"We have just started a war, it isn't a one day affair. It is not going to be over before the next commercial break."Note: This article is about the 1990-1991 war in the Persian Gulf and Kuwait, also known as Operation Desert Storm. If you are looking for what some refer to as "Gulf War II", then please see The War on Terror. In fact, that is the third Gulf War and this is the second: The Iran–Iraq War of the 1980s was originally called the Persian Gulf War because of its impact on shipping. The Cold War was all but over by 1990, but the first Gulf War served as a demonstration of what the United States could have been capable of if things had gone hot in the 1990s or later. While Iraq used obsolescent export-quality Soviet equipment and some of its officers received training in the USSR, her forces were both grossly outnumbered and outclassed and did not use Soviet Operational Art. It is interesting to note, however, that many casual analysts and military fanboys see the poor performance of the Iraqi military's Soviet-produced equipment as definitive proof that the USA would have won the Cold War in Europe if it had been a conventional conflict—this is in large part due to their enthusiasm for equipment and weapons at the expense of boring and irrelevant things like strategy and logistics. On 2 August 1990, Saddam Hussein, interpreted a comment by U.S. Ambassador April Glaspie ("we have no opinion on the Arab-Arab conflicts, like your border disagreement with Kuwait") as a green light to launch a military invasion of Kuwait, a small emirate that borders Iraqnote . He also thought that the Soviet Union would veto any attempt to take firm diplomatic action. He figured very wrong. The initial U.S. and allied move was to increase the defense of Saudi Arabia, moving aircraft there in case Saddam tried to make a move on that country too. That operation was referred to in America as Operation Desert Shield. UN resolution after UN resolution calling for an Iraqi withdrawal were ignored, and the U.S. built up a coalition of 34 countries—the final total buildup of troops was over half a million, and six U.S. carrier groups were involved. With a troop drawdown happening in Europe, the U.S. was free to shift over an entire corps-sized formation from Germany to the Middle East. For all that, though, the U.S. almost did not enter the war. Iraq had the world's fifth-largest military and a very capable air force. (On paper, at least.) Remembering Vietnam, many U.S. legislators were very reluctant on the issue. Kuwait hired a PR firm and had a woman testify before the Senate that Iraqi troops had removed babies from incubators and left them to die. It was completely false. That and other atrocities that did occur proved enough to get the resolution approving the U.S. involvement passed. On 29 November 1990, the United Nations Security Council by a 12-2 vote (China abstained; Cuba and Yemen were against; the Soviets actually voted in favor), passed Resolution 678 , which stated:
— Colin Powell, then serving as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
- Authorizes Member States co-operating with the Government of Kuwait, unless Iraq on or before 15 January 1991 fully implements, as set forth in paragraph 1 above, the abovementioned resolutions, to use all necessary means to uphold and implement resolution 660 (1990) and all subsequent relevant resolutions and to restore international peace and security in the area;
Appears in the following works:
- In 1990s media, it was very common to establish a character's military credentials with a mention that they had fought in the Gulf War, replacing the purpose which The Vietnam War served in 1980s media.
- Cherry (of all characters) in "Sgt. Cherry and her Squealing Commandos" in Cherry Comics. (And, yes, it is a satire.)
- The Punisher has recently had the Gulf War retconned into his past, replacing his longstanding status as a Vietnam Vet. The logic given by the writer is that if he was a Vietnam Vet he would be approaching his seventies, while he wanted to portray Frank as a man in his early forties.
- A storyline published while the war was going on, "The Brattle Gun", was a stand-in for the conflict itself using fake names (Trafia and Zukistan instead of Iraq and Kuwait), including a foreign weapons designer building a supergun for one side and being assassinated later, clearly inspired by the story of Gerald Bull. The covers for the comics dropped the allegory with taglines like "Caught in a DESERT STORM!" and "Next stop: Baghdad!"
- In Independence Day, it is mentioned that the relatively-youthful President Thomas Whitmore served as a fighter pilot during the Gulf War. It comes in handy.
- Three Kings takes place in the closing days of the war, in which four American soldiers attempt to steal some gold from the Iraqis after finding a treasure map hidden on one of the surrendering Iraqi soldiers.
- The Big Lebowski takes place during the Gulf War. The Dude says "this aggression will not stand, man," echoing George HW Bush's televised speech, while Saddam Hussein (played by Jerry Haleva, who repeatedly portrayed Hussein in movies) appears in The Dude's infamous dream sequence.
- The remake of The Manchurian Candidate changes the Korean War backstory to Gulf War.
- Drillbit Taylor the title character was a soldier who served in the gulf war but didn't see any real combat, and AWOL from the army.
- Anthony Swofford's memoir, Jarhead.
- Joel Turnipseed's memoir, Baghdad Express
- Only You Can Save Mankind is set during the Gulf War and makes comments about the similarities between video games and the news coverage of that war.
- The First of God by Frederick Forsyth is before and during the war.
- The Man from Barbarossa is set just before the war starts, and the bad guys plan use it to frame their enemies for nuking people, before setting up a coup in Russia and starting a global war.
- JAG: Several references to the conflict are made throughout the series. In the fourth season episode "Mr. Rabb Goes to Washington", rumors are spread on a cable news network (ZNN) that Sarin nerve gas was used by U.S. Marines during the invasion of Kuwait in 1991.
- Gunnery Sergeant Leroy Jethro Gibbs from NCIS served as a Marine in Desert Storm and was severely injured, spending nineteen days in a coma. The murder of his wife and daughter while he was in Kuwait did not help things.
- Dennis from Just Shoot Me! often claimed to have driven a tank during the war.
- Robert McAllister in Brothers and Sisters is a Gulf War veteran, injured in that conflict. He won a medal that he doesn't feel he fully deserved- he froze in combat.
- Drop the Dead Donkey referred to the exploits of the Globelink News team during the war; including Damien dunking cormorants in oil in order to provide visuals for a story on the ecological impact of the war.
- Glee's Finn was told by his mother that his dad died while fighting in the Gulf War. Except he didn't. He was dishonorably discharged and died of an overdose while back in America.
- Major John D. MacGillis from Major Dad writes a letter to George H.W. Bush asking to fight in Kuwait.
- House of Saddam, chronicling Saddam Hussein's reign, features the Gulf War, although it mostly shows the aftermath.
- In the 1997 pilot of Stargate SG-1, Samantha Carter is introduced with a mention that she "logged over one hundred hours in enemy airspace during the Gulf War". In the 1999 episode "A Matter of Time", Jack O'Neill mentions that a failed mission resulted in him spending four months in "some stinkin' Iraqi prison", implying that he also fought in this war.
- In Person of Interest, while spending time as a police tactics instructor, Reese gives an explanation to a curious student who notes his use of military tactics despite not having a military background that "my first tactics instructor was a Gulf War veteran." (Actually, Reese himself probably is one: he was an Army Ranger before joining the CIA after 9/11, but his current cover ID is a non-veteran.)
- Henry McCord in Madam Secretary flew F-18s for the Marine Corps in Desert Storm.
- Sabaton's song "Reign of Terror" is a Villain Sucks Song aimed at Saddam Hussein during the Gulf War.
- Sgt. Slaughter turned heel and became an "Iraqi Sympathiser" during the war, defeating The Ultimate Warrior for the WWE World Heavyweight Title at Royal Rumble 1991 and then dropping it to Hulk Hogan at WrestleMania VII, after the war finished (although, in one of wrestling's most embarrassing incidents, the end of the war was not acknowledged on WWF TV until Hogan had the belt again).
- The Battlefield 1942 mod Desert Combat.
- One of the final chapters of Eternal Darkness is set in the immediate aftermath of the Gulf War. Given an earlier chapter's setting, the game seems to like less depicted conflicts...
Wherever disaster and death lurk, there is likely to be an Ancient just beyond our senses, waiting. They prey on our misfortune and exploit it for their own twisted ends. When hundreds of oil fields are set ablaze on the heels of war, the Ancient's grip tightens, knowing that lives will be forfeit and resources squandered. Yet there are those who make a difference. People like Michael Edwards - a Canadian industrial firefighter hired to put an end to the insanity at the end of the war. Unfortunately for him, the insanity was just beginning...
- Popular Electronic Arts helicopter game Desert Strike.
- SETA Corporation's Shoot 'em Up/Fighter Sim A.S.P. Air Strike Patrol (AKA Desert Fighter), despite the deliberate use of fake names. Among other things. Notably averts the Follow the Leader trend mentioned below; part of the game's main mechanics involve managing public opinion while not wasting supplies (fuel/aircraft/ammo) and quickly destroying enemy targets as much as possible. This is harder than it sounds.
- Tons and tons and tons of period arcade action games that all had "War Is Glorious" as a unifying theme because the relative lack of casualties and the media's portrayal of Desert Storm as a total Curb-Stomp Battle made it acceptable again to believe that war was cool. Primary offenders include Total Carnage, MERCS, Desert Assault, and many more.
- Liquid Snake of Metal Gear Solid is said to have fought in the war, being captured near the end and freed years later. He and the protagonist Solid Snake later discuss the war, with Liquid revealing that the "Gulf War syndrome" experienced by veterans of the conflict was the result of the same sort of gene therapy experiments that lead to this game's Genome Army; the "official" story of it being caused by exposure to depleted uranium in tank armor was a cover-up in this game's universe.
- Supposedly, PTSD caused from his time in Iraq, combined with a nasty divorce when he came home, is what caused the DC Beltway Sniper, John Allen Muhammad, to go on his killing spree. His stated intent was to round up orphans and train them into a militia and overthrow the government.
- Similarly, Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh was a Gulf War vet and credited it with his Start of Darkness.