican Revolution
The Mexican Revolution was a conflict that raged (obviously) over Mexico during all of the 1910 decade, and it's considered the most bloody conflict ever fought on Mexican soil (or, if you take the number of displaced, exiled, and disappeared people into the equation, the bloodiest fought on North American soil), with over one million casualties. And it was the first social revolution of the 20th century. All of this war can be summed up in the following phases:
The CausesThe causes of the war can be summed up as the people being angry with how the aging president Porfirio Díaz was managing the country. In his early years as President, he was considered a very capable one, handling the economy and industrialization of the country in such a way that Mexico managed to make up for all those years of civil strife in a decade, but at the expense of screwing the lower social classes and making it very hard to the middle class to go up in the social pyramid, creating a huge wealth gap between higher and lower classes. And then, at the second half of his presidential years, everything started to change for the worse, as the political scene started to stagnate and foreign industrialists in Mexico were given a lot of privileges. To sum it up, he violently put down several revolts of Yaqui and Mayo indians in Sonora, and deported the survivors to plantations at Yucatán, where they were worked to death. Peasants were indebted to their landowners, and had all basic human rights stripped from them. There was no freedom of speech (though the clandestine press was quite big) though to make up for it, Díaz organized several "Democratic clubs" where people could rant about how much he sucked, under strict vigilance. And also, many foreign companies and landowners were allowed to run their lands like feudal kingdoms, able to screw their employees in every way they wanted — sometimes literally. And also, he was always committing electoral fraud on every election (though, his perennial challenger, Nicolás Zúñiga y Miranda, was a bit odd, and never made much of an impact on the rest of the country). When finally, in 1908, Porfirio Díaz announced to the American reporter James Creelman that he was going to hold elections in 1910, the people rejoiced. Francisco Ignacio Madero González, an upper class politician from Coahuila, decided to run for presidency to avenge his brother, who was killed during a democratic revolt in Monterrey, Nuevo León. He founded the Partido Antirreeleccionista (Anti-Reelectionist Party) after selling a lot of his possessions. He was regarded as a Messiah of democracy by the people, who had grown tired of the constant political bullying by Díaz and his cronies. There were also some other Diaz's cronies who wanted to get in the presidential chair, but they weren't as popular as Madero himself. When the elections rolled around, Díaz again commited electoral fraud, and blatantly rigged the elections. And to make matters worse, he threw Madero into jail, where he started to hatch a plan to reclaim power.
Overthrowing DíazOn November 20th, 1910, Francisco I. Madero called all Mexicans to arms against Díaz's illegal government. This was taken to heart by many factions who were against Díaz's increasingly erratic government policies. The whole conflict against Díaz ended quickly, as no one really wanted him there. At the end, Díaz exiled himself to France (ironically, the country he fought against with such fervour 50 years before), And There Was Much Rejoicing.
Madero's PresidencyPeople rejoiced when Madero became president, as his youthful image and his charisma managed to bring a lot of the former people who worked for Diaz under his administration. However, due to his ideas being quite erred towards the ills of the time in the country, his presidency sucked. The whole mess wasn't helped due to the fact that these people who worked under Diaz were disliked by many of his fellow revolutionaries, who felt he wasn't putting in the effort to help the country. Eventually, this made a group of conservative generals plot against him under the auspices of then-Ambassador of the US, Henry Lane Wilson. The original plan was to have Victoriano Huerta, who changed sides to his convenience, and Félix Díaz (former pres. Porfirio Díaz's nephew) make a coup against Madero, then Huerta making elections and making Díaz win.
Decena Trágica (The Ten Tragic Days)This is the moment when the shit hits the fan in Madero's presidency. In February 9, several Army detachments revolted in Mexico City, all of them trying to oust Madero from power. However, during the coup, a loyalist Army officer saw many soldiers bringing machine guns into the city, and gave out the alarm to the National Palace. Then, all hell broke loose on Mexico City, as every side went paranoid and shot at everything that moved. Mexico City dissolved into anarchy as Victoriano Huerta played off both sides to his own gains, even allowing the rebels to resupply themselves. At the end, in February 19 at Midnight, Madero and the staff remaining loyal to him were caught after an ill-conceived plan to flee, and most of them got jailed or executed unceremoniously, with Madero's brother suffering a particularly gruesome death. This resulted in the beginning of the government of general Victoriano Huerta, thanks to Pedro Lascuráin, a foreign minister that was jammed into the presidency, only to appoint Huerta as Vice President and resign. He was president for 45 minutes. After that, Huerta eventually said "screw this" and did not make new elections so he got to be in power.
Restart of hostilitiesThe rest of the revolutionary leaders were pissed off by the fact that a democratically elected president was killed by a coward, so the battles started against Huerta. From one side there was Doroteo Arango A.K.A. Francisco "Pancho" Villa in the north, Emiliano Zapata in the south, Álvaro Obregón in the east and Venustiano Carranza in the northwest. After sending Huerta in exile the revolutionary leaders made a convention in the city of Aguascalientes to settle things. However, there was much tension between Villa and Carranza (the latter even made a "legal" government in Mexico City and called himself supreme commander). Since the convention only managed to appoint a president and not make a common plan that pleased all sides, the revolutionary leaders started battles against each other on 2 sides: Villa-Zapata (on the "Conventionalist" side, who were fond on educating the people and returning the land to its owners) and Obregón-Carranza (On the "Constitutionalist" side, who were more conservative and the latter even named his army the "Constitutionalist Army"). Eventually, Huerta exiled himself in July 1914 when he realized that he was facing an unwinnable scenario and his allies (like former revolutionary Pascual Orozco in the north, who revolted against Madero) were offed, exiled or captured. Then, while things seemed to be going fine, Pancho Villa had a falling out with his fellow revolutionaries and the U.S. suppliers, and in an act of desperation, he took up arms against all of them.
After the ConstitutionThe whole war more or less died down after 1917, when a new constitution got drafted to the provisional congress led by Venustiano Carranza, since most factions agreed that their demands had been satisfied. However, a few people were not too happy about being excluded from the whole deal, namely Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa. Those two eventually started to make campaigns against the Government, and Félix Díaz joined the fray once again. All of these campaigns failed, with Villa eventually retiring in 1920, only to get assassinated Gangland-style while on his way to a wedding, Zapata murdered during a False Flag Operation by the Mexican Government, and Félix Díaz being more of a nuisance until he went back into exile in 1920. The aftershocks of the revolution were quite strong back in the first half of the 20th century. Depending on who you ask, the conflict ended after the drafting of the Constitution of 1917, in 1924 when Plutarco Elías Calles entered power, a few years later when the Cristero war ended, or until 1936, when then-president Lázaro Cárdenas repossessed all of the foreign oil companies to fund PEMEX, the state petrol company.
The Mexican Revolution in the media:Film
- And Starring Pancho Villa as Himself (2004): A story about the filming of "The Life of General Villa", the first movie about the Mexican Revolution, starred by Pancho Villanote .
- Zapata: El Sueño del Héroe (2004): A film about Emiliano Zapata. Massively hyped due to having several famous actors from Televisa and because it promised to deliver a new perspective on the hero. It bombed quite badly, thanks to the fact that its director, Alfonso Arau, assaulted historical accuracy (which was what the audience expected) to present a quasi-mythological and larger-than-life Zapata, and terrible special effects. On the other hand, the scenes that didn't involved the samed ruined hacienda were gorgeous.
- The Professionals
- A Fistful of Dynamite features an "idealised" (read: Artistic License – History) version.
- ¡Three Amigos!! takes place in this period, with a German agent as The Dragon to a Pancho Villa Expy.
- The Wild Bunch is about a group of American bandits trying to take advantage of the chaos.
- Viva Villa! is a biopic about Pancho Villa.
- For Greater Glory, taking place during the Cristero War.
- The Adventures Of Young Indiana Jones have an Episode set during that time, where he encounters Pancho Villa.
- To which he confirms with Mutt Williams in Crystal Skull while in Peru looking for Oxley.
- Senda de Gloria (Path of Glory) (1987): The first soap opera that featured the aftershocks of the 1917 constitution as they were, and the events played out, and it was Televisa's first superproduction, and it shows. It plays out the chaotic years after the 1917 constitution and the early years of the then-ruling political party Partido Revolucionario Institucional, from the perspective of a family that sided with Carranza. However, due to Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas' split from the PRI (who is the son of Lázaro Cárdenas, a historical person glorified in that series' last 30 episodes), the soap's last 30 episodes got shafted by orders of the government.
- El Vuelo Del Águila (The flight of the Eagle) (1994): Another historical soap opera from Televisa, about the whole presidency of Porfirio Díaz, told from his perspective. The last half was about the first years of the Mexican Revolution, and the toll it took on him.
- El Encanto del Águila (The Eagle's Charm) (2011): Yet another historical soap opera by Televisa, this time as a mini-series about the Mexican Revolution itself between the years 1910 (when the first uprising began and Madero called for an insurgency) and 1928 (ending when Plutarco Elías Calles elected his successor, Emilio Portes Gil) dealing with the most important parts of the Revolution, its key characters (some appearing later than they should) and how it affected Mexico.
- Los de abajo (Published from 1914 to 1918).
- Temporada De Zopilotes (2010) (English: Buzzard Season): A book later made documentary by Mexican historian and writer Paco Ignacio Taibo II. It's a factual book about the Decena Trágica. Very well researched.
- Insurgent Mexico (1914): A collection of memoirs from the war correspondant John Reed.
- Pedro Páramo, which deals with the Cristeros War.
- Mexico En Llamas (Mexico Ablaze) (2012), a book about the Revolution from a sociologic point of view.